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Babak Dehghan, Kourosh Vahdati, Darab Hassani and Reza Rezaee

Department of Horticulture, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, West Azerbaijan, Uromia, Iran, Department of Horticulture, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran.

Key words: Callus formation, grafting techniques, graft survival, greenhouse, sawdust, walnut cultivars.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 56-58.

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effects of different grafting methods and scion cultivars on walnut grafting under controlled conditions in March 2006. Four walnut cultivars ('Z53', 'Hartley', 'Pedro' and 'Serr') were grafted using three bench grafting methods (side stub, omega and whip tongue) onto dormant two years old Persian walnut seedlings as rootstock. The plants after grafting were covered with moist sawdust with relative humidity of 85- 90% and stored in a humid room at 26-28 ?C for 21 days. Based on the results, the highest grafting success was observed with omega (84.33%) followed by side stub (41.89%) and whip tongue (24.31%) grafting, respectively. Significant variations were also observed in graft take and scion growth. The differences among walnut cultivars (scion) on grafting take and scion growth were not significant. However, the scions x grafting methods interaction was significant and 'Hartley' variety grafted by omega method showed the highest graft take (88.44%) among all combinations. A significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.84) was observed between the callus quality and graft takes in all grafting methods.
Zhiwen Li, Baoli Zhou, Yuwen Ding and Xiang Liu

College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China; College of Agriculture and Bioengineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Key words: Eggplant, a-solanine, HPLC, extraction, ultrasonic wave

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 59-63.

Abstract: A simple and effective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determination of a-solanine in eggplant fruits is described in our study. A new extraction method is established for extracting a-solanine in eggplant fruits. Single and orthogonal tests were designed to analyze the effect of different extraction methods and ultrasonic wave extraction condition on extraction of a-solanine in eggplant fruits. HPLC separation was achieved on a Waters Nova-pak C18 column with the mobile phase acetonitrile-0.05N potassium dihydrogen phosphate (55:45, V/V). The flow rate was 0.7mL min-1 and the UV absorbance was monitored at 202 nm. The optimal extraction method was ultrasonic wave extraction in 70% methanol for 60 minutes at 50oC, and with material to liquid ratio of 1:10. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the average content of a-solanine in skins and flesh of dried eggplant fruits was 0.107?0.006 and 0.626?0.004mg g-1, respectively. The average recovery efficiency was 97.97%.
M. Altaf Wani, G.R. Lawania, R.A. Bhat, Iffiat Fayaz, A. Nanda and Gazenfar Gani

Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, SK University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, India.Division of Floricult

Key words: Hypericum perforatum, hypercin, pseudohypercin, hyperforin, HPLC, saline stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 64-67.

Abstract: Three different strains of Hypericum perforatum viz. HP-1, HP-2, and HP-3 were subjected to different levels of saline stress (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% with NaCl) and high pH regime (8.5, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0 with NaOH). Gradual loss in callus growth was observed in all the three strains in response to both kinds of stress. However, high pH showed more drastic effect than saline stress. All the three strains showed higher content of pseudohypercin than hypercin. Change in hypercin production was negligible, however remarkable change was observed in pseudohypercin production in response to both kinds of stress. HP-2 strain produced higher content of hypercin than HP-1 and HP-3 strains under normal as well as under stressfull regime. Proteins were affected qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Maximum numbers of proteins were isolated from control cultures at the retention time of five minutes. Among the three strains maximum numbers of proteins were isolated from HP-3 strain. High pH reduced number of proteins to 12 and 3 while salinity increased number of proteins to 42 and 52 in HP-1 and HP-2, respectively due to accumulation of low molecular weight proteins in response to saline stress.
Carlos R. Bezic, Armando A. Dall Armellina, Omar A. Gajardo, Lucrecia M. Avil?s and Silvia L. Ca??n

Weed Ecology and Control Research Group, CURZA-University of Comahue (8500) Viedma, Rio Negro province, Argentina.

Key words: Acroptilon repens, Allium cepa, plant competition, partial additive experiment, plant invasion, irrigated agriculture.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 68-72.

Abstract: Russian knapweed is an invasive creeping perennial herb which affects crops by competition and allelopathy. Herbicides available for use in onion are not able to control Russian knapweed in a crop context. Conversely, recommended products for Russian knapweed are not selective for the crop. The aims of this work were to study Russian knapweed biomass production and propagation for a range of increasing densities in an experimental onion culture and to characterize the productive response of onion plants under these conditions. A partial additive experiment was carried out to study Russian knapweed interference (variable density, 0-64 ramet m-2) on onion transplants (constant density, 40 pl m-2) under greenhouse conditions in Viedma, Argentina (40? 03' S; 62? 48' O). Although no differences among treatments were found for weed final aboveground biomass, low density treatments (0, 2 ramet m-2) were lower than 64 ramet m-2 for belowground biomass. Final weed density was proportional to initial conditions. For onion, total (-54%) and commercial bulb yield (- 56 %) were reduced by weed competition with > 32 ramet m-2. While size 3 bulbs (50-70 mm eq. diam.) were less represented at weed densities higher than 16 ramets m-2, size 4 ones (70-90 mm eq. diam.) were not present in this condition. For A. repens, traits such as the rate of vegetative propagation, high competitive ability, mainly belowground, and high propagule pressure support its high invasive potential.
M. Sciortino and G. Iapichino

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Fanin 44, 40127, Bologna, Italy. Dipartimento di Agronomia Ambientale e Territoriale, Sezione di Orticoltura e Floricoltura, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Via

Key words: Brassica olearacea L. var. botrytis L., planting density, cultivars, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 73-77.

Abstract: New cultivars (F1 hybrids) of cauliflower (Brassica olearacea L. var. botrytis L.) were evaluated at four crop densities (1.3, 1.7, 2.2 or 3.3 plants m-2) for spring harvest crop in a Southern Mediterranean area (western coast of Sicily). The F1 hybrids ('White-Flash', 'Milky-Way' and 'White Excel') having white head, usually cultivated in Northern Italy and Europe in the autumn, were used. The aim was the introduction of new varieties which can fill the gap from mid May to mid July, now existing in the Sicilian cauliflower production, which is based on autochthonous ecotypes of green head varieties, e.g. 'Cavolfiore Verde di Palermo'. Crop density significantly influenced the growth and the phenology of the new hybrids. It was positively correlated to earliness, total marketable yield and inversely to unmarketable product percentage and head size. The best crop density was found to be 2.2 plants m-2. Among the cultivar tested 'White Flash' and 'Milky Way' appeared particularly suited for a spring harvest in the experimental environment. They gave high yields with a minimum discard and uniform heads of approximately 1 kg of weight each.
Funda Eryilmaz Acikgoz

Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris sbsp. pekinensis), sowing times, development, efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 78-80.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different sowing times on development and efficiency of some Chinese cabbage varieties (Brassica campestris sbsp. pekinensis) under Corlu conditions. The study was conducted in Corlu County which has a tougher climate than its Province Tekirdag where a similar research had been done before. The research was conducted in 2000 and three different sowing times (15 August, 15 September and 15 October) and four domestic varieties (Tokat-2, Tokat-5, Tokat-29 and Tokat-89) were used. The variety, Tokat-89 and the sowing time of 15 September were found to be the most suitable variety and sowing time, respectively, The variety and time of sowing recorded superiority for head weight, level of hardness and head quality.
Dulal Chandra, Toshiyuki Matsui, Haruo Suzuki, Yusuke Kosugi and Koichi Fujimura

Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, 2393 Ikenobe, Miki-Cho, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan, Kagawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Busshouzan, Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-8078, Japan. Kagawa University, 239

Key words: Ammonia, amination, asparagine synthetase, crispness, deamination, glutamine synthetase, Lactuca sativa, sugar.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 101-107.

Abstract: As a cool weather crop, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is very sensitive to the changes in temperature during growth. This study investigated the textural, compositional and some biochemical changes in the outer and inner leaf tissues of two crisphead lettuce cultivars ('Bittsu' and 'Cisco') harvested in different seasons. The result demonstrated that in colder months, the crispiness of lettuce leaves reduced significantly and higher amount of sugars, organic acids and ammonia were accumulated. In general, between the two cultivars, 'Bittsu' contained higher amount of sugars and organic acids, while 'Cisco' contained higher amount of ammonia. However, inner leaf tissues contained higher amount of ammonia than outer leaf tissues in both cultivars. The level of fructose was found to be higher than glucose and sucrose in all cases while malic acid was the main component in organic acid fraction. The activities of ammonia-assimilating enzymes such as glutamine synthetase (GS; EC and asparagine synthetase (AS; EC either decreased or nearly remain constant depending on the tissue types during the colder months. Outer leaf portion showed higher GS activity than inner leaf tissues. However, both of aminating and deaminating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC decreased in the outer leaves whereas deamination activity slightly increased in the inner leaf tissues during warmer harvest months.
Alaa Eldin Khalil Omar

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt

Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, grape, irrigation, nurslings

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 108-111.

Abstract: This study was conducted during two successive seasons (2005 and 2006); in the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El Sheikh University; with the aim to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation and irrigation intervals on growth of grapevine nurslings cv. Ruby King. Two mix mycorrhizal fungi including Glomus fasiculatum and Glomus mosseae were used for inoculation. The AMF inoculated and non-AMF nurslings were irrigated at 3, 6 and 9 days interval. The results showed that a combined treatment of AMF inoculation and irrigation at 3 days intervals recorded the highest values in terms of length of main root, total root length, root volume, root dry weight (%), top/root ratio, number of fine roots (< 2 mm), number of small roots (2-5 mm), number of leaves and leaf area per nursling. These results are of practical importance, as they highlight the potential of using mycorrhizal fungi inoculation for root development and growth improvement in grapevine nurslings and hence increases its adaptability upon transfer from the nursery to the open field.
Ji Heun Hong, Sung Kee Hwang, Guk Hoon Chung, and A. Keith Cowan

Biotech Institute, GlonetBU, Doosan Corporation, Yongin 449-795, Korea; AKConsulting, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa.

Key words: Firmness, plant growth regulators, size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 112-114.

Abstract: The effect of foliar applications of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) on 'Thompson Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) was evaluated to determine the suitability of this plant amendment aid as a management tool in table grape production. LPE at 10 mg L-1 was sprayed on vines at two different stages of berry growth and development. Treatments were: 1) 4 weeks after fruit set; 2) 6 weeks after fruit set; and 3) 4 and 6 weeks after fruit set. Soluble solids content (SSC) of berries at all harvest dates was significantly higher for vines treated with LPE compared to the control. Titratable acidity (TA) gradually decreased during ripening, and by the third harvest, TA of berries from vines treated with LPE was lower than that of control. All the treatments resulted in higher fruit firmness when compared to control. However, there were no significant differences in firmness of berries from vines given LPE treatment at different stages of growth. LPE treatment increased berry size, although no significant difference in size between single and sequential applications of LPE was observed. These results indicate that LPE may play a role in plant hormone-associated regulation of berry growth and development.
Esmaeil Chamani, Daryl C. Joyce, Behroz Esmaeilpour

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Key words: Dianthus caryophyllus 'Lunetta', preharvest, postharvest, Thidiazuron, vase life.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 115-117.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Thidiazuron (TDZ) applied at preharvest stage under glasshouse conditions on Dianthus caryophyllus 'Lunetta'. Thidiazuron at 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 uM was applied as a foliar spray arranged in completely randomized design. Time to flowering was recorded, and relative stem length, total nitrogen and tissue water content were measured at harvest. Postharvest vase life, relative fresh weight changes, and solution uptake were also measured. TDZ treatments decreased relative stem length compared to the control (0 uM). TDZ treatment tended to decrease total nitrogen and water content of tissues slightly, but not significantly (P > 0.05). TDZ at 100 uM significantly increased the vase life of cut carnation flowers compared to the control. TDZ treated flowers tended to maintain higher relative fresh weight, with positive differences for the 100 uM TDZ treatment being apparent at day 5, 7 and 9 of vase life. Solution uptake was higher in TDZ treated flowers.
NasserAlKhalifah, E.Askari, andA.E. Shanavaskhan,

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Post Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: Miyako, Nagissa, Tifgreen, Tifway, Zoysiagrass, Bermudagrass, RAPD, morphology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 118-122.

Abstract: With the increasing number of turfgrass cultivars, development and use of reliable identification methods is becoming important. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers along with morphological markers proved useful for cultivar identification. Seven turfgrass cultivars encompassing four bermudagrass and three zoysiagrasses were grown under uniform greenhouse conditions and their key diagnostic features were described. Bulk samples of leaves were collected from each cultivar and subjected to RAPD analysis using standard protocols. Out of the 35 Operon primers used, 20 detected polymorphism among the cultivars. 'Nagissa' and 'Miyako' zoysiagrasses showed close genetic relationship as compared to the rest of the cultivars. They had the highest value in the similarity matrix for Nei and Li's coefficient (0.802) while one variant of Miyako clustered with Bermuda-1. Tifgreen Bermuda and Bermuda-2 also clustered together while 'Tifway' stood apart. Analysis of the morphological data showed that the variant of ' Miyako' belonged to the Zoysia genus but its genetic affinity with Bermudagrass needs to be explained. Within and between species, the cultivars having similar leaf-texture showed a tendency to cluster together.
B. Sinha and J. Tarafdar

Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, AICRP on Tuber Crops, Directorate of Research, BCKV, Kalyani, West Bengal. India.

Key words: Sweet potato, viruses, symptoms, NCM-ELISA, coat protein

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 123-126.

Abstract: The natural occurrence of sweet potato virus disease (SPVD) in 26 Indian sweet potato cultivars was evaluated at Horticultural Experimental Field of the B.C.K.V. University, West Bengal during 2004-2005 seasons based on the possible symptoms and serology. The leaves from virus suspected plants were indexed for viruses by nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA) and coat protein study. Disease incidence was highest in Pol-4-9 during 2004 (12.87%) and 2005 (25.19%). Results were confirmed in several seropositive plants with higher incidence and diversity of viruses. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato cauliflower mosaic like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speck virus (SPMSV) and C-6 virus were detected serologically in single or mixed infections in many leaf samples of the cultivars. The frequency of C-6 virus was very high (73.07%) followed by SPCaLV (34.61%), SPFMV (26.92%) and SPMSV (23.07%). Attempt was made to characterize the virus coat protein of the partially purified virus from the leaves with most frequently observed symptoms. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major protein band of 65 kDa, and 38 kDa which were assumed to be the viral coat proteins of associated virus. Minor protein bands of 24 kDa were also observed. The viral protein degraded upon storage at 4?C over time to yield a protein band of 22 kDa.
Erdinc Bal and Demir Kok

Namik Kemal University, Horticulture Department, Agricultural Faculty, Tekirdag/Turkey.

Key words: Grape, UV-C treatment, salicylic acid, storage, sensory evaluation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 127-131.

Abstract: Muskule grape variety which has table and late maturing attributes, was used for this study. Storage of table grapes requires stringent control of gray mold, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In spite of the fact that the use of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in controlling gray mould is common practice, it has some advantages and disadvantages. Thus, physical, natural organic elicitors and biological methods have been used for delaying decays. In this study, UV-C (0.25kJ m-2), salicylic acid (1, 2, 3mM) and Na2S2O5 (0.4g powdered sodium metabisulfate pads) treatments were used to reduce quality losses during the cold storage of Muskule grape. Treated clusters were placed into polyethylene container and packaged with polyethylene bags having 10.5 a thicknesses and stored at 0?1 oC and 90?5% relative humidity throughout 100 day. At the end of 100 day, weight loss (%), soluble solids content (%), titratable acidity (g 100 mL-1), pH of fruit juice, sensory evaluation, view of cluster skeleton and decay rate (%) were determined at 20 days interval. SA (3mM) + UV-C combined treatment and SA (3mM) treatment were found to be effective depending on examined criterion.
A. Uzun, O. Gulsen, Y.AkaKacar, V.Aras, A. Demirel, M. Bircan, S. Paydas andA. Yildiz

Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey-33740;Department of Horticulture, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey-0'330.

Key words: Apricot, Prunus armeniaca, RAPD, molecular markers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 132-135.

Abstract: Molecular markers are the most widely used tools in cultivar and species identification. The objective of this study was to characterize some Turkish and European cultivars and new apricot cultivars derived by hybridization between Turkish and European apricot cultivars using RAPD markers. Five new, two local cultivars, and four promising hybrids from Turkey, and 13 cultivars from Europe, North America, South Africa were characterized. Sixty RAPD primers produced 57 polymorphic and 79 monomorphic markers, totaling 136. All the 136 markers were used to construct a dendogram based on UPGMA. All cultivars were distinguished from each other with the similarity value ranging from 0.90 to 0.96. Known hybrids were grouped between or close to either one of parental genotypes. This study may imply narrow genetic diversity among the most widely grown apricot cultivars in the world.
Odiaka Ngozi Ifeoma, Akoroda Malachy and Odiaka Emmanuel

Department of crop Production, College of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Cooperative Exten?sion Centre, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benu

Key words: Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F., fluted pumpkin, gender, production, constraints, poverty, profit, sustainability, Nigeria.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2007, volume 9, issue 2, pages 136-139.

Abstract: Gender roles in telfairia leaf production were investigated in Makurdi using a survey based questionnaire administered to 50 farmers to identify gender-disaggregated roles in telfairia production. The survey showed that women have major role as producers and marketers of telfairia leaves. Women and girls provided 80.0% of labour requirements for hole digging, sowing, irrigation, weeding, harvesting and marketing. The men cleared land and dug holes while girls and boys in primary and secondary schools assisted in weeding and hole digging. The results also revealed that a typical telfairia farm using N10,650.00 (US$84.5 at N126/dollar) worth of seeds produced 16.5 t/ha of leaves valued at N212,400.00 (US$1,685.7) with 85.0% profit. Seed accounted for 60.7% of total cost of production, while irrigation cost was 20.3%. A minimum take-off fund of N210,572 (US$1671.2) was needed to give revenue of N386,000 (US$2920.6) and a gain of 83% per hectare. Total fruit equivalent of fruits/shoots produced 2,056 fruits and the price of fruit equivalent of fruits/ shoots produced N514,000 (US$4079.4) with a gain of 144%. Two major constraints to leaf production were high cost of quality seeds (36.1% of respondents) and water pumps (13.9% of respondents). Women participation in telfairia vegetable production, marketing and utilization in Makurdi can provide a means of livelihood and appreciable income for women in rural and urban areas, which is capable of sustaining the running of the home and enhancing the living standards of women.

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