Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different sowing times on development and efficiency of some Chinese cabbage varieties (Brassica campestris sbsp. pekinensis)under Corlu conditions. The study was conducted in Corlu County which has a tougher climate than its Province Tekirdag where a similar research had been done before. The research was conducted in 2000 and three different sowing times (15 August, 15 September and 15 October) and four domestic varieties (Tokat-2, Tokat-5, Tokat-29 and Tokat-89) were used. The variety, Tokat-89 and the sowing time of 15 September were found to be the most suitable variety and sowing time, respectively, The variety and time of sowing recorded superiority for head weight, level of hardness and head quality.
Abstract: As a cool weather crop, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is very sensitive to the changes in temperature during growth. This study investigated the textural, compositional and some biochemical changes in the outer and inner leaf tissues of two crisphead lettuce cultivars ('Bittsu' and 'Cisco') harvested in different seasons. The result demonstrated that in colder months, the crispiness of lettuce leaves reduced significantly and higher amount of sugars, organic acids and ammonia were accumulated. In general, between the two cultivars, 'Bittsu' contained higher amount of sugars and organic acids, while 'Cisco' contained higher amount of ammonia. However, inner leaf tissues contained higher amount of ammonia than outer leaf tissues in both cultivars. The level of fructose was found to be higher than glucose and sucrose in all cases while malic acid was the main component in organic acid fraction. The activities of ammonia-assimilating enzymes such as glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 22.214.171.124) and asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 126.96.36.199) either decreased or nearly remain constant depending on the tissue types during the colder months. Outer leaf portion showed higher GS activity than inner leaf tissues. However, both of aminating and deaminating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 188.8.131.52) decreased in the outer leaves whereas deamination activity slightly increased in the inner leaf tissues during warmer harvest months.
Alaa Eldin Khalil Omar
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
Abstract: This study was conducted during two successive seasons (2005 and 2006); in the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El Sheikh University; with the aim to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation and irrigation intervals on growth of grapevine nurslings cv. Ruby King. Two mix mycorrhizal fungi including Glomus fasiculatum and Glomus mosseae were used for inoculation. The AMF inoculated and non-AMF nurslings were irrigated at 3, 6 and 9 days interval. The results showed that a combined treatment of AMF inoculation and irrigation at 3 days intervals recorded the highest values in terms of length of main root, total root length, root volume, root dry weight (%), top/root ratio, number of fine roots (< 2 mm), number of small roots (2-5 mm), number of leaves and leaf area per nursling. These results are of practical importance, as they highlight the potential of using mycorrhizal fungi inoculation for root development and growth improvement in grapevine nurslings and hence increases its adaptability upon transfer from the nursery to the open field.
Ji Heun Hong, Sung Kee Hwang, Guk Hoon Chung, and A. Keith Cowan
Biotech Institute, GlonetBU, Doosan Corporation, Yongin 449-795, Korea; AKConsulting, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa.
Abstract: The effect of foliar applications of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) on 'Thompson Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) was evaluated to determine the suitability of this plant amendment aid as a management tool in table grape production. LPE at 10 mg L-1 was sprayed on vines at two different stages of berry growth and development. Treatments were: 1) 4 weeks after fruit set; 2) 6 weeks after fruit set; and 3) 4 and 6 weeks after fruit set. Soluble solids content (SSC) of berries at all harvest dates was significantly higher for vines treated with LPE compared to the control. Titratable acidity (TA) gradually decreased during ripening, and by the third harvest, TA of berries from vines treated with LPE was lower than that of control. All the treatments resulted in higher fruit firmness when compared to control. However, there were no significant differences in firmness of berries from vines given LPE treatment at different stages of growth. LPE treatment increased berry size, although no significant difference in size between single and sequential applications of LPE was observed. These results indicate that LPE may play a role in plant hormone-associated regulation of berry growth and development.
Esmaeil Chamani, Daryl C. Joyce, Behroz Esmaeilpour
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
Key words: Dianthus caryophyllus 'Lunetta', preharvest, postharvest, Thidiazuron, vase life.
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Thidiazuron (TDZ) applied at preharvest stage under glasshouse conditions on Dianthus caryophyllus 'Lunetta'. Thidiazuron at 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 uM was applied as a foliar spray arranged in completely randomized design. Time to flowering was recorded, and relative stem length, total nitrogen and tissue water content were measured at harvest. Postharvest vase life, relative fresh weight changes, and solution uptake were also measured. TDZ treatments decreased relative stem length compared to the control (0 uM). TDZ treatment tended to decrease total nitrogen and water content of tissues slightly, but not significantly (P > 0.05). TDZ at 100 uM significantly increased the vase life of cut carnation flowers compared to the control. TDZ treated flowers tended to maintain higher relative fresh weight, with positive differences for the 100 uM TDZ treatment being apparent at day 5, 7 and 9 of vase life. Solution uptake was higher in TDZ treated flowers.
NasserAlKhalifah, E.Askari, andA.E. Shanavaskhan,
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Post Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: With the increasing number of turfgrass cultivars, development and use of reliable identification methods is becoming important. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers along with morphological markers proved useful for cultivar identification. Seven turfgrass cultivars encompassing four bermudagrass and three zoysiagrasses were grown under uniform greenhouse conditions and their key diagnostic features were described. Bulk samples of leaves were collected from each cultivar and subjected to RAPD analysis using standard protocols. Out of the 35 Operon primers used, 20 detected polymorphism among the cultivars. 'Nagissa' and 'Miyako' zoysiagrasses showed close genetic relationship as compared to the rest of the cultivars. They had the highest value in the similarity matrix for Nei and Li's coefficient (0.802) while one variant of Miyako clustered with Bermuda-1. Tifgreen Bermuda and Bermuda-2 also clustered together while 'Tifway' stood apart. Analysis of the morphological data showed that the variant of ' Miyako' belonged to the Zoysia genus but its genetic affinity with Bermudagrass needs to be explained. Within and between species, the cultivars having similar leaf-texture showed a tendency to cluster together.
B. Sinha and J. Tarafdar
Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, AICRP on Tuber Crops, Directorate of Research, BCKV, Kalyani, West Bengal. India.
Key words: Sweet potato, viruses, symptoms, NCM-ELISA, coat protein
Abstract: The natural occurrence of sweet potato virus disease (SPVD) in 26 Indian sweet potato cultivars was evaluated at Horticultural Experimental Field of the B.C.K.V. University, West Bengal during 2004-2005 seasons based on the possible symptoms and serology. The leaves from virus suspected plants were indexed for viruses by nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA) and coat protein study. Disease incidence was highest in Pol-4-9 during 2004 (12.87%) and 2005 (25.19%). Results were confirmed in several seropositive plants with higher incidence and diversity of viruses. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato cauliflower mosaic like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speck virus (SPMSV) and C-6 virus were detected serologically in single or mixed infections in many leaf samples of the cultivars. The frequency of C-6 virus was very high (73.07%) followed by SPCaLV (34.61%), SPFMV (26.92%) and SPMSV (23.07%). Attempt was made to characterize the virus coat protein of the partially purified virus from the leaves with most frequently observed symptoms. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major protein band of 65 kDa, and 38 kDa which were assumed to be the viral coat proteins of associated virus. Minor protein bands of 24 kDa were also observed. The viral protein degraded upon storage at 4?C over time to yield a protein band of 22 kDa.
Erdinc Bal and Demir Kok
Namik Kemal University, Horticulture Department, Agricultural Faculty, Tekirdag/Turkey.
Abstract: Muskule grape variety which has table and late maturing attributes, was used for this study. Storage of table grapes requires stringent control of gray mold, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In spite of the fact that the use of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in controlling gray mould is common practice, it has some advantages and disadvantages. Thus, physical, natural organic elicitors and biological methods have been used for delaying decays. In this study, UV-C (0.25kJ m-2), salicylic acid (1, 2, 3mM) and Na2S2O5 (0.4g powdered sodium metabisulfate pads) treatments were used to reduce quality losses during the cold storage of Muskule grape. Treated clusters were placed into polyethylene container and packaged with polyethylene bags having 10.5 a thicknesses and stored at 0?1 oC and 90?5% relative humidity throughout 100 day. At the end of 100 day, weight loss (%), soluble solids content (%), titratable acidity (g 100 mL-1), pH of fruit juice, sensory evaluation, view of cluster skeleton and decay rate (%) were determined at 20 days interval. SA (3mM) + UV-C combined treatment and SA (3mM) treatment were found to be effective depending on examined criterion.
A. Uzun, O. Gulsen, Y.AkaKacar, V.Aras, A. Demirel, M. Bircan, S. Paydas andA. Yildiz
Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey-33740;Department of Horticulture, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey-0'330.
Abstract: Molecular markers are the most widely used tools in cultivar and species identification. The objective of this study was to characterize some Turkish and European cultivars and new apricot cultivars derived by hybridization between Turkish and European apricot cultivars using RAPD markers. Five new, two local cultivars, and four promising hybrids from Turkey, and 13 cultivars from Europe, North America, South Africa were characterized. Sixty RAPD primers produced 57 polymorphic and 79 monomorphic markers, totaling 136. All the 136 markers were used to construct a dendogram based on UPGMA. All cultivars were distinguished from each other with the similarity value ranging from 0.90 to 0.96. Known hybrids were grouped between or close to either one of parental genotypes. This study may imply narrow genetic diversity among the most widely grown apricot cultivars in the world.
Odiaka Ngozi Ifeoma, Akoroda Malachy and Odiaka Emmanuel
Department of crop Production, College of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Cooperative Exten?sion Centre, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benu
Key words: Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F., fluted pumpkin, gender, production, constraints, poverty, profit, sustainability, Nigeria.
Abstract: Gender roles in telfairia leaf production were investigated in Makurdi using a survey based questionnaire administered to 50 farmers to identify gender-disaggregated roles in telfairia production. The survey showed that women have major role as producers and marketers of telfairia leaves. Women and girls provided 80.0% of labour requirements for hole digging, sowing, irrigation, weeding, harvesting and marketing. The men cleared land and dug holes while girls and boys in primary and secondary schools assisted in weeding and hole digging. The results also revealed that a typical telfairia farm using N10,650.00 (US$84.5 at N126/dollar) worth of seeds produced 16.5 t/ha of leaves valued at N212,400.00 (US$1,685.7) with 85.0% profit. Seed accounted for 60.7% of total cost of production, while irrigation cost was 20.3%. A minimum take-off fund of N210,572 (US$1671.2) was needed to give revenue of N386,000 (US$2920.6) and a gain of 83% per hectare. Total fruit equivalent of fruits/shoots produced 2,056 fruits and the price of fruit equivalent of fruits/ shoots produced N514,000 (US$4079.4) with a gain of 144%. Two major constraints to leaf production were high cost of quality seeds (36.1% of respondents) and water pumps (13.9% of respondents). Women participation in telfairia vegetable production, marketing and utilization in Makurdi can provide a means of livelihood and appreciable income for women in rural and urban areas, which is capable of sustaining the running of the home and enhancing the living standards of women.
Vijay Paul and G.C. Srivastava
Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India.
Key words: Solanum lycopersicon, minerals, pericarp, ripening, tomato, fruit
Abstract: Two contrasting varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) fruits i.e. 'Pusa Gaurav' (slow ripening type) and 'Pusa Ruby' (fast ripening type) were examined for Ca, P, K, Zn, Cu and Mn contents in the fruit's pericarp portion. Fruits were examined either at different ripening stages during their maturation on the plant itself or at different intervals during storage when harvested at green mature stage. Ca was found to be higher in 'Pusa Ruby'. 'Pusa Gaurav', on the other hand, showed higher content of P, Zn, Cu, Mn but low K in comparison to 'Pusa Ruby'. The roles of these minerals were explained towards their stabilizing effect on plasma membrane and cell wall along with their involvement in the antioxidative system and thereby determining the rate of ripening.
T. Prabu, S.D. Warade, M.A. Jatkar and P.H. Ghante
Department of Horticulture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, College of Horticulture, Pune -411 005,Depart-ment of Plant Pathology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri -413 722. India.
Abstract: Okra germplasm, consisting of 85 accessions, which included cultivars, related species and their inter specific hybrids was screened for two seasons, while their amphidiploids, backcrosses and F3 generations were screened for one season for powdery mildew resistance (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC) under severe field epiphytotic conditions. Only the wild species A. caillei-2 and A. moschatus-1 were found immune while two biotypes of A. tetraphyllus, A. manihot spp. manihot, A. manihot spp. tetraphyllus, A. manihot (L.) Medikus and A. angulosus were found highly resistant to powdery mildew in both seasons. A. tuberculatus-1, A. caillei-1, A. ficulneus and cultivars of A. esculentus were susceptible. Reaction of inter specific hybrids, backcrosses and amphidiploids revealed that the resistance in A. caillei-2, A. angulosus and A. manihot spp. tetraphyllus were partially dominant. Further, it was observed that in F3 generations, only the lines of A. caillei -2 inter specific hybrid derivatives (lines derived from hybrids having A. caillei-2 as one parent) were found highly resistant to powdery mildew.
Iran's Pistachio Research Institute, Qazvin Station, No.''8, Beheshti Blvd. Agri. & Natural Resources Research Center, Qazvin, Iran.
Key words: Pistachio, chilling injury, growth degree day, flowering, fruit development
Abstract: Chilling threshold and growth degree day (GDD) of two main pistachio pistillate cultivars were determined. Layout was factorial based on a complete randomized design with three factors, two cultivars (Qazvini and Ouhedi), 5 thermal levels (+2, 0, -2, -4 and -6 oC) and three developmental stages including dormant bud, swelling bud and fully bloomed flowers for chilling studies. Critical temperature for reversible tissue colour change was determined as -4oC at bud stage, -2oC at blooming bud and +2oC at flower. Decreasing temperature down to two more degrees (e.g. -6 oC at bud) could shift the damage into the irreversible browning injury. For GDD measurements, three factors, including cultivar, thermal accumulation (calculation based on +4.5oC) and phenological stages were considered. Kernel filling period varied in two cultivars; Ouhedi's bigger kernel required more time to grow fully and more growth degrees day. Qazvini needed 2561.044 GDD and 138.5 days for total bearing period (flowering to harvest), and 623.363 GDD and 30 days for kernel filling period. Ouhedi needed 2917.823 GDD and 160 days for total period, and 730.61 GDD and 33.5 days for kernel filling.
S.N. Saxena, S Janjharia,A.K. Sharma, R. Sharma and G. Singh
Plant Biotechnology Centre, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334006
Abstract: Capparis deciduas is an important constituent of desert ecosystem, however, due to population pressure on the land their stands are reducing at an alarming rate. Establishment through root suckers and seeds being very slow and cumbersome, remains the major bottleneck for their reestablishment in the area. Thus, realizing the constraint, a rapid and efficient micropropagation protocol for multiple shoot regeneration employing shoot tip explant was developed. The protocol is more efficient and reproducible than reported earlier. Maximum number of explants (100%) responded on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) 7 mg L-1 and naphthaline acetic acid (NAA) 0.1 mg L-1 while number of shoots per explant were maximum (8.5) on alone BAP 7 mg L-1. Regenerated shoots could be rooted best on MS medium supplemented with indole butyric acid (IBA) 1 mg L-1. Rooted shoots could be hardened and transplanted in to the field.
A.P. Silva, A. Santos, J. Cavalheiro, C. Ribeiro, F. Santos and B. Gon?alves
'CECEA - Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apt. '0'3, 500'-80' Vila Real, Portugal, Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Engineering; CETAV - Centre for Technological, Environmental and Li
Abstract: Chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, starch, neutral detergent fibre - NDF and free a-amino acids) of six hazelnut cultivars (Butler, Ennis, Fertile de Coutard, Grossal, Merveille de Bollwiller and Segorbe) was investigated. Genotype significantly affected fruit nutritive value. Crude protein ranged from 12-17 g 100 g-1 dry weight (dw) in cultivar Ennis and Merveille de Bollwiller, respectively; crude fat was 50-62 g 100 g-1 dw in cvs. Fertile de Coutard and Butler; starch varied from 1.0 to 2.4 g 100 g-1 dw in cvs. Segorbe and Butler; and NDF was 8-14 g 100 g-1 dw in cvs. Merveille de Bollwiller and Ennis. Total free a-amino acids content ranged from 144 mg 100 g-1 dw (cv. Segorbe) to 413 mg 100 g-1 dw (cv. Butler). The essential amino acids content varied between 23 mg 100 g-1 dw (cv. Butler) to 55 mg 100 g-1 dw (cv. Merveille de Bollwiller). Alanine was the main amino acid found (62% of total amino acids) and methionine was the lowest (0.3%). Based on the available data on the phytochemical content of hazelnuts, including the data presented in this study, there is a high likelihood that this fruit will provide positive health benefits.