Mohamed. A. Awad, A. A. Soaud and S. M. ElKonaissi
Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, UAE University, P.O.Box. 17555 Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.Permanent address: Faculty of Agriculture, Pomology Department, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura/Egypt.
Abstract: There is a high demand for date palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture techniques. However, such plantlets require a long acclimatization period extending 12-18 months before transplanting in the open field. The effect of foliar and soil application of anti-stress substances and elemental sulphur, respectively, on growth and survival percentage of tissue culture-derived 'Khalas' date palm plantlets during acclimatization were studied. The results showed that application of salicylic acid, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin), elemental sulphur, plantacur-E (a vitamin E formulation containing 25% ?-tocopherol) at 1%, and oleic acid at 100 ppm, significantly increased plantlet survival percentages compared to the control. In this respect, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 20 mM was the most effective treatment compared to 10 mM and the control. Salicylic acid, aspirin, elemental sulphur and plantacur-E (at 2%) significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in leaflets compared to the control. However, the macro nutrients showed no clear response to the applied treatments. Application of 250 ppm of the ethylene biosynthesis blocker, ABG-3168 (ABG), inhibited the growth of plantlets, and completely suppressed growth at 500 ppm, suggesting the potential role of ethylene biosynthesis in subsequent plantlet development. Irrigation with 10,000 ppm sea water for two months decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage by 2-3 fold compared to the control and the other treatments. GABA at 20 mM significantly increased chlorophyll concentration and decreased electrolyte leakage of leaflets compared to all the saline water treatments. In contrast, ABG at 250 ppm significantly decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage of leaflets by about 3-fold compared to all the saline water treatments. These results show potential role of GABA, salicylic acid, aspirin and oleic acid conducive for improved survival percentage of plantlets and stress tolerance during acclimatization.
Duong Tan Nhut, Nguyen Duy, Nguyen Nhu Ha Vy, Chau Diem Khue, Dinh Van Khiem and Do Nang Vinh
Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Da Lat, Lam Dong, Vietnam; Institute of Agricultural Genetics, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
Abstract: In this study, the most critical step in Anthurium micropropagation was the induction of primary calli from leaf segments. Genotype played an important role during in vitro multiplication of Anthurium. Callus induction from leaf segments was examined in ten Anthurium cultivars: 'Carnaval', 'Neon', 'Choco', 'Sonate', 'Midori', 'Pistache', 'Tropical', 'Safari', 'Arizona' and 'Cancan' on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L1 BA, 0.08 mg L1 2,4-D, 30 g L1 glucose, 8 g L1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. After 100 days, leaf segments of eight genotypes formed calli, among them, cultivar 'Pistache' had the highest callus induction ratio (65.1%) and two genotypes, 'Carnaval' and 'Cancan', showed no response. After multiplication, calli were subcultured on shoot regeneration medium, 1/2 MS with NH4NO3 level adjusted to 0.206 g L-1, added with 20 g L-1 glucose, 1 mg L-1 BA, 8 g L-1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. Shoots were obtained from all cultivars with different potential of shoot regeneration. The average number of shoots per explant in 'Tropical' (10.1) was higher than that of 'Choco' (4.3) and 'Pistache' (3.5), and shoots (at least 10 mm high) were excised and cultured on rooting medium, 30 g L-1 glucose, 8 g L-1 agar and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal added to 1/4 MS medium. All shoots consistently formed roots after 30 days and plantlets developed well after being transferred to the nursery. The propagation process took 10 and a half months to complete.
M.S. Barreto,A. Nookaraju, N.V.M. Harini and D.C.Agrawal
Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.
Abstract: Earlier studies have shown that the degree of success at each stage of micropropagation in grapevine is genotype dependent; hence it becomes imperative to optimize culture conditions for rapid propagation of a variety. Present report describes two approaches of in vitro propagation of a Vitis vinifera cultivar, Red Globe. In one approach, whole plants could be developed from single node segments by bud break and direct rooting in vitro. Eight different basal media tried showed different morphogenetic responses. In second approach, multiple shoots were induced in nodal segments cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with BA (8.88 uM). Also, second crop of shoots could be induced in left over nodal segments devoid of shoots. Rooting of shoots could be induced in vitro, both in semi-solid or liquid media and also ex vitro by pulse treatment of IAA (2.85 uM) + NAA (2.70 uM). Plant establishment in later case was 80%. A simple procedure described here can complement conventional methods, currently being used in propagation of this important grape variety.
Kitti Bodhipadma, Sompoch Noichinda, Sasikan Udomrati, Goravis Nathalang, Boonyuen Kijwijan and David W.M. Leung
Department ofAgro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut S Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok, 10800, Thailand; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bang?kok, 10400, Thailand;
Key words: Red Agati, anthocyanin, Sesbania grandiflora, histology, development
Abstract: Seeds of Red Agati (Sesbania grandiflora), an ornamental leguminous tree, were germinated in vitro under both light and dark conditions for 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The localization of anthocyanin-containing cells and level of total anthocyanin content of hypocotyl from several developmental stages were determined. In the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings, anthocyanin-containing cells were observed in epidermal and sub-epidermal layer and peripheral cortex while none was found in that of dark-grown seedlings. On day 7, the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings had the highest anthocyanin content (290 ug/g FW). Moreover, Red Agati's petal at various developmental stages was also examined for the total anthocyanin content. It was found that the petal of 3 cm length had the highest total anthocyanin level (455 ug/g FW). It is concluded that the hypocotyl of light-grown Red Agati seedlings is an attractive alternative source of anthocyanins to the petal as the seedlings can be raised and be made available throughout the year.
M.A. Meman and K.M. Dabhi
N. M. College of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Navsari, Gujarat Agricultural University.
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different stalk lengths and certain chemical substances on vase life of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii Hook.) Cv. 'Savana Red'. Twenty treatment combinations consisting of four chemicals viz., sucrose 4 %, sucrose 4 % + 8-HQC 250 ppm , sucrose 4 % + aluminum sulphate 100 ppm , sucrose 4 % + citric acid 250 ppm , along with control (distilled water) and four lengths of stalk viz., 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm. The vase solution of sucrose 4% + 8-HQC 250 ppm and stalk length of 60 cm, individually and in combination increased fresh weight of flowers by promoting solution uptake. These treatments are also beneficial for improving the vase life of flowers and useful life of flowers, opening of disc florets, with bright, shining red colour and freshness for a longer duration.
Yun Li, Daling Feng, Zhenyuan Sun and Chen Niu
College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China. 1 Current addres College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, China. 2Research Institute of Forestry,
Abstract: Parthenocissus quinquefolia L. was successfully micropropagated through axillary bud multiplication from seedling explants. Shoot tips were isolated from seedlings and cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 1.33-2.22 uM benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.107 uM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to induce axillary buds. The sprouted axillary buds formed multiple shoots when cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 2.22 uM BA and 0.246-0.49 uM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The elongated shoots rooted in B5 medium containing 0.49 uM IBA and they survived from acclimatizing in soil to grow into healthy plants.
J. OfosuAnim, E.T. Blay, and M.E. Frempong
Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana,
Abstract: The effect of different organic manures (cow dung, poultry manure and compost) on the yield of okra, soil physical and chemical characteristics was investigated at the University of Ghana, Legon. Results obtained revealed that the application of recycled garden solid waste compost, poultry manure and cow dung improved the soil physical condition, particularly, structure and drainage, increased nutrient and organic matter levels and enhanced the yield components of okra plants. Inorganic fertilizer improved only chemical properties, but soil physical properties such as structure was not improved. There were improvements in pod yield, yield components and pod fibre content on all manured plots. The study clearly inidicated the superiority of poultry manure over cow dung and compost as a source of manure for okra production.
T Alimi, O.C. Ajewole, O.O. OlubodeAwosola and E.O. Idowu
Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti
Abstract: The fragility and high susceptibility of the soils in Nigeria to degradation and loss of nutrients make augmentation through the use of fertilizers necessary to obtain reasonable crop yield. The use of market oriented organic fertilizer is being encouraged to improve soil fertility and there is the need to determine the economic rationale of this technology. This study determined the change in net income of users of commercial organic fertilizer (UCOF) relative to non-users of fertilizers (NUF) in vegetable crop production in Osun State of Nigeria to find out if its use should be encouraged based on economic reason only. Nested sampling technique was used in selecting UCOF and NUF respondents. Data on yield, quantities and prices of inputs and output; and reasons for non-use of commercial organic fertilizer were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, partial budgetary technique, sensitivity analysis and importance ranking. Analyses indicated that UCOF applied 610kg ha-1 of commercial organic fertilizer resulting in additional yield (3,375kg ha-1) and rate of returns (401%) over and above the NUF, making the use of organic fertilizer technology economically superior to non-use of fertilizers. Constraints to the use of commercial organic fertilizer are doubtful efficacy, offensive odour, heavy weed infestation, bulkiness and lack of funds in descending order of importance which if eliminated will boost demand for commercial organic fertilizer and improve production of vegetable for consumption.
K.C. Das, P.A. Annis, E. W.Tollner and S. Dudka
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Interior; Depart?ment of Crop and Soil Sciences, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-4435, USA.
Abstract: Composts produced from a mixture of fibrous wool by-products and other components (e.g., wood-shavings, cotton-gin trash, yard waste, biosolids, etc.) have a high concentration of nitrogen and low concentrations of regulated trace elements. Some have low soluble salts content and have slightly acidic to neutral pH. These composts met standards of the US EPA of an exceptional quality product and were successfully used to grow ornamental crops in a greenhouse and to establish turfgrass from seeds. Market research showed that the turfgrass industry and retail garden centers would be the largest and most profitable markets for fibrous wool-based composts and potting mixes. Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP) indicated that production and sale of about 17,200 tonnes per year of the compost product would be a break-even point in units for a hypothetical compost production and marketing business. Since composting is also a waste management operation, revenues from accepting waste (tipping fees) does improve business profitability.
J Muhtaseb and H Ghnaim
Irrigated Research Program, National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), P.O. Box: 639, Baqa'a, Jordan.
Key words: Male, pollen, Hayyani, pollination, maturity, fruit quality, date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L.
Abstract: To study the effect of pollen source on the productivity, maturity and fruit quality of 'Hayyani' date palm, one local and three commercial male varieties were used during 2002. Effect of pollen source on 'Hayyani' fruit-set and yield was statistically not significant, however, trees pollinated with 'Mejhool' pollen recorded the highest fruit-set and yield. The largest fruit weight, length and diameter were obtained when trees pollinated with 'Barakah' male. In addition, pollen source had no or little effects on 'Hayyani' fruit maturity, however, fruits of trees pollinated with 'Jarvis' male matured earlier while in trees pollinated with 'Barakah' showed delayed maturity. Moreover, 'Hayyani' trees pollinated with 'Barakah' pollen gave the highest fruit flesh %.
Yueju Wang, Michael Wisniewski, Richard Meilan, Minggang Cui and Leslie Fuchigami
Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331-7304, USA, BUSDA-ARS, 45 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV, 25430-9606, USA, CForestry & Natural Resource Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2072, U
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, are by-products of biological redox reactions. ROS can denature enzymes and damage important cellular components. Plants develop antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to scavenge ROS and detoxify them. The effect of increased cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) on heat and UV-B stress tolerance was studied using transformed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Zhongshu No. 5) plants. This research demonstrates, in either laboratory or field tests, the potential to enhance tolerance to heat, UV-B, and sunscald stress by gene transfer. Overexpression of cAPX in transgenic tomato enhanced resistance to heat (40 ?C) and UV-B stress compared to wild-type plants. When leaf disks were placed at 40 ?C for 13 hours, the electrolyte leakage of disks from wild-type were 93%, whereas two tested transgenic lines (A9, A16) exhibited 24% and 52% leakage respectively. When fruits of wild-type and transgenic plants were exposed to UV-B (2.5mW cm-2) for five days, the extent of browning was 95%, and 33%, and 37%, respectively. In field tests, the detached fruits from field-grown transgenic plants showed more resistance to exposure to direct sunlight than fruits from wild-type plants. APX activity in leaves of cAPX transgenic plants was several folds higher than in leaves of wild-type plants when exposed to heat, UV-B, and drought stresses.
Ignasi Iglesias and SimA Alegre
Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentdries (IRTA) - Estacio Experimental de Lleida, Avda. Rovira Roure, 191. 25198-Lleida, Spain.
Abstract: The effects of crystal (transparent) and black nets on the protection of fruits from hail, the interception of light, temperature, humidity and fruit quality were evaluated over four seasons (from 2000 to 2003) at the IRTA-Experimental Station, Lleida (NE-Spain) on 'Mondial Gala' apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Nets demonstrated their efficiency for fruit protection against hail; decreased maximum orchard temperatures and increased minimum temperatures and relative humidity. Based on PAR values, on sunny days, the black net intercepted 25% more incident radiation than the control and the crystal net intercepted 12% more. The use of black net resulted in a significant reduction of colour intensity and days taken for maturity, and provided lower average yields for fruit harvested at the first picking. The crystal net was associated with intermediate values between black net and control, or similar values to those of the control. Both nets reduced fruit temperature and the incidence of sunburn improving global skin quality. The black net increased the vigour of the trees. Fruit firmness was not affected by the use of nets. Soluble solid content decreased when black net was used, while maturity was delayed in some seasons. There were no consistent effect with respect to titratable acidity and fruit cracking. The annual cost of the anti-hail nets was 1874 to 1612 ? ha1, respectively, for crystal and black nets, depending mainly on the durability of the net. The annual cost of insurance was 760 ? ha1 and was determinated by site, cultivar, yield and price insured, and was lower than that of covering by nets. The gross profit corresponding to the crystal net (8896 ? ha1) was lower to the control/insurance (9223 ? ha1) and greater to the black net (7842 ? ha1) because of the reduction in fruit colour. With 'Mondial Gala' apples, the use of both colour nets was not economically beneficial compared to the control.
Randal. L. Shogren and Monica David
Plant Polymer Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA/ARS, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, University of Illinois Extension, 1201 South Dorner Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, Corresponding author.
Key words: Degradable mulch, soybean oil, sustainable agriculture, vegetable production
Abstract: This project was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a biodegradable paper/cured vegetable oil mulch with newspaper/straw and bare soil for reducing weed growth and promoting vegetable yields. There were no significant differences in total tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)or pepper (Capsicum annum)yields between the different mulch types. The coated paper and newspaper/straw mulches were effective in preventing weed growth around the plants while hand weeding was required for the bare soil plots. After 3 months, there was slight degradation (a few cracks, names are necessary to report factually on available data; however the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name. USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. holes) of the coated paper mulches but not enough to allow noticeable weed penetration or detachment of the buried edge. Paper/cured oil mulch rolls appear to be a convenient and effective alternative to laborious hand weeding or spreading of newspaper and straw for vegetable gardening.
D.T. Nhut, M.T. Ngoc Huong, D.V. Khiem and J.A. Teixeira da Silva
Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.
Abstract: A novel lighting system (Compact 3U) was successfully applied to the micropropagation of some horticultural plants. Cymbidium 'Tim Hot', Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were used for this study. To compare in vitro growth of plantlets placed under Neon and Compact 3U lighting systems, Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on !/2 MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar under two lighting sources at 45 |amolm-2s-1. After three weeks of culture, the shoot and root length, leaf area and fresh weight of strawberry plantlets under Compact 3U system were significantly higher than those grown under Neon system. To clarify the effect of irradiance of Compact 3U system on the development of plantlets, Cymbidium 'Tim Hot' shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA, 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 100% coconut water, 25 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar, Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on V MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar at different irradiances: (1) Neon at 45 |amolm-2s-1 (control), and Compact 3U at: (2) 45 ^molm-2s-1, (3) 60 |amolm-2s-1, and (4) 75 ^molm-2s-1. The results showed that plantlets of the three genera adapted differently to irradiances and lighting sources, but in all, the growth of plantlets were better under the Compact 3U system. Futhermore, ex vitro plantlets derived from Compact 3U system also developed better than those from Neon system.
Lotte von Richter and CatherineA. Offord
Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Mount Annan Botanic Garden, Mount Annan Drive, Mount Annan, NSW2567, Australia.
Abstract: Two controlled-release fertiliser (CRF) formulations, Nutricote Total ? 13N : 5.7P : 10.8K (N13) and Nutricote Total ? 18N : 2.6P : 6.6K (N18), were applied at 0, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 5 and 10 kg m-3, to flannel flower (Actinotus helianthi Labill.) seedlings grown in soil-less potting mix in containers. After five months, during peak spring flowering, a number of characters relating to the quality of the cut flower product of this species were assessed. As the rate of fertiliser application increased, the plant height, total number of stems, number of flowering stems and number of flowers and buds increased. There were significantly more stems and flowers overall, and more flowering (saleable) stems, in the N18 treatments at all application rates. Plant height was not affected by fertiliser formulation. Basal foliar necrosis, which scored highly in the control treatment (0 fertiliser), was reduced by fertiliser application.