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M.A. Hegazi and G.A.N. ElKot

Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department ofAgriculture Botany (Phytopathology), Faculty ofAgriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr el-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Zinnia elegans, essential oils, powdery mildew, biocontrol agents.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 75-80.

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during two successive seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El- Sheikh University to evaluate some essential oils as biocontrol agents for powdery mildew on Zinnia elegans, L. Marjoram, clove, cinnamon, garlic, ginger and fennel oil were used as a foliar spray at 2 levels (250 and 500 ppm) beside Kema zein 75% and distilled water as a control. The plants were sprayed four times beginning from June 15th with one week interval by a hand atomizer as soon as the first sign of powdery mildew detected on plants. Disease incidence and severity as well as vegetative parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of shoots, root length and fresh and dry weights of roots were determined in the two seasons. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities were determined after 24 hour from the last spray in leaves samples. The highest significant decrease in disease incidence and severity and the best results for most of the studied growth and flowering parameters and total green colour were recorded when plants were sprayed with ginger, cinnamon and clove oils, respectively each at 500 ppm compared to the other treatments in both seasons. In addition, the activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes increased as a result of oil spray on plants. In conclusion, these findings provide a rational basis for possible utilization of these essential oils as a safe and alternative method to fungicides for controlling powdery mildew in zinnia plants.
Sait Engindeniz, Murat Yercan and Hakan Adanacioglu

Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Bornova-Izmir/Turkey.

Key words: Capitalization rate, orchards, income capitalization approach, olive, valuation.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 81-84.

Abstract: Valuation of orchards is an important issue in condemnation, taxation, loan, insurance, inheritance, and purchase-sale cases. The approach to be used for orchards may vary according to the purpose of appraisal, age of the establishment, obtainable data, and according to the current regulations. In this study, land and tree values of olive orchards in a selected region from Turkey were determined by the periodic income capitalization approach. For this aim, four villages were selected and data was collected from 55 farmers selected randomly. While determining the value of the olive orchards with trees, past values approach was used. The capitalization rate for the income capitalization approach was determined as 5.32%. The value of bare land of olive orchards over periodic net income was calculated to be $ 19,684.87/ha. Tree values per hectare varied between $ 9,189.86 and $ 16,768.13 according to tree ages.
Samson Bekele Diro and Ketema Tilahun

Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia. Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia. Presemt address: School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga NSW2678,

Key words: Growth stages, deficit irrigation, Ethiopia, CROPWAT model, onion

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 103-106.

Abstract: Deficit irrigation conserves water and minimizes adverse effects of excess irrigation. In this study, the applicability of the CROPWAT model in management of deficit irrigation was evaluated at Sekota Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Water was applied using low head drippers. There were eight treatments with three replications: stress at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th growth stages and partial stresses of 50% ETc, 75% ETc with two controls of 25% ETc and 100% ETc of the water requirement throughout the growing season. The input data for CROPWAT program were climatic, rainfall, crop and soil data. Yield reductions simulated by CROPWAT program were comparable with yield reduction measured under field condition. Model efficiency and correlation coefficients of 98% were obtained. Based on the above comparative analysis, CROPWAT program could adequately simulate yield reduction resulting from water stress.
Mahmoud M Hamdi, Naima Boughalleb, Neji Tarchoun and Lassaad Belbahri

1Department of Agronomic and Economic Sciences, Higher School of Agriculture of Kef, 7119, Kef Tunisia, 2Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tu

Key words: Tomato, Lycospersicon esculentum, graft, Fusarium crown and root rot, grafting, Beaufort x Bochra, Beaufort x Amal, Kemerit x Bochra and Kemerit x Amal, rootstock

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 107-110.

Abstract: Tomato, Lycospersicon esculentum, is an important vegetable crop in Tunisia and many other Mediterranean countries. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato are new diseases in the area, first reported during 2000-2001 crop season, threatening tomato production. Being a soil-borne pathogen, effective disease control methods of Fusarium crown and root rot are limited thus requiring the alternative measures for disease management. In this study the efficacy of grafting commercial Tomato cultivars Bochra and Amal, used as scions, onto a new rootstock Beaufort and Kemerit RZ was examined in controlled and natural conditions. Grafting was found, in this study, to be an effective method to attenuate the impact of Fusarium wilt, Fusarium crown and root rot. Moreover, grafting increased tomato growth parameters, yield and improved fruit quality.
Jianming Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Zhirong Zou and M.H. Behboudian

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University. Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 China, Department of For?eign Languages, Northwest A&F University. Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 China, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston

Key words: Upper-limit, soil water content, yield, fruit quality, tomato, cucumber

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 111-112.

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the optimum upper limit of soil water content (SWC) for tomato and cucumber from early stages after transplanting. Five different upper limits of SWC were tested at the lowest limit of 60% of field capacity (FC) for tomato and of 75% for cucumber. Stem growth, root viability, yield and fruit concentrations of vitamin C and total soluble solids were significantly affected by the treatment. The highest yield and best fruit quality was obtained at 85% of FC for tomato and at 90% for cucumber. This suggests that irrigating to FC does not necessarily result in higher yields and better fruit quality.
Mohamed M. ElFouly, A.A. ElSayed, A.A. Fawzy, B.M. Mansour, A. Bosila and Hassan A. Hamouda

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki-Egypt and Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo-Egypt.

Key words: Ficus hawaii, N use efficiency, N forms, nutrient film technique, nutrient uptake

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 113-118.

Abstract: Nutrient film technique was designed and used to grow Ficus hawii using different nitrogen sources, nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate (N), urea (U) and ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Aim of the study was to investigate the most proper form of nitrogen, which gives the highest vegetative growth and nutrients uptake in the early growth of the plants. Results show that in general, AN gave the highest vegetative growth parameters expressed as plant height, number of branches plant-1, leaves plant-1, leaf area, fresh and dry weight. AN favoured apical growth, while U favoured lateral growth. Shoot/root ratio was highest in the AN treatment. Nutrients uptakes by the whole plant was much higher in the case of AN then U and N. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in AN followed by U (more or less similar) and lowest in case of N.
Chen Shaoli, Zhou Baoli, Wang Ruhua and Xi Haijun

College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China; Heilongjiang August First Land Reclamation University, Daqing 163319, China.

Key words: Grafting, root exduates, cinnamic acid, vanillin, autotoxicity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 119-122.

Abstract: Cinnamic acid and vanillin are the allelochemicals commonly exist in eggplant root exudates. With pot culture experiment, the effects of grafted eggplants on allelopathy of cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplants root exudates were studied. The results showed that cinnamic acid and vanillin had allelopathic effects on eggplants, lower concentration of cinnamic acid and vanillin (0.1 mmol L-1 or 0.5 mmol L-1) could promote the growth and physiological metabolism of eggplants, while higher concentration (from 1 mmol L-1 to 4 mmol L-1) had slightly promotive or inhibitive effects on eggplants. Meanwhile, this study suggested grafting could relieve autotoxicity of cinnamic acid and vanillin, and significant difference in the regulation intensity for the autotoxicity was found between cinnamic acid and vanillin. Grafting decreased the amounts of cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of vanillin. The maximum reduction amount of cinnamic acid reached 68.96%, and that of vanillin reached 100%. Under the stress of exotic cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of exotic cinnamic acid, grafting relieved the autotoxicity of the two substances on eggplants. Compared with own-rooted eggplant, grafted eggplant had a higher plant height and a larger stem diameter, its leaf cholorophyll content increased by 5.26-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced. Grafting was found to be one of the most effective methods for relieving replanting problems caused by autotoxicity.
A. Das and D. Sing Majhi

Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, WestBengal-741252.

Key words: Rainwater, tap water, pond water, distilled water, hydroponics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 123-126.

Abstract: Low cost hydroponics devices were designed using plastic trays and buckets. Cultivations of tomato, chilli, cauliflower and marigold cv. Inca were tested in these devices using rain water, pond water, tap water and distilled water for nutrient solution preparation. The vegetables were grown as multiple plant cultures in plastic trays and marigold cv. Inca in single plant culture in small buckets. Direct use of tap water and pond water created chlorosis in some plants that could be overcome by boiling of water before use. In rain water tomato and chilli plants performed the best. However, cauliflower curd yield was the best in tap water. Marigold cv. Inca bloomed well in all categories of water. Water qualities were the major factor for crop growth. Rainwater could be more safely used. The devices and procedures are recommended for the kitchen gardeners of the urban and soil stress areas.
S.S. Omolaja

Plant Breeding Group, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: Caffeine, phenol, protein, Coffea canephora, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 127-131.

Abstract: A study was carried out to characterise thirty-seven Coffea canephora clones using three biochemical characteristics, namely caffeine, phenol and protein content. The phenol and caffeine contents were determined by gravimetric method, while protein was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of floral bud. Caffeine content among the clones ranged from 1.1 to 1.5% on dry matter basis (dmb). C36 a high yielding clone, had relatively low caffeine content, hence it is a suitable clone that could be included in any breeding programme for low caffeine coffee in Nigeria. All the Niaollou (M) clones had high caffeine content. Phenol content in the berry pulp of the clones ranged from 2.6 to 15.6%. Averaged over clones, phenol content of berry pulp (9.5 %) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than leaf phenol content (4.5 %). The coefficient of variation for pulp phenol was high (35.3), thus indicating that, rapid response to selection for favourable phenol percentage might be feasible. The high level of phenol found in some clones may be valuable in breeding for resistance to some major diseases and insect pests of coffee. There were differences in the mobility and intensity of protein bands in the clones. The variation in the protein banding patterns of the different C. canephora clones observed provides further information on the existing genetic diversity of the coffee clones in addition to that provided by agro-botanical characters.
A.M. El Assar

Tropical Fruits and Date Palm Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Polypropylene, dates, bunch covering, "Zaghloul", ripening time, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 132-135.

Abstract: This study targets to investigate the efficiency of date bunch covering treatments by using different bag types such as the polypropylene muslin, staved-plastic (polyethylene) or cecile tissue in comparison with uncovered bunches (control) in the same orchard (from the mid of July to mid of September) in Rossitta region (Rasheid), Behera province, Egypt. Quantity and quality of marketable yield for "Zaghloul" dates, beside the ripening time were assessed through two consecutive seasons. The main notice was, all kinds of used covers reduced the damage caused by birds, blights and wasps as well as no incidence of diseases was observed under the experimental covers. Polypropylene muslin treatment decreased the dropped fruits in both study seasons, consequently it increased the marketable yield. Fruits under the polypropylene muslin bags were late in the ripening. Date bunches under the staved-plastic covers were statistically superior than all other treatments regarding fruits quality and were early in the ripening. There were statistical differences in fruit quality traits and fruits ripening time according to the bunch cover types.
Naser Alemzadeh Ansari and Reza Mamghani

Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.

Key words: Ecology, temperature stress, growth habit, tomato

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 136-142.

Abstract: Tomato hybrids and cultivars from northern latitudes are tolerant to temperature variations and are early maturing crops. In order to produce new cultivars for southwest of Iran, it is necessary and useful to study adaptation of genotypes in this area. The seeds of 74 cultivars from Moscow and 8 hybrids from Netherlands were germinated and then transplanted to Jiffy-pots under plastic tunnels before being transferred to the soil in the field. Growth habits, leaf and inflorescence forms, fruit weight, fruit number, yield in each harvest, total yield and earliness were recorded. There were differences among cultivars for all measured characteristics. Some cultivars had relatively good tolerance to high temperature, and could produce fruits at temperatures higher than 30?C. The tested varieties had different growth habits. Maximum yield was obtained from determinate types, M66, M63, M49 and M48. For most cultivars, the largest fruits were produced in the first harvest while the next harvests had smaller fruits. A negative correlation was observed for fruit numbers and average fruit weight. Also, some cultivars including M39, M46, M74, M40, and M35 exhibited early and more uniform yield per plant compared with control varieties. Some cultivars such as M48 and M66 had late maturity with higher yield as compared with control. The tested entries were classified on the basis of leaf shape, inflorescence, fruit number and weight. Maximum difference was between controls and M27.
Shekafandeh and M. Ghasemi

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Benzyladenin (BA), late-flowering, nodal segments, proliferation, hot water

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 143-145.

Abstract: In this study, hot-water and cold treatments were used for eradication of explant contamination, and also the effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation was evaluated. The explants were nodal segments of a late flowering almond cultivar 'Sharood 7'. Experiments were carried out in a complete randomized design with 25 replications. All hot-water treatments eliminated fungal contamination. The best hot-water treatment was 50?C in which 88% of explants were both free of contamination and necrosis followed by 76% at 47.5?C and 56% at 45?C. The best proliferation rate obtained in 1.5 mg L-1 BA in combination with 0.1 mg L-1 IBA (5.25 shoots per explant) which was significantly higher than 1 mg L-1 (2.65 shoots per explant). Cold treatments only (2 and 4 days in 4?C) delayed fungal contaminations for 7 days, so it was impossible to assess bacterial contamination.
Gyorgy Feszt and Lucica Mihalte

Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden, 42 Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Key words: Cacti, Cactaceae, diseases, attack degree, attack intensity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 146-149.

Abstract: In terms of artificial collections, cacti receive a specific microclimate, which ensures constant physical parameters leading to a low resistance and high susceptibility to attack by pests and diseases. The Cactaceae collection of the botanical garden "Alexandru Borza", Cluj-Napoca, Romania counts more than 4100 plants belonging to 115 genera. Following inventory collection, 4069 plants were studied. Preliminary assessment results that the radicular system of the best represented Cactaceae species is much worse than those stems. Genus: Astrophytum, Aylostera, Echinocerus, Notocactus, Weingartia had disease insidence of grade 2 (the area affected by 26?50%). The highest intensity of the attack was reported in the genus Echinocereus (47.24). In calculating the attack degree there was a greater uniformity in genus Aylostera (36.34), Echinocereus (37.46), Rebutia (37.83); Weingartia (33.37). In considerable stem attack by pahthogens, the highest attack frequencies were recorded in Astrophytum (51.75); Ferocactus (65.76) and Notocactus (58.18). The attack intensity, expressed in intensity degrees, reached value 2 (30.79) in the case of Cleistocactus genus, whereas the other genera remained under grade 1.
Mohamad Fattahi and Mansuor Gholami

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.

Key words: Strawberry, nutrient, development stages, plant fragments

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 150-152.

Abstract: The objective of the investigation was to study the effect of different development stages on distribution of mineral nutrients in the growing leaves, roots, petioles and fruits. Strawberry plants were grown in a greenhouse in perlite medium and fertigated with Hoagland solution. Mineral nutrient concentration was determined at three development stages viz., flowering, fruiting and the end of fruiting. Also nutrient concentration was determined in different organs at fruiting stage. Our results show that nutrient uptake was variable at different development stages. Leaf and petiole were the main sinks for Ca at fruiting stage and also for Mg and K in petioles, Fe in root, Mn in leaf. Results indicated that plant have different uptake pattern at various development stages. Results on the element uptake by different organs at various development stage is indicative of their relative requirement at different stages.
O.O. Olubode, I.O.O. Aiyelaagbe and J.G. Bodunde

Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., papaya, growth and yield, intercropping sequence, productivity efficiency indices, profit margin.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 153-159.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2007 at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria, to determine the growth and yield responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in orchards of two papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties, 'Homestead Selection' and 'Sunrise Solo', at three different stages of papaya growth. Different sequences of okra sowing were; at three weeks before papaya (early), same time with papaya (simultaneous) and three weeks after papaya (late). Results showed that early and simultaneous introduction of okra performed significantly better than the late, with respect to plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, number of pods, pod weight plant-1 and total pod yield. All the okra intercrops experienced competitive effects that reflected in reduced yield more pronounced in Homestead Selection than in Sunrise Solo. The productivity efficiency index recorded intercropping advantages for the okra in mixture compared to the sole okra with a land equivalent ratio (LER) >1.0 while the area harvest equivalent ratio (AHER) was more descriptive of the trends observed among the sequences. In cv Homestead Selection, the highest profit margin (47.64 %) was recorded in the simultaneous papaya-okra intercrop, followed by early (44.57 %). A similar trend was observed in cv Sunrise Solo, where simultaneous and early okra introduction had a profit margin of40.06 and 39.72%, respectively. Late sequence had the least profit margin in both papaya cultivars. .

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