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Prabuddha Ray and Sarthak Chowdhury

Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Statistics, Palli Shiksha Bhavan (Institute of Agriculture), Sriniketan, Visva-Bharati, P.O. Sriniketan, Dist. Birbhum, 731 236, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, constraints, adoption of IPM technologies, cauliflower cultivation, knowledge and information constraints, rank score

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 160-164.

Abstract: The present study revealed that among all the various types of constraints perceived by the respondents regarding the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies in the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) production, the lack of knowledge of the respondents about the Economic Threshold Limit (ETL) concept (under the category of knowledge and information constraints) had the first rank closely followed by the lack of knowledge of the respondents regarding the bio-pesticides (under the category of knowledge and information constraints). The lack of knowledge of the respondents about the IPM techniques (under the knowledge and information constraints category) enjoyed third position, closely followed by lack of training of the respondents on the proper use of pesticides (under category of administrative and managerial constraints). The result clearly indicate that among six different categories of perceived constraints, knowledge and information constraints with a rank score of 2769 enjoyed first rank position, distantly followed by administrative and managerial constraints (with a rank score of 1586) in the second position, technological and communication constraints with a rank score of 1249 in the third position, socio-economic constraint (rank score of 828) in the fourth position.
Samir C. Debnath and Elodie Ricard

Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 39088, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John's, NL A1E 5Y7, Canada. Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, Rue Pierre Waguet, BP 30313, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France

Key words: Anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, Fragaria x ananassa Duch., ISSR markers, strawberry

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 83-89.

Abstract: Data on molecular markers, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities are increasingly used in breeding programs of many horticultural crops. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities were used to characterize 10 strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars and nine breeding lines. Fifteen primers generated 240 polymorphic ISSR-PCR bands. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) revealed a substantial degree of genetic similarity among the genotypes ranging from 45% to 73% that were in agreement with the principal coordinate (PCO) analysis. Wide genetic diversity was observed among the strawberry genotypes for anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities. The ISSR analysis together with data for antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents in strawberries could be used for germplasm management and more efficient choices of parents in current strawberry breeding programs.
Nasir S.A. Malik and Joe M. Bradford

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 2413 E. Hwy 83 Weslaco, Texas 78596.

Key words: flowering, inflorescence, Olea europaea L., olive, temperature effects.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 90-94.

Abstract: Regulation of flowering in 'Koroneiki' olives by various regimes of daytime and nighttime temperatures was investigated. The trees flowered profusely under chilling (2.5?C; 569 inflorescences tree-1) and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (8.3?C; 729 inflorescences tree-1) when daytime temperatures were kept optimal (18.3?C). Chilling nighttime temperatures (2.5?C) did not produce any greater number of inflorescence than non-chilling temperatures of 8.3?C. High daytime temperatures (26.6?C) strongly inhibited flowering at both chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (i.e., 0.5 and 0.0 inflorescences tree1 under chilling and non-chilling temperatures, respectively). Mildly high daytime temperatures (23.9?C) also inhibited flowering but there were significantly more inflorescences per tree at 23.9?C (220 and 127 inflorescences tree-1 under chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures, respectively) than at 26.6?C. There was no significant difference in the number of inflorescences tree-1 between chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures at both inhibitory daytime temperatures; i.e. 23.9?C and 26.6?C. The trees that were kept vegetative by high daytime temperatures (26.6?C), but given flower inducing nighttime temperature for three months, when returned to optimal flower inducing conditions did not flower before the normal induction period (70-80 days), indicating that inhibitory daytime temperatures canceled any effects of nighttime flower inducing temperatures. Surprisingly, trees kept vegetative in growth chamber at a high daytime temperature (26.6?C) produced fewer inflorescences compared to trees kept vegetative in the greenhouse where temperatures were less controlled but generally, with a few exceptions, remained between 15-20?C in the night and 25-30?C during day.
Thomas Tworkoski, Ralph Scorza and D. Michael Glenn

USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Rd., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV, 25430, USA.

Key words: Orchard management, tree root system, tree nutrient uptake, Prunus persica

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 95-98.

Abstract: Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applications in the greenhouse and field. In the field during 2008, Compact trees had higher root length density than Pillar and Standard trees (6.2, 3.8, and 3.7 mm cm-3, respectively). Compact trees also had higher foliar P (0.21%) but the same N (1.3%) as Standard and Pillar trees (P concentrations of 0.14 and 0.11%, respectively) when fertilizer was applied once in the greenhouse. Following multiple applications of fertilizer, Compact tree leaves had the same P (approximately 0.21 and 0.29% in the greenhouse and field, respectively) as the other growth habits. After multiple fertilizer applications, Pillar trees had the greatest increase in foliar N and P, which was associated with high transpiration rates. Pillar, Compact, and Standard had transpiration rates of 3.0, 2.1, and 2.3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively. The data indicate that peach trees with fibrous roots systems may have an advantage to absorb nutrients such as P that move primarily by diffusion, when the nutrient is present in low concentrations in the soil. However, under conditions of high soil fertility, fibrous root systems did not improve nutrient uptake and trees with greater transpiration rates absorbed greater levels of nutrients. Different growth habits of peach have diverse root systems and transpiration rates that affect nutrient uptake and, consequently, the selection of tree growth habit should be considered in orchard soil management plans. Growth habits with more fibrous root systems may require reduced inputs of nutrients with low diffusion coefficients.
Jamie R. Stieg, S. Alan Walters, Jason P. Bond and M. Babadoost

Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.

Key words: Capsicum annuum, chemical control, economics, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora blight, disease management, disease resistance/tolerance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 99-102.

Abstract: Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian, is a widespread and destructive disease of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Bell pepper yield, farm-gate revenues and Phytophthora blight incidence were determined during 2005 and 2006 in a P. capsici-infested field near Shawneetown, Illinois. The study evaluated 12 bell pepper cultivars (one resistant, three tolerant, and eight susceptible to P capsici) with or without a recommended fungicide treatment (mefenoxam at transplant and dimethomorph + copper alternated with manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate + copper at 10 day intervals). Bell pepper plants receiving fungicide applications showed less Phytophthora blight incidence throughout the growing season and produced greater yield and farm-gate revenues compared to untreated plants. Additionally, P capsici-resistant 'Paladin' and P capsici-tolerant 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' produced greater yields (> 17,800 and 33,800 kg ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively) and farm-gate revenues [> $12,700 and $27,000 (USA) ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively] compared to the susceptible cultivars. Therefore, in fields with a high incidence history of Phytophthora blight, 'Paladin' could be a reliable choice for commercial bell pepper production. However, 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' may be preferred by growers due to the added benefits of bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye] resistance and better fruit quality compared to 'Paladin'. Furthermore, this research indicates that plant resistance and/or tolerance should not be relied upon as the only method of P capsici control and growers should also incorporate fungicides into their management program to provide additional protection.
Guido Knapp, Bimal K. Sinha and Dihua Xu

Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, 44221 Dortmund, Germany, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA

Key words: Duncan's multiple range test, Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, Fisher's LSD test, standardized mean differences, ratio of means, random effects meta-analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 10-16.

Abstract: For combining results from independent experiments, it is essential that information about the precision of the estimates of treatment effects is available. In publications of horticultural experiments, the results of multiple comparisons tests are often reported without sufficient information about the precision of the experiments. Based on limited information of the precision of an experiment such as treatments with the same letter are not significantly different, we develop a method for extracting a possible range of the precision of the experiment which can then be used for meta-analysis. The procedure is demonstrated using a real data example where alternatives to methyl bromide are studied in pre-plant soil fumigation. We also provide an R program which computes the possible range of the precision.
Onofri Andrea, Beccafichi Catia, Benincasa Paolo, Guiducci Marcello and Tei Francesco

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno, 74,1-06121, Perugia (Italy).

Key words: Processing tomato, CropSyst, simulation, modelling, dry matter partitioning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 17-22.

Abstract: The model CropSyst has proven useful for management-oriented simulations of growth and yield of cereals and other field crops, but no scientific information is available with reference to processing tomato. The aim of this paper was to parameterise and validate the crop module of CropSyst for the simulation of potential fruit production in processing transplanted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Parameterisation and calibration were performed by using field data from an experiment carried out in 1997 in Central Italy. The same set of parameters was validated against five independent experiments, carried out on the same location in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. The simulation of aerial biomass was always very good, with RRMSE values ranging from 7.5 to 13.4% and modelling efficiencies (EI) always above 0.976. The simulation of LAI was very good during the first part of growing season (up to 40-50 days after transplanting), while the decreasing trend in the final part of growing cycle was not always reliably simulated. Indeed, RRMSE for LAI ranged from 13.5 to 26.8% and EI ranged from 0.849 to 0.966. The differences between simulated and observed final fruit yield were below 10%, except in one year (18% in 2001), confirming the practical value of this model, for management and legislative purposes. For research purposes, it is confirmed that the simulation of dry matter partitioning is a crucial issue in vegetable crops such as tomato, wherein the growth of sources and sinks coexists for a main part of crop cycle.
Manasikan Thammawong and Osamu Arakawa

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyocho, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan.

Key words: Amylopectin, amylose, Malus domestica Borkh., starch degradation, total hydrolytic activity.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 23-30.

Abstract: Fruit maturity indices, i.e. respiration rate and ethylene production, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) content, total hydrolytic activity, and sugar content were investigated during the growth and maturation of 'Tsugaru' (early-maturing) and 'Fuji' (late-maturing) apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Different starch degradation characteristics during the growth and maturation processes were observed between 'Tsugaru' and 'Fuji'. By iodine staining, the loss of starch in 'Tsugaru' was observed earlier than in 'Fuji'. The different degradation patterns of starch were also demonstrated through the observations on AM and AP content. In 'Tsugaru', AM and AP degraded rapidly between 95 to 110 days after full bloom (DAFB) and almost all starch were lost rapidly at 125 DAFB with simultaneous increases in rate of respiration and production of ethylene. However, in 'Fuji', starch degraded gradually throughout growth and maturation process and was clearly degraded at 170 DAFB with a low level of ethylene production and decreased respiration. In both the cultivars, content of AM and AP were highest in the outer cortex and lowest in the inner cortex. Starch degradation was observed simultaneously in 3 different tissue zones and there was little difference in the total hydrolytic activity among tissue zones in both cultivars. These results suggest that starch hydrolysis in the apple flesh began simultaneously rather than preferentially in any one tissue zone. For sugar content, although differences among tissue zones were not clear, it increased distinctly with loss of starch content. Moreover, sugars from the degradation of accumulated starch and sugar translocation seem to influence mainly the sweetness quality as the fruit ripens.
Reginald S. Fletcher

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 E. Hwy. 83, Weslaco, Texas 78596

Key words: Citriculture, citrus, Citrus spp., Geographic Information System (GIS), soil survey geographic data (SSURGO), Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) data, grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, oranges, Citrus sinensis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 3-9.

Abstract: The South Texas citrus industry needs an inventory of soil properties within existing citrus (Citrus spp.) orchards, wants data at the county level showing soils that are suitable for citrus production, and would value any information related to the establishment of citrus orchards. This study discusses integration of citrus, soil survey geographic data (SSURGO), and U.S. Census spatial and tabular data with geographical information system (GIS) technology for citriculture. For this study, Hidalgo County Texas was evaluated because it is the major citrus producing county in South Texas. The spatial and tabular data and commercial GIS software were used to inventory selected soil chemical and physical properties within citrus groves, to identify orchards that may be affected by urban expansion, and to select potential sites for establishing new citrus orchards. Results indicated that citrus, SSURGO, and U.S. census spatial and tabular data integrated with GIS technology can be a powerful tool for citriculture. The information provided in this study should appeal to producers, extension agents, scientists, and government agencies within the U.S. and abroad.
Berhanu Kebebew and Ketema Tilahun

Oromia Irrigation Development Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.Present address: School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga,NSW 2678, Australia

Key words: Crop factor, drip irrigation, Ethiopia, tomato, water use efficiency.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 31-34.

Abstract: Efficient irrigation is essential for sustainable use of available water resources. A field experiment was conducted on two tomato cultivars (Melka Shola and Melkassa Marglobe) and four irrigation deficit levels (0%ETc, 25%ETc, 50%ETc, and 75%ETc). The objective was to determine crop factor (Kf) and water use efficiency (WUE). The Kcf values of 0.62, 0.65, 0.70, and 0.71 during the respective four growth stages of the crop were determined. The highest (91.23 kg ha1 mm1) and lowest (81.62 kg ha1 mm1) water use efficiencies were recorded in 25 and 0% deficit levels, respectively. The yield and WUE of Melka Shola cultivar was higher than that of Melkassa Marglobe. Generally, it was found that irrigating the tomato crop with 75% of ETc (i.e. 25%ETc deficit) is the best irrigation practice in the area. In terms of both yield and WUE, Melka Shola tomato cultivar was found to perform better than Melkassa Marglobe.
Boodia Navindra, Ruggoo Arvind and Boodoo B. Hassina

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.

Key words: Antibrowning agents, citric acid, ascorbic acid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, minimal processing, green jackfruit, moderate vacuum packaging.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 35-40.

Abstract: Green mature jackfruits were minimally processed into cubes, dipped in solution of citric acid (0 and 1%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1 and 2%), vacuum packed at 550 mbar atmospheric pressure in 80 urn laminated low density polyethylene vacuum pouches and stored at 2-4?C for 15 days. A control was prepared, using water. Quality parameters like colour, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids were determined during storage. Colour parameters indicated increase in browning during storage. A significant increase (P<0.05) in titratable acidity and significant decrease (P<0.05) in pH were observed in all treatments. Texture significantly decreased (P<0.05) in all treatments during storage. Combinations of the browning inhibitors were more effective than when applied individually. Citric acid and ascorbic acid when applied together resulted in non-significant change (P>0.05) in microbial counts, browning, and colour lightness. Treatment of 1% citric acid and 2% ascorbic acid in combination with moderate vacuum packaging and low temperature storage was found most effective in inhibiting browning and deterioration of fresh-cut green jackfruit for up to 15 days.
N?ji Tarchoun Salah Rezgui and Abdelaziz Mougou

Centre Regional des Recherches en Horticulture et Agriculture Biologique BP47- 4042 Sousse, Tunisia, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie (INAT) 43, av. Charles Nicolle 1082 cite mahrajene Tunis- Tunisia

Key words: Abortion, bud and flower, hot pepper, low night temperature, sucrose synthase, acid invertase.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 41-45.

Abstract: Effects of low night temperature were investigated on two local hot pepper varieties ('Beldi' and 'Baklouti') grown at day/night temperature of either low night temperature regime (25?C/10?C) or optimum night temperature regime (25?C/20?C). The negative effect of low night temperature on floral structure differentiation was registered on both varieties. The deleterious effect was more sensitive on bud stage than on flower buds stage. Abortion of these structures was less important in 'Beldi' than in 'Baklouti'. Floral structure abortion induced by low night temperature was negatively and significantly correlated with soluble acid invertase activity on 'Beldi' (r=-0.82), while on 'Baklouti', both sucrose synthase and insoluble acid invertase activities were correlated with floral abortion (r=-0.78). Under low night temperatures, sucrose synthase and soluble acid invertase activities were reduced to 50%, while the insoluble acid invertase activity was reduced by more than 90%. Enzymatic activities and flowers abortion correlation show a differential response between these two parameters and the developmental stages of flowers.
(Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) S. Eyob

Horticulture Department, Awassa College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O.Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia.

Key words: Korarima, Aframomum corrorima, Mesketo, photon flux density, plastic shade, tree shade, growth regulation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: Korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen), a slow growing and persistent under tree shade as an under-story perennial plant, is native to Ethiopia. When it is grown in full sunny condition, all plants die off a few weeks after planting, but the effect of different shading materials on its growth is not known. Half a year old korarima plants were planted under differently coloured plastic shades (red, green, blue and clear) and coffee (Coffea arabica L.) tree shade to regulate the growth. The coffee tree shade was used as control. Varying levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and red to far red (R/FR) ratio of light were recorded under different shaded and open conditions. The korarima plant responded differently to the different plastic and coffee tree shades. Average plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of sprouts per plant, chlorophyll content, leaf area, total fresh and dry weights were significantly different when recorded at different stages of growth, highest being recorded under the blue plastic cover. The minimum efficiency was achieved under control..
Renu Singh, Ram C. Yadav and Neelam R. Yadav

Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. 125004, India.

Key words: Auxins, axillary bud, benzylaminopurine (BAP), cytokinins, indole acetic acid (IAA), Carica papaya L., a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), proliferation, silver nitrate (AgNO3)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: A study was carried out on mature female papaya (Carica papaya L.) plant of Selection 1 cultivar by using axillary bud as an explant and media supplementation with the main aim to assess the effect of growth regulators (auxins, cytokinins) and silver nitrate on in vitro regeneration of female papaya plant. Total of 28 media were used for shoot regeneration while for root regeneration total of eight media were tested supplemented with different growth hormones. Based on the results of this study, for shoot proliferation, MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg L-1) and BAP (2.0 mg L-1) + NAA (0.1 mg L-1) was found to give the best results while MS medium supplemented with IBA (2.0 mg L-1) gave best rooting percentage. Besides, auxins and cytokinins, effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on plant regeneration from axillary buds taken from mature female papaya plant was also carried out.
T Ban, H. Kitazawa, S. Matsumoto, N. Kobayashi, K. Tokumasa, M. Kobatake and T Asao

AFaculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 2059 Kamihonjyo, Matsue, Shimane, 690-1102, Japan, BUnited Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tottori University, Koyama-cho Minami Tottori, Tottori, 680

Key words: Clinker ash, cutting, propagation, rabbiteye blueberry, rooting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 54-55.

Abstract: The recommendation for a propagation medium of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) in Japan includes the incorporation of peat moss and Kanumatsuti (a volcanic ash deposit). This experiment compared the use of coal ash (clinker ash) and Kanumatsuti to peat moss as soil conditioner for rooting rabbiteye blueberry cutting. The numbers of cuttings survived and the root dry weight of plants propagated in clinker ash- peat moss mixes were almost the same as cuttings propagated in kanumatsuti- peat moss mix. While the quadratic model between the root dry weight and the clinker ash content in the medium was significant, the maximum root dry weight was estimated to reach about 0.2 g when the proportion of clinker ash in the medium was about 40%. These findings indicate that clinker ash can be used in the propagation medium of rabbiteye blueberry.

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