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JalalUdDin Baloch, M. Qasim Khan, M. Munir and M. Zubair

Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK; University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Key words: Ornamental annuals, short day plants, flowering, photoperiod, facultative short day plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 10-15.

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study flowering response of six facultative short day plants (zinnia cv. Lilliput, sunflower cv. Elf, French marigold cv. Orange Gate, African marigold cv. Crush, cockscomb cv. Bombay and cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) under four distinct controlled photoperiods (8, 11, 14 and 17 h d-1). A curvilinear facultative response was observed in almost all cultivars studied. zinnia, sunflower, French marigold, African marigold, cockscomb and cosmos took minimum time to flower when grown under 8 h d-1 photoperiods however it was significantly (P<0.05) increased when photoperiod was increased to 17 h d-1. These findings revealed plant scheduling prospect that is, the flowering time of facultative SDPs grown under long day photoperiod can be extended in order to continue supply of these plants in the market
Song, Paul V. Nelson, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., and D. Keith Cassel

Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, 11 Dongwhari Bongdam Hwasunsi Kyonggido, R.O. Korea 445-890, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609, Department of Biology, Elon University, Elon, N

Key words: Rice hulls, root substrate, soilless, root media, Impatiens walleriana, Verbena Xhybrida,

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 16-20.

Abstract: Ground, composted rice hulls were combined as a root substrate component with peat moss and coir at five rice hulls percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100) in a factorial design. Seventy-five percent of the rice hull particles were 0.51 to 1.40 mm and 90% of the particles were 0.51 to 2.00 mm. In physical property evaluations, increasing the percentage of rice hulls in both the peat moss and coir series of substrates increased the dry bulk density and airspace at container capacity; however, as air space increased, container capacity and available water decreased. In the first two of three plant growth experiments, Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. 'Super Elfin White' was grown in 288 cell plug trays. In the third experiment, Verbena Xhybrida Voss. 'Romance Deep Rose' was grown in 48 cell bedding plant flats. Due to problems with high pH in the coir, only the peat moss growth results were reported. Overall, growth was best in 25% rice hulls plus 75% peat moss. Rice hulls increased substrate Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both the peat moss and coir. Adding rice hulls to the substrate increased K+ in peat and decreased K+ in coir. There was no effect of rice hulls on substrate NO3- -N, NH4+-N, and PO4-P in the substrate solution. Ground, composted rice hulls are a potential alternative component of soilless substrate for plugs and bedding plants.
Marchionni Bast?, D.R. Liberatti, S.L. Mahuad, G.R. Rodriguez, G.R. Pratta, R. Zorzoli and L.A. Picardi

CONICET, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. FONCyT, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. CIUNR, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agr

Key words: Plant breeding, diallel analysis, combining ability, Solanum lycopersicum, recombinant inbred lines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 21-25.

Abstract: Five recombinant inbred lines, generated from a single interspecific cross S. lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium, were crossed in a complete diallel combination without reciprocal. Fruit quality traits were analyzed according to Griffing (1956), method 2, model 1 (fixed effects). Significant general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) effects were found for all traits. Weight, reflectance percentage, chroma index, firmness, soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity presented SCA values greater than GCA values, indicating nonadditive effects. Both additive and nonadditive effects were significant in determining diameter and shape. Positive unidirectional dominance was found for shape, shelf life and chroma index, while negative unidirectional dominance was involved in the expression of weight, diameter, height, reflectance percentage and firmness. Bidirectional dominance was found for soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity. In spite of being a genetic pool generated from a single interspecific cross, high levels of genotypic and phenotypic variability was found among the fifteen genotypes for important agronomic traits. Both additive and nonadditive effects were important in the genetic determination of these traits.
Mohamed Thabet and Khemaies Zayani

Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisie. Institut Superieur des Sciences et Technologie de I'Environnement BP 1003, Hammam-Lif2050, Tunisie.

Key words: Arid, drip irrigation, border irrigation, yield, Capsicum annum.L, water use.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 26-29.

Abstract: Field experiments were performed to study the impact of two different irrigation systems (surface drip and surface) on water use efficiency and yield components of a pepper crop (Capsicum annum. L). Irrigation scheduling was carried out based on estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using crop coefficients for pepper and reference evapotranspiration ETo calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation (Allen et al., 1998). The crop received total water needs computed according to Veirmeiren and Jobling (1983) procedure for surface drip irrigation. Border irrigation was scheduled by Cropwat model (Smith, 1992). Experimental plots were irrigated simultaneously during the appropriate duration for each one and received the same nutrients (N, P, and K) ratio. Comparison was made on fruit number per plant, fruit weight, fruit weight by harvest and yield per unit surface. The results showed that compared with surface irrigation, drip irrigation presented a significant difference in total fruit yield and water use during cropping season (May to September). With drip irrigation, average yield was 19.73 kg m2 which was 68% greater than that irrigated with surface irrigation (11.90 kg m2). Applied water volume by unit production (m3/kg) was 0.38 for drip and 1.05 for border, respectively. Drip irrigation increased fresh pepper fruit yield with a reduction of 60% in water use compared to traditional surface irrigation.
O. Borsani, G. GonzalezNeves, M. Ferrer and J. Monza

Laboratorios de Bioquimica and Viticultura - Enologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Avda. Garzon 780 CP 12900. Montevideo, Uruguay, Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura, Dr. Pouey 463. Las Piedras, Uruguay.

Key words: Anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, berries, hydric deficit,Vitis vinifera L.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 3-9.

Abstract: Anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression in berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat trained in Lyre system was investigated. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway as chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4- reductase (DFR), and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O- glucosyl transferase (UFGT) was examined. On the other hand, the influence of plant architecture, Lyre and vertical shoot positioned (VSP) trellis systems, on anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression was also analyzed. Final contents of total anthocyanins were not affected by trellis systems but varied in two years with different water deficit imposition period. However, the individual profile of the genes and anthocyanidins modified according to the moment of water deficit imposition (veraison or harvest) and by the trellis systems (Lyre or VSP). Analysis of gene expression in Lyre along the berry development period showed that low leaf water potentials after veraison cause an earlier and greater induction compared with expression in a year with low leaf water potential at harvest. At harvest, the hydric deficit induced an increase in the expression of CHS, F3H and DFR genes and a higher total anthocyanins content. The study revealed that plant architecture affect the expression of anthocyanins related gene in berries possibly by modifying the canopy microclimate.
Yaser Hassan Dewir, Nisha Singh, Siveshni Govender and Pragashnee Pillay

School of Biological & Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt.

Key words: Bioreactor, in vitro flowering, Gentian, mass propagation, microponics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 30-34.

Abstract: Hormonal control of flower induction in vitro was investigated in Gentian. The effect of PBZ concentrations on flowering was studied in plantlets cultured in MS medium containing 30 g L-1sucrose. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) concentration at 1.0 mg L-1 induced the highest flowering in terms of flowering percentage (91.5%), number of flowers, days to first flowering, flower length and flower diameter. PBZ did not trigger flowering but it rather stimulated flowering and its role seemed to be additive but not essential for flowering. Comparison between solid and bioreactor cultures (continuous immersion with a net) revealed that shoot multiplication and growth were more efficient using bioreactor culture. The highest shoot number per explant (29.9) was obtained in bioreactor culture. Regenerated shoots were cultured microponically for 6 weeks. Hundred percent of plants rooted and were acclimatized successfully in growing media containing perlite: vermiculite (1:1).
N. Njoroge, B. Gemmill, R. Bussmann, L.E. Newton and V.W. Ngumi

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department, P.O. Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Economic Botany, Missouri Botanical Gar

Key words: Native pollinators, watermelon, visitation patterns, pollen deposition

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 35-41.

Abstract: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. (Watermelon) is an important crop plant in Kenya. Being monoecious, watermelon is entirely dependent upon pollination services usually by insects for production. Although the centre of origin for this plant is thought to be tropical Africa, essentially not much has been studied of its pollination requirements in this region. The current study investigated the identity of the wild pollinators of watermelon, their behaviour and relative pollination efficiencies at Yatta, a farm near Thika (Eastern Province). The main pollinator for this crop was found to be the honey bee, Apis mellifera but three wild species of Lasioglossum were found as important pollinators. These wild bees have a significantly higher (P< 0.0001) pollen deposition on stigmas of watermelon than honeybees. One of the Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia) sp. 4 deposited on average three times as much pollen as the honeybee. At about the time of stigmatic receptivity, the number of visits by this species to female flowers increases until it equals visits to male flowers irrespective of number of flowers per plot. This behavioural pattern coupled with the high pollen deposition potential makes Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia) sp. 4 a superior candidate as an alternatively managed pollinator for watermelon. Knowing that visitation occurs mostly in the morning, and that flowers last only for one day, spraying can be done in the later hours of the day when the pollinators have virtually stopped foraging on the flowers. In view of the reported pollinator decline globally, the wild pollinator species reported in this study warrant further investigation on their nesting biology and potential for domestication.
Bhusan Gurung and K.K. Singh

G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Sikkim Unit, Pangthang, Post Box 24, Gangtok, East Sikkim-737101, India.

Key words: Micropropagation, shoot formation, rooting, acclimatization, Rhododendron dalhousiae, Sikkim Himalaya

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 42-45.

Abstract: The first successful micropropagation protocol was developed for an important Sikkim Himalayan Rhododendron, R. dalhousiae Hook. f. also known as Lahare Chimal in Sikkim. In vitro raised shoot tip explants from R. dalhousiae were used to produce multiple shoots on a medium containing various concentrations of growth regulators. Among the combinations used, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 5 mg L-1 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP) along with additives such as, 100 mg L-1 polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), 100 mg L-1 ascorbic acid, 10 mg L-1 citric acid was found to be best for induction of multiple shoots within 12 weeks of culture. The combination of 5 mg L-1 2iP +1 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) resulted in further multiple shoot production than using them alone. Rooting of shoots in vitro was achieved on MS medium containing 0.2 mg L-1 indolebutyric acid (IBA). Rooted plantlets were transferred to small polythene bags containing autoclaved fresh peat moss and soil (1:3) and maintained with a high humidity for acclimation. These in vitro-raised plants grew normally in greenhouse and natural habitat (arboretum of the Institute) without showing any morphological variation. The protocol developed from the present study could be used for large scale multiplication of R. dalhousiae in a limited time.
M. Bejoy, M. Dan, N.P. Anish, Githa Ann George and B.J. Radhika

Plant Genetic Resource Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Trivandrum 695 562, Kerala, India.

Key words: Amomum hypoleucum, micropropagation, tissue culture, Zingiberaceae

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: An efficient and repeatable micropropagation protocol has been established for Amomum hypoleucum, a lesser known threatened medicinal plant of the family Zingiberaceae. Eighty percent of the rhizome nodes from greenhouse grown plants, cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 IAA, showed axillary bud break in 8-10 days. Multiple shoots proliferated from such shoot explants when transplanted to medium with 3 mg L-1 BA and 1 mg L-1 TDZ. An average of 9.2 shoots could be recovered in two months and about 65-70% of the shoots showed simultaneous rooting. Isolated shoots were also rooted in medium fortified with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. Plantlets, transferred to the field after acclimatization in greenhouse conditions, showed 85% survival.
Damianos Neocleous

Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, P. O.Box 22016, 1516Nicosia, Cyprus.

Key words: Lactuca sativa, nitrogen, gibberellin, kinetin, growth, TNC

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Paris Island') were grown in an unheated plastic greenhouse to determine the effects of solution nitrogen concentration and growth regulators (gibberellin and kinetin) on growth (fresh and dry head weight) and tissue nitrate content (TNC). The plants were grown in plastic containers with perlite and supplied with a basic nutrient solution supplemented with nitrogen (N) corresponding to 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm NO3-N. Growth regulators; gibberellin (GA3) and kinetin were applied at different doses independently and in combination. Fresh, dry weight and TNC were responsive to N application level. However, fresh and dry weights were similar at 150 and 200 ppm and TNC at 100 and 150 ppm nitrogen supply. Gibberellin (GA3) and gibberellin and kinetin in combination (GA3+kinetin) enhanced fresh and dry weight and TNC compared to the control. There were few differences in response to application rates. Therefore, where lettuce plants are grown in similar conditions and low NO3 accumulation is desirable, together with high yield and good size, the best N application level is 150 ppm NO3-N and growth regulators application may enhance yield. However their use in reducing the nitrate content is not recommended.
S. Protain, M. Mohammed and L.A. Wilson

The University of the West Indies, Department of Food Production, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies.

Key words: Papaya, ripening, climacteric, ethylene, colour, firmness

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 54-58.

Abstract: The process of ripening was evaluated in three papaya cultivars, Solo Sunrise (SS), Tainung #2 (T2) and Red Lady (RL) with different mean fruit weights of 387, 1364 and 2266 g and fruit cavity void volumes of 56, 334 and 502 mL and fruit weight/cavity void volume ratios of 6.9, 3.8 and 4.3 g mL-1, respectively. The evaluation was done by comparing physiological determinants of the ripening process; ethylene (C2H4) generation and respiratory CO2 production, measured at two temperature ranges, 20-22oC and 28-30oC, by sampling cavity void volumes, with physico-chemical quality characteristics of ripening: skin colour, flesh firmness and pH. Fruit ripening of the three cultivars was delayed at the lower temperature range as measured both by physiological determinants including pre-and peak climacteric rates and physico-chemical quality characteristics. However, cv RL showed slower ripening than cvs SS and T2 at both temperature ranges, probably partly related to its low fruit weight/cavity void volume of 4.3 g mL-1. Moreover, there were negative temporal displacements for skin degreening compared with those for flesh softening, respiration and ethylene generation in fruit of the three cultivars. Fruits of cvs SS and T2 were fully ripened in 8 days after harvest (DAH) and RL fruits in 10 DAH at the lower temperature range. Values for C2H4 generation and CO2 production measured in the fruit cavity are judged to be sensitive indicators of the progress in the process of ripening.
S. Akbari Chermahini, N. Moallemi, A. Shafei Zargar

Department of Horticulture, Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran, Safiabad- Dezful Agricultural Research Center, Dezful, Iran.

Key words: Nitrogen, flowering, fruit set, 'Valencia' Orange

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 59-61.

Abstract: Yield of fruit tree is determined primarily by flowering intensity and subsequent fruit set. Flower number and fruit set are also influenced by endogenous nitrogen level. This research was concerned with the effect of winter foliar application of urea on flowering and fruit-set of 30-year-old 'Valencia' orange on sour orange rootstock at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful. Treatments included urea foliar application at 3 levels (0, 0.5, 1%) and 2 times of application (6 and 9 weeks before full bloom). The experimental design was a factorial randomize complete block with 4 replications. Nitrogen percentage in leaf, flower number, ovary diameter and fruit set were studied. Results showed that winter application of urea increased the level of N for 2 weeks. Different levels of urea increased the number of flowers, ovary diameter and fruit set. The higher concentration of urea (1%) had more effect. Considering the time of application, urea spray 9 weeks before full bloom had the highest effect on flowering but urea spray 6 weeks before full bloom resulted in higher ovary diameter and fruit set.
S. Ramakrishnan, R. Umamaheswari, T Senthilkumar and M. Samuthiravalli

Department of Nematology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641

Key words: Cassia angustifolia, Meloidogyne incognita, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Withania somnifera, non-chemicals

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita using non-chemicals under controlled and field conditions in medicinal crops viz., ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and senna (Cassia angustifolia). All the treatments comprising of bioagents, organic amendments and humic acid were effective to suppress M. incognita population and to increase the plant biomass and yield of economic parts of these crops. Among the treatments, the use of plant growth promoting rhizobcaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens available commercially in talc formulation (2.6 X 106 cfu g-1) at 2.5 kg ha1 as soil application recorded the lowest nematode population accompanied with highest economic yield.
P. Aggarwal, A.K. Bakshi and J.S. Kanwar

Department of Food Science and Technology & Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004.

Key words: Cling stone, peach, Shan-i-Punjab, cultivar, canning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 65-68.

Abstract: Two cling stone peach cultivars "Shan-i-Punjab" and "Tropic Beauty" and one free stone cultivar "Florda Grande" were processed for canning (whole and halves) and beverages (squash and nectar). Fruits of Shan-i-Punjab were found to have the best characteristics for canning (as whole) and for making pulp based beverages (nectar and squash) with maximum ascorbic acid content (17 mg/100 g) and pulp yield (47.62%). Organoleptically Shan-i-Punjab fruits were found to have the highest acceptability scores i.e. 8.50 for canned peaches, 8.58 for squash and 8.38 for nectar among all the cultivars studied on a 9-point Hedonic scale judged by eight semi-trained panelists and general consumers. Florda Grande also received the higher acceptability scores (8.50) for its canned peach halves because of its tough texture. The fruits of Florda Grande were not much suitable for pulp based beverages, whereas those of Tropic Beauty were found acceptable for canning as well as for making beverages at zero time and also after six months storage.
Shamsa Fazel, Monsef Hamidreza, Ghamooshi Rouhollah and Mohammadreza Verdianrizi

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Key words: BCG, total alkaloids, medicinal plants, determination

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 69-70.

Abstract: A simple spectrophotometric method based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG) was developed for determination of total alkaloids in medicinal plants. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 4.7. The absorbance of the complex obeys Bear 's law over the concentration range of 4-13 ug atropine per mL of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.

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