Abstract: Nutrient film technique was designed and used to grow Ficus hawii using different nitrogen sources, nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate (N), urea (U) and ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Aim of the study was to investigate the most proper form of nitrogen, which gives the highest vegetative growth and nutrients uptake in the early growth of the plants. Results show that in general, AN gave the highest vegetative growth parameters expressed as plant height, number of branches plant-1, leaves plant-1, leaf area, fresh and dry weight. AN favoured apical growth, while U favoured lateral growth. Shoot/root ratio was highest in the AN treatment. Nutrients uptakes by the whole plant was much higher in the case of AN then U and N. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in AN followed by U (more or less similar) and lowest in case of N.
Chen Shaoli, Zhou Baoli, Wang Ruhua and Xi Haijun
College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China; Heilongjiang August First Land Reclamation University, Daqing 163319, China.
Abstract: Cinnamic acid and vanillin are the allelochemicals commonly exist in eggplant root exudates. With pot culture experiment, the effects of grafted eggplants on allelopathy of cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplants root exudates were studied. The results showed that cinnamic acid and vanillin had allelopathic effects on eggplants, lower concentration of cinnamic acid and vanillin (0.1 mmol L-1 or 0.5 mmol L-1) could promote the growth and physiological metabolism of eggplants, while higher concentration (from 1 mmol L-1 to 4 mmol L-1) had slightly promotive or inhibitive effects on eggplants. Meanwhile, this study suggested grafting could relieve autotoxicity of cinnamic acid and vanillin, and significant difference in the regulation intensity for the autotoxicity was found between cinnamic acid and vanillin. Grafting decreased the amounts of cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of vanillin. The maximum reduction amount of cinnamic acid reached 68.96%, and that of vanillin reached 100%. Under the stress of exotic cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of exotic cinnamic acid, grafting relieved the autotoxicity of the two substances on eggplants. Compared with own-rooted eggplant, grafted eggplant had a higher plant height and a larger stem diameter, its leaf cholorophyll content increased by 5.26-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced. Grafting was found to be one of the most effective methods for relieving replanting problems caused by autotoxicity.
A. Das and D. Sing Majhi
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, WestBengal-741252.
Key words: Rainwater, tap water, pond water, distilled water, hydroponics
Abstract: Low cost hydroponics devices were designed using plastic trays and buckets. Cultivations of tomato, chilli, cauliflower and marigold cv. Inca were tested in these devices using rain water, pond water, tap water and distilled water for nutrient solution preparation. The vegetables were grown as multiple plant cultures in plastic trays and marigold cv. Inca in single plant culture in small buckets. Direct use of tap water and pond water created chlorosis in some plants that could be overcome by boiling of water before use. In rain water tomato and chilli plants performed the best. However, cauliflower curd yield was the best in tap water. Marigold cv. Inca bloomed well in all categories of water. Water qualities were the major factor for crop growth. Rainwater could be more safely used. The devices and procedures are recommended for the kitchen gardeners of the urban and soil stress areas.
Plant Breeding Group, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Abstract: A study was carried out to characterise thirty-seven Coffea canephora clones using three biochemical characteristics, namely caffeine, phenol and protein content. The phenol and caffeine contents were determined by gravimetric method, while protein was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of floral bud. Caffeine content among the clones ranged from 1.1 to 1.5% on dry matter basis (dmb). C36 a high yielding clone, had relatively low caffeine content, hence it is a suitable clone that could be included in any breeding programme for low caffeine coffee in Nigeria. All the Niaollou (M) clones had high caffeine content. Phenol content in the berry pulp of the clones ranged from 2.6 to 15.6%. Averaged over clones, phenol content of berry pulp (9.5 %) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than leaf phenol content (4.5 %). The coefficient of variation for pulp phenol was high (35.3), thus indicating that, rapid response to selection for favourable phenol percentage might be feasible. The high level of phenol found in some clones may be valuable in breeding for resistance to some major diseases and insect pests of coffee. There were differences in the mobility and intensity of protein bands in the clones. The variation in the protein banding patterns of the different C. canephora clones observed provides further information on the existing genetic diversity of the coffee clones in addition to that provided by agro-botanical characters.
A.M. El Assar
Tropical Fruits and Date Palm Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.
Key words: Polypropylene, dates, bunch covering, "Zaghloul", ripening time, fruit quality
Abstract: This study targets to investigate the efficiency of date bunch covering treatments by using different bag types such as the polypropylene muslin, staved-plastic (polyethylene) or cecile tissue in comparison with uncovered bunches (control) in the same orchard (from the mid of July to mid of September) in Rossitta region (Rasheid), Behera province, Egypt. Quantity and quality of marketable yield for "Zaghloul" dates, beside the ripening time were assessed through two consecutive seasons. The main notice was, all kinds of used covers reduced the damage caused by birds, blights and wasps as well as no incidence of diseases was observed under the experimental covers. Polypropylene muslin treatment decreased the dropped fruits in both study seasons, consequently it increased the marketable yield. Fruits under the polypropylene muslin bags were late in the ripening. Date bunches under the staved-plastic covers were statistically superior than all other treatments regarding fruits quality and were early in the ripening. There were statistical differences in fruit quality traits and fruits ripening time according to the bunch cover types.
Naser Alemzadeh Ansari and Reza Mamghani
Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.
Key words: Ecology, temperature stress, growth habit, tomato
Abstract: Tomato hybrids and cultivars from northern latitudes are tolerant to temperature variations and are early maturing crops. In order to produce new cultivars for southwest of Iran, it is necessary and useful to study adaptation of genotypes in this area. The seeds of 74 cultivars from Moscow and 8 hybrids from Netherlands were germinated and then transplanted to Jiffy-pots under plastic tunnels before being transferred to the soil in the field. Growth habits, leaf and inflorescence forms, fruit weight, fruit number, yield in each harvest, total yield and earliness were recorded. There were differences among cultivars for all measured characteristics. Some cultivars had relatively good tolerance to high temperature, and could produce fruits at temperatures higher than 30?C. The tested varieties had different growth habits. Maximum yield was obtained from determinate types, M66, M63, M49 and M48. For most cultivars, the largest fruits were produced in the first harvest while the next harvests had smaller fruits. A negative correlation was observed for fruit numbers and average fruit weight. Also, some cultivars including M39, M46, M74, M40, and M35 exhibited early and more uniform yield per plant compared with control varieties. Some cultivars such as M48 and M66 had late maturity with higher yield as compared with control. The tested entries were classified on the basis of leaf shape, inflorescence, fruit number and weight. Maximum difference was between controls and M27.
Shekafandeh and M. Ghasemi
Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Key words: Benzyladenin (BA), late-flowering, nodal segments, proliferation, hot water
Abstract: In this study, hot-water and cold treatments were used for eradication of explant contamination, and also the effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation was evaluated. The explants were nodal segments of a late flowering almond cultivar 'Sharood 7'. Experiments were carried out in a complete randomized design with 25 replications. All hot-water treatments eliminated fungal contamination. The best hot-water treatment was 50?C in which 88% of explants were both free of contamination and necrosis followed by 76% at 47.5?C and 56% at 45?C. The best proliferation rate obtained in 1.5 mg L-1 BA in combination with 0.1 mg L-1 IBA (5.25 shoots per explant) which was significantly higher than 1 mg L-1 (2.65 shoots per explant). Cold treatments only (2 and 4 days in 4?C) delayed fungal contaminations for 7 days, so it was impossible to assess bacterial contamination.
Gyorgy Feszt and Lucica Mihalte
Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden, 42 Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Abstract: In terms of artificial collections, cacti receive a specific microclimate, which ensures constant physical parameters leading to a low resistance and high susceptibility to attack by pests and diseases. The Cactaceae collection of the botanical garden "Alexandru Borza", Cluj-Napoca, Romania counts more than 4100 plants belonging to 115 genera. Following inventory collection, 4069 plants were studied. Preliminary assessment results that the radicular system of the best represented Cactaceae species is much worse than those stems. Genus: Astrophytum, Aylostera, Echinocerus, Notocactus, Weingartia had disease insidence of grade 2 (the area affected by 26?50%). The highest intensity of the attack was reported in the genus Echinocereus (47.24). In calculating the attack degree there was a greater uniformity in genus Aylostera (36.34), Echinocereus (37.46), Rebutia (37.83); Weingartia (33.37). In considerable stem attack by pahthogens, the highest attack frequencies were recorded in Astrophytum (51.75); Ferocactus (65.76) and Notocactus (58.18). The attack intensity, expressed in intensity degrees, reached value 2 (30.79) in the case of Cleistocactus genus, whereas the other genera remained under grade 1.
Mohamad Fattahi and Mansuor Gholami
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
Key words: Strawberry, nutrient, development stages, plant fragments
Abstract: The objective of the investigation was to study the effect of different development stages on distribution of mineral nutrients in the growing leaves, roots, petioles and fruits. Strawberry plants were grown in a greenhouse in perlite medium and fertigated with Hoagland solution. Mineral nutrient concentration was determined at three development stages viz., flowering, fruiting and the end of fruiting. Also nutrient concentration was determined in different organs at fruiting stage. Our results show that nutrient uptake was variable at different development stages. Leaf and petiole were the main sinks for Ca at fruiting stage and also for Mg and K in petioles, Fe in root, Mn in leaf. Results indicated that plant have different uptake pattern at various development stages. Results on the element uptake by different organs at various development stage is indicative of their relative requirement at different stages.
O.O. Olubode, I.O.O. Aiyelaagbe and J.G. Bodunde
Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2007 at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria, to determine the growth and yield responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)grown in orchards of two papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties, 'Homestead Selection' and 'Sunrise Solo', at three different stages of papaya growth. Different sequences of okra sowing were; at three weeks before papaya (early), same time with papaya (simultaneous) and three weeks after papaya (late). Results showed that early and simultaneous introduction of okra performed significantly better than the late, with respect to plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, number of pods, pod weight plant-1 and total pod yield. All the okra intercrops experienced competitive effects that reflected in reduced yield more pronounced in Homestead Selection than in Sunrise Solo. The productivity efficiency index recorded intercropping advantages for the okra in mixture compared to the sole okra with a land equivalent ratio (LER) >1.0 while the area harvest equivalent ratio (AHER) was more descriptive of the trends observed among the sequences. In cv Homestead Selection, the highest profit margin (47.64 %) was recorded in the simultaneous papaya-okra intercrop, followed by early (44.57 %). A similar trend was observed in cv Sunrise Solo, where simultaneous and early okra introduction had a profit margin of40.06 and 39.72%, respectively. Late sequence had the least profit margin in both papaya cultivars. .
Prabuddha Ray and Sarthak Chowdhury
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Statistics, Palli Shiksha Bhavan (Institute of Agriculture), Sriniketan, Visva-Bharati, P.O. Sriniketan, Dist. Birbhum, 731 236, West Bengal, India.
Key words: Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, constraints, adoption of IPM technologies, cauliflower cultivation, knowledge and information constraints, rank score
Abstract: The present study revealed that among all the various types of constraints perceived by the respondents regarding the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies in the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)production, the lack of knowledge of the respondents about the Economic Threshold Limit (ETL) concept (under the category of knowledge and information constraints) had the first rank closely followed by the lack of knowledge of the respondents regarding the bio-pesticides (under the category of knowledge and information constraints). The lack of knowledge of the respondents about the IPM techniques (under the knowledge and information constraints category) enjoyed third position, closely followed by lack of training of the respondents on the proper use of pesticides (under category of administrative and managerial constraints). The result clearly indicate that among six different categories of perceived constraints, knowledge and information constraints with a rank score of 2769 enjoyed first rank position, distantly followed by administrative and managerial constraints (with a rank score of 1586) in the second position, technological and communication constraints with a rank score of 1249 in the third position, socio-economic constraint (rank score of 828) in the fourth position.
Samir C. Debnath and Elodie Ricard
Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 39088, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John's, NL A1E 5Y7, Canada. Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, Rue Pierre Waguet, BP 30313, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France
Abstract: Data on molecular markers, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities are increasingly used in breeding programs of many horticultural crops. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities were used to characterize 10 strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars and nine breeding lines. Fifteen primers generated 240 polymorphic ISSR-PCR bands. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) revealed a substantial degree of genetic similarity among the genotypes ranging from 45% to 73% that were in agreement with the principal coordinate (PCO) analysis. Wide genetic diversity was observed among the strawberry genotypes for anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities. The ISSR analysis together with data for antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents in strawberries could be used for germplasm management and more efficient choices of parents in current strawberry breeding programs.
Nasir S.A. Malik and Joe M. Bradford
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 2413 E. Hwy 83 Weslaco, Texas 78596.
Key words: flowering, inflorescence, Olea europaea L., olive, temperature effects.
Abstract: Regulation of flowering in 'Koroneiki' olives by various regimes of daytime and nighttime temperatures was investigated. The trees flowered profusely under chilling (2.5?C; 569 inflorescences tree-1) and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (8.3?C; 729 inflorescences tree-1) when daytime temperatures were kept optimal (18.3?C). Chilling nighttime temperatures (2.5?C) did not produce any greater number of inflorescence than non-chilling temperatures of 8.3?C. High daytime temperatures (26.6?C) strongly inhibited flowering at both chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (i.e., 0.5 and 0.0 inflorescences tree1 under chilling and non-chilling temperatures, respectively). Mildly high daytime temperatures (23.9?C) also inhibited flowering but there were significantly more inflorescences per tree at 23.9?C (220 and 127 inflorescences tree-1 under chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures, respectively) than at 26.6?C. There was no significant difference in the number of inflorescences tree-1 between chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures at both inhibitory daytime temperatures; i.e. 23.9?C and 26.6?C. The trees that were kept vegetative by high daytime temperatures (26.6?C), but given flower inducing nighttime temperature for three months, when returned to optimal flower inducing conditions did not flower before the normal induction period (70-80 days), indicating that inhibitory daytime temperatures canceled any effects of nighttime flower inducing temperatures. Surprisingly, trees kept vegetative in growth chamber at a high daytime temperature (26.6?C) produced fewer inflorescences compared to trees kept vegetative in the greenhouse where temperatures were less controlled but generally, with a few exceptions, remained between 15-20?C in the night and 25-30?C during day.
Thomas Tworkoski, Ralph Scorza and D. Michael Glenn
USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Rd., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV, 25430, USA.
Key words: Orchard management, tree root system, tree nutrient uptake, Prunus persica
Abstract: Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applications in the greenhouse and field. In the field during 2008, Compact trees had higher root length density than Pillar and Standard trees (6.2, 3.8, and 3.7 mm cm-3, respectively). Compact trees also had higher foliar P (0.21%) but the same N (1.3%) as Standard and Pillar trees (P concentrations of 0.14 and 0.11%, respectively) when fertilizer was applied once in the greenhouse. Following multiple applications of fertilizer, Compact tree leaves had the same P (approximately 0.21 and 0.29% in the greenhouse and field, respectively) as the other growth habits. After multiple fertilizer applications, Pillar trees had the greatest increase in foliar N and P, which was associated with high transpiration rates. Pillar, Compact, and Standard had transpiration rates of 3.0, 2.1, and 2.3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively. The data indicate that peach trees with fibrous roots systems may have an advantage to absorb nutrients such as P that move primarily by diffusion, when the nutrient is present in low concentrations in the soil. However, under conditions of high soil fertility, fibrous root systems did not improve nutrient uptake and trees with greater transpiration rates absorbed greater levels of nutrients. Different growth habits of peach have diverse root systems and transpiration rates that affect nutrient uptake and, consequently, the selection of tree growth habit should be considered in orchard soil management plans. Growth habits with more fibrous root systems may require reduced inputs of nutrients with low diffusion coefficients.
Jamie R. Stieg, S. Alan Walters, Jason P. Bond and M. Babadoost
Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.
Abstract: Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian, is a widespread and destructive disease of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Bell pepper yield, farm-gate revenues and Phytophthora blight incidence were determined during 2005 and 2006 in a P. capsici-infested field near Shawneetown, Illinois. The study evaluated 12 bell pepper cultivars (one resistant, three tolerant, and eight susceptible to P capsici)with or without a recommended fungicide treatment (mefenoxam at transplant and dimethomorph + copper alternated with manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate + copper at 10 day intervals). Bell pepper plants receiving fungicide applications showed less Phytophthora blight incidence throughout the growing season and produced greater yield and farm-gate revenues compared to untreated plants. Additionally, P capsici-resistant 'Paladin' and P capsici-tolerant 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' produced greater yields (> 17,800 and 33,800 kg ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively) and farm-gate revenues [> $12,700 and $27,000 (USA) ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively] compared to the susceptible cultivars. Therefore, in fields with a high incidence history of Phytophthora blight, 'Paladin' could be a reliable choice for commercial bell pepper production. However, 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' may be preferred by growers due to the added benefits of bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye] resistance and better fruit quality compared to 'Paladin'. Furthermore, this research indicates that plant resistance and/or tolerance should not be relied upon as the only method of P capsici control and growers should also incorporate fungicides into their management program to provide additional protection.