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Axelle Schauwers,Ada M.C.N. Rocha and Alcina M.M.B. Morais

KaHo Sint-Lieven Campus Rabot, Departement Industrieel Ingenieur, Gebr. Desmetraat 1, 9000 Gent Belgium; Faculdade de Ciencias da Nutrigao e Alimentagao, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200 - 465 Porto, Portugal; Corresponding author: Escol

Key words: Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., lycopene, colour, ripening, storage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 105-108.

Abstract: The ripening of tomato fruit is a highly regulated process during which colour, flavour, aroma and texture change in a coordinated manner. This research work aims to correlate the colour changes measured objectively with the lycopene concentration in tomatoes during ripening at room temperature (21 and 26?C). These results were compared with colour and lycopene content of pink and light red tomatoes stored at 14?C, temperature used to prevent ripening and therefore extend the shelf life of the fruits. The duration of heat treatment at 100?C was previously optimized in order to release the maximum lycopene from chromoplasts during extraction. An a* value of 20 for the peel corresponds to an increase of lycopene content of Caruso tomato from 9 to 43 mg/100 g TSS, at room temperature. The shelf life of pink and light red tomatoes can be extended to two weeks at 14?C without loss of lycopene content, presenting the same content as green tomatoes ripened at room temperature for one week.
Maria del R. Moreira, Alejandra G. Ponce, Carlos E. del Valle, R. Ansorena and S.I. Roura

UniversidadNacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONI-CET), Argentina. .Corresponding author: Moreira Maria del Rosario, Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria en Alimentos, Facultad de Ingenieria,

Key words: Abusive temperature storage, nutritional quality, microbiological quality, shelf life, growth models, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, ascorbic acid retention

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 109-113.

Abstract: Changes in lettuce leaf quality (ascorbic acid contents and microbial populations) at two abusive temperatures (8 and 15?C), simulating the commercial storage conditions for fresh vegetables were analyzed. A storage temperature of 8?C was chosen to simulate abusive refrigerated storage and a storage temperature of 15?C was chosen to simulate room temperature. Quality indicators evaluation in samples, stored at abusive temperatures were compared with sample from optimal storage temperature (0?C). First order kinetics is assumed for ascorbic acid degradation. Ascorbic acid degradation rate in lettuce leaves stored at abusive temperatures was from 2.7 to 2.9 times faster than at 0?C. The growth curve of total microbial counts was fitted with the Gompertz and Logistic models. These models allowed us to predict the vegetable microbiological shelf life. Temperature is the controlling factor for lettuce shelf life and quality; microbial quality was retained 1.6 and 4 times longer at 0?C with respect to 8 and 15?C, respectively.
Syavash Hemmaty, Noorollah Moallemi and Lotfali Naseri

Jahad-e-Daneshgahi, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran; Department of Horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran; Department of Horticulture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Key words: UV-C irradiation, apple, 'Golden Delicious', 'Red Delicious', fruit quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 114-116.

Abstract: In this study, UV-C irradiation (1.435><10-4 w cm-2) was used to maintain fruit quality of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apple cultivars during storage. Apple fruits were irradiated in three different treatments (0, 5 and 15 min), and were stored in a cold storage at 1?1?C with 85-95% RH for 6 months. At the end of storage, irradiated fruits for 15 min had lower pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and higher titratable acids and firmness than irradiated fruits for 5 min and control fruits. A significant difference was observed among total soluble solids of irradiated 'Red Delicious' fruits for 15 min, irradiated fruits for 5 min and control fruits at the end of storage. 'Red Delicious' apples had lower total soluble solids and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and higher firmness than 'Golden Delicious' apples after 6 months. Our results showed that UV-C irradiation can be used to reduce loss of fruit quality during long period storage of apples.
S. Chandran, C.L. Toh, R. Zuliana, Y.K. Yip, H. Nair and A.N. Boyce

Institute of Biological Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur; Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology, 2 Persiaran Cempaka, Amanjaya, 0800 Sungai Petani, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

Key words: Dendrobium, pollination, ethylene, AOA, flowers, discoloration, sucrose, glucose

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 117-120.

Abstract: The vase life of detached pollinated Dendrobium (Heang Beauty) orchids are affected by loss of energy source and the production of pollination-induced ethylene. The physiological changes that follow these two events are discoloration, thinning of petals and hyponasty. In order to circumvent this problem, individual detached pollinated Dendrobium (Heang Beauty) flowers were treated with solutions containing different concentrations of sucrose or glucose, Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and a combination of sugars and AOA. Discolouration, petal thickness and hyponasty were observed and data was recorded daily. Weight loss of flowers and pH of all solutions were also measured daily. Results showed that the best treatment solution in extending the longevity of the flowers were solutions containing 4% sucrose + 0.5mM AOA. Flowers held in this treatment also showed a delay in discoloration, thinning of petals and hyponasty. The inclusion of AOA into solutions resulted in low pH and contributes to better water uptake and delayed turgor loss in flowers.
A. Koocheki, M.A. Behdani and M. Nassiri

Center of Excellence for Special Crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand, P.O.Box. 97175/331, Birjand, Iran

Key words: Saffron, irrigation interval, summer irrigation, corm size

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 121-124.

Abstract: In order to study effective factors in production of saffron, a series of studies was carried out during 2001 and 2002. In these studies, four selected location, Birjand, Qaen, Gonabad and Torbat-Haydarieh were spotted as the main saffron producing areas in Iran. Data was collected from 160 saffron farms, aged between 1 and 5 years. Results indicated that age of saffron farms, corm size, irrigation interval, and summer irrigation had positive linear relationship with yield. Age of saffron farms had the most pronounced effects on yield and was the most important component in all linear equations. Age of farms, irrigation intervals and corm size were major factors contributing to yield. The longest irrigation interval was observed for Gonabad (24 days) and the shortest was for Torbat-Haydarieh (12 days). Highest actual yield was for Torbat-Haydarieh which is an indication of better farm management in comparison with other areas. Maximum yield of 4 kg ha-1 was frequent but many farms produced over 7 kg ha-1 yield.
Ali R. ElShereif, Fusao Mizutani, Justus M. Onguso andA.B.M. Sharif Hossain

Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Hattanji 498, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799-2424, Japan; Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Aminooxy acetic acid, AOA, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, bud break, bud scale removal, dormancy, ethylene biosynthesis, grape.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 125-128.

Abstract: A study was carried out to examine the effect of bud scale removal (BSR) and aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) on bud break and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content of 'Muscat Bailey A' grapevines using single-eye cuttings. Samples were collected monthly from October to February. Single-eye cuttings were subjected to these treatments; BSR, BSR + AOA, control and AOA. The results show that in October and November, BSR and BSR+AOA were more effective on bud break without big difference between the two treatments. Whereas, control and AOA were found to be more effective from December up to February. In October, ACC content recorded a marked increase after one week and decreased afterwards under BSR and BSR + AOA. However, it showed a continuous increase under control and a reverse trend under AOA. In November, it increased after one week and decreased in the fourth week under all treatments. A continuous increase was recorded in December under all treatments. In January, there was no significant change under control with time and AOA treatment exhibited decline with time, while BSR and BSR + AOA treatments recorded small increment and then decreased. In February, it decreased under all treatments with time. The results indicate that bud break of grapevine seems to be associated with the promotion of ethylene biosynthesis caused by wounding stress.
Mohamed. A. Awad, A. A. Soaud and S. M. ElKonaissi

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, UAE University, P.O.Box. 17555 Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Permanent address: Faculty of Agriculture, Pomology Department, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura/Egypt.

Key words: Tissue culture, acclimatization, elemental sulphur, gamma aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, aspirin, vitamin E, oleic acid, ABG-3168, Phoenix dactylifera L.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 129-134.

Abstract: There is a high demand for date palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture techniques. However, such plantlets require a long acclimatization period extending 12-18 months before transplanting in the open field. The effect of foliar and soil application of anti-stress substances and elemental sulphur, respectively, on growth and survival percentage of tissue culture-derived 'Khalas' date palm plantlets during acclimatization were studied. The results showed that application of salicylic acid, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin), elemental sulphur, plantacur-E (a vitamin E formulation containing 25% ?-tocopherol) at 1%, and oleic acid at 100 ppm, significantly increased plantlet survival percentages compared to the control. In this respect, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 20 mM was the most effective treatment compared to 10 mM and the control. Salicylic acid, aspirin, elemental sulphur and plantacur-E (at 2%) significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in leaflets compared to the control. However, the macro nutrients showed no clear response to the applied treatments. Application of 250 ppm of the ethylene biosynthesis blocker, ABG-3168 (ABG), inhibited the growth of plantlets, and completely suppressed growth at 500 ppm, suggesting the potential role of ethylene biosynthesis in subsequent plantlet development. Irrigation with 10,000 ppm sea water for two months decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage by 2-3 fold compared to the control and the other treatments. GABA at 20 mM significantly increased chlorophyll concentration and decreased electrolyte leakage of leaflets compared to all the saline water treatments. In contrast, ABG at 250 ppm significantly decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage of leaflets by about 3-fold compared to all the saline water treatments. These results show potential role of GABA, salicylic acid, aspirin and oleic acid conducive for improved survival percentage of plantlets and stress tolerance during acclimatization.
Duong Tan Nhut, Nguyen Duy, Nguyen Nhu Ha Vy, Chau Diem Khue, Dinh Van Khiem and Do Nang Vinh

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Da Lat, Lam Dong, Vietnam; Institute of Agricultural Genetics, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Key words: Anthurium andraeanum, genotypes, leaf explants, callus induction, shoot regeneration, root regeneration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 135-137.

Abstract: In this study, the most critical step in Anthurium micropropagation was the induction of primary calli from leaf segments. Genotype played an important role during in vitro multiplication of Anthurium. Callus induction from leaf segments was examined in ten Anthurium cultivars: 'Carnaval', 'Neon', 'Choco', 'Sonate', 'Midori', 'Pistache', 'Tropical', 'Safari', 'Arizona' and 'Cancan' on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L1 BA, 0.08 mg L1 2,4-D, 30 g L1 glucose, 8 g L1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. After 100 days, leaf segments of eight genotypes formed calli, among them, cultivar 'Pistache' had the highest callus induction ratio (65.1%) and two genotypes, 'Carnaval' and 'Cancan', showed no response. After multiplication, calli were subcultured on shoot regeneration medium, 1/2 MS with NH4NO3 level adjusted to 0.206 g L-1, added with 20 g L-1 glucose, 1 mg L-1 BA, 8 g L-1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. Shoots were obtained from all cultivars with different potential of shoot regeneration. The average number of shoots per explant in 'Tropical' (10.1) was higher than that of 'Choco' (4.3) and 'Pistache' (3.5), and shoots (at least 10 mm high) were excised and cultured on rooting medium, 30 g L-1 glucose, 8 g L-1 agar and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal added to 1/4 MS medium. All shoots consistently formed roots after 30 days and plantlets developed well after being transferred to the nursery. The propagation process took 10 and a half months to complete.
M.S. Barreto,A. Nookaraju, N.V.M. Harini and D.C.Agrawal

Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.

Key words: Auxin pulse, benzyladenine, grape, micropropagation, Red Globe, Vitis vinifera

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 138-142.

Abstract: Earlier studies have shown that the degree of success at each stage of micropropagation in grapevine is genotype dependent; hence it becomes imperative to optimize culture conditions for rapid propagation of a variety. Present report describes two approaches of in vitro propagation of a Vitis vinifera cultivar, Red Globe. In one approach, whole plants could be developed from single node segments by bud break and direct rooting in vitro. Eight different basal media tried showed different morphogenetic responses. In second approach, multiple shoots were induced in nodal segments cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with BA (8.88 uM). Also, second crop of shoots could be induced in left over nodal segments devoid of shoots. Rooting of shoots could be induced in vitro, both in semi-solid or liquid media and also ex vitro by pulse treatment of IAA (2.85 uM) + NAA (2.70 uM). Plant establishment in later case was 80%. A simple procedure described here can complement conventional methods, currently being used in propagation of this important grape variety.
Kitti Bodhipadma, Sompoch Noichinda, Sasikan Udomrati, Goravis Nathalang, Boonyuen Kijwijan and David W.M. Leung

Department ofAgro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut S Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok, 10800, Thailand; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bang?kok, 10400, Thailand;

Key words: Red Agati, anthocyanin, Sesbania grandiflora, histology, development

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 143-146.

Abstract: Seeds of Red Agati (Sesbania grandiflora), an ornamental leguminous tree, were germinated in vitro under both light and dark conditions for 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The localization of anthocyanin-containing cells and level of total anthocyanin content of hypocotyl from several developmental stages were determined. In the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings, anthocyanin-containing cells were observed in epidermal and sub-epidermal layer and peripheral cortex while none was found in that of dark-grown seedlings. On day 7, the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings had the highest anthocyanin content (290 ug/g FW). Moreover, Red Agati's petal at various developmental stages was also examined for the total anthocyanin content. It was found that the petal of 3 cm length had the highest total anthocyanin level (455 ug/g FW). It is concluded that the hypocotyl of light-grown Red Agati seedlings is an attractive alternative source of anthocyanins to the petal as the seedlings can be raised and be made available throughout the year.
M.A. Meman and K.M. Dabhi

N. M. College of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Navsari, Gujarat Agricultural University.

Key words: Gerbera, Gerbera jamesonii Hook., stalk length, chemicals, vase life, sucrose, citric acid, HQC

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 147-150.

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different stalk lengths and certain chemical substances on vase life of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii Hook.) Cv. 'Savana Red'. Twenty treatment combinations consisting of four chemicals viz., sucrose 4 %, sucrose 4 % + 8-HQC 250 ppm , sucrose 4 % + aluminum sulphate 100 ppm , sucrose 4 % + citric acid 250 ppm , along with control (distilled water) and four lengths of stalk viz., 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm. The vase solution of sucrose 4% + 8-HQC 250 ppm and stalk length of 60 cm, individually and in combination increased fresh weight of flowers by promoting solution uptake. These treatments are also beneficial for improving the vase life of flowers and useful life of flowers, opening of disc florets, with bright, shining red colour and freshness for a longer duration.
Yun Li, Daling Feng, Zhenyuan Sun and Chen Niu

College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China. 1 Current addres College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, China. 2Research Institute of Forestry,

Key words: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, axillary buds, micropropagation, B5 medium, benzylaminopurine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: Parthenocissus quinquefolia L. was successfully micropropagated through axillary bud multiplication from seedling explants. Shoot tips were isolated from seedlings and cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 1.33-2.22 uM benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.107 uM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to induce axillary buds. The sprouted axillary buds formed multiple shoots when cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 2.22 uM BA and 0.246-0.49 uM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The elongated shoots rooted in B5 medium containing 0.49 uM IBA and they survived from acclimatizing in soil to grow into healthy plants.
J. OfosuAnim, E.T. Blay, and M.E. Frempong

Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana,

Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, okra, organic manure, soil characteristics, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 155-158.

Abstract: The effect of different organic manures (cow dung, poultry manure and compost) on the yield of okra, soil physical and chemical characteristics was investigated at the University of Ghana, Legon. Results obtained revealed that the application of recycled garden solid waste compost, poultry manure and cow dung improved the soil physical condition, particularly, structure and drainage, increased nutrient and organic matter levels and enhanced the yield components of okra plants. Inorganic fertilizer improved only chemical properties, but soil physical properties such as structure was not improved. There were improvements in pod yield, yield components and pod fibre content on all manured plots. The study clearly inidicated the superiority of poultry manure over cow dung and compost as a source of manure for okra production.
T Alimi, O.C. Ajewole, O.O. OlubodeAwosola and E.O. Idowu

Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti

Key words: Vegetable, commercial organic fertilizer, marginal rate of return, constraints, Osun State, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 159-164.

Abstract: The fragility and high susceptibility of the soils in Nigeria to degradation and loss of nutrients make augmentation through the use of fertilizers necessary to obtain reasonable crop yield. The use of market oriented organic fertilizer is being encouraged to improve soil fertility and there is the need to determine the economic rationale of this technology. This study determined the change in net income of users of commercial organic fertilizer (UCOF) relative to non-users of fertilizers (NUF) in vegetable crop production in Osun State of Nigeria to find out if its use should be encouraged based on economic reason only. Nested sampling technique was used in selecting UCOF and NUF respondents. Data on yield, quantities and prices of inputs and output; and reasons for non-use of commercial organic fertilizer were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, partial budgetary technique, sensitivity analysis and importance ranking. Analyses indicated that UCOF applied 610kg ha-1 of commercial organic fertilizer resulting in additional yield (3,375kg ha-1) and rate of returns (401%) over and above the NUF, making the use of organic fertilizer technology economically superior to non-use of fertilizers. Constraints to the use of commercial organic fertilizer are doubtful efficacy, offensive odour, heavy weed infestation, bulkiness and lack of funds in descending order of importance which if eliminated will boost demand for commercial organic fertilizer and improve production of vegetable for consumption.
K.C. Das, P.A. Annis, E. W.Tollner and S. Dudka

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Interior; Depart?ment of Crop and Soil Sciences, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-4435, USA.

Key words: Bioconversion, wool, composting, wood wastes, economic analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 165-169.

Abstract: Composts produced from a mixture of fibrous wool by-products and other components (e.g., wood-shavings, cotton-gin trash, yard waste, biosolids, etc.) have a high concentration of nitrogen and low concentrations of regulated trace elements. Some have low soluble salts content and have slightly acidic to neutral pH. These composts met standards of the US EPA of an exceptional quality product and were successfully used to grow ornamental crops in a greenhouse and to establish turfgrass from seeds. Market research showed that the turfgrass industry and retail garden centers would be the largest and most profitable markets for fibrous wool-based composts and potting mixes. Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP) indicated that production and sale of about 17,200 tonnes per year of the compost product would be a break-even point in units for a hypothetical compost production and marketing business. Since composting is also a waste management operation, revenues from accepting waste (tipping fees) does improve business profitability.

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