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S.W. Goveas, S.K. Nivas and L.D. Souza

Laboratory of Applied Biology, St. Aloysius College, Mangalore-575003, Karnataka, India.

Key words: Selenicereus megalanthus, in vitro, yellow pitaya, multiple shoots, MS-Murashige and Skoog

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 42-43.

Abstract: An efficient micropropagation system via multiple shoot induction directly from seedlings of S. megalanthus was developed. Seeds were germinated on Murashigae and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP). The shoot tips of the germinating seedlings started callusing when left on the same medium. After two weeks, the entire shoot apex portion of epicotyl gave rise to a friable callus, portions of which started becoming green and morphogenetic. The callus gave rise to multiple shoots. The highest number of shoots i.e. 18.6 was produced on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mgL"1 BAP. The shoots, 3-4 cm in length, when transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 IBA, rooted within one week.
Adel D. Alqurashi

Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box. 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: Date palm, pollen grain suspension, pollination, yield, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 44-47.

Abstract: During 2008 and 2009 seasons, the effect of pollen grain-water suspension spray at different concentration on fruit setting, yield and quality of 'Helali' date palm cultivar growing under Hada-Alsham conditions, KSA was examined. The results showed that fruit set, bunch weight and total yield per tree were significantly higher when spray pollinated at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g L-1 than the traditional pollination. In this respect, there were no significant differences among spray pollination at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g L-1. However, spray pollination at 2.0 g L-1 gave fruit set percentage similar to traditional pollination. At harvest, the Rutab percentage in bunches was not affected by the method of pollination. At both the Bisir and Rutab stages, fruit, flesh and seed weight, diameter and length were not significantly affected by any of the pollination treatments. The biochemical characteristics of fruit such as TSS, acidity, vitamin C, total phenols and soluble tannins were not significantly affected by any of the pollination treatments at both stages. The concentrations of TSS and acidity were higher at the Rutab than at the Bisir stage. However, the concentrations of vitamin C, total phenols and soluble tannins were greatly lower at the Rutab than at the Bisir stage. This study showed the possibility to pollinate 'Helali' date trees by pollen grain-water suspension spray with optimum amount of pollen grains with no further need for thinning especially under hot arid conditions. However, more research work is required to standardize the optimum concentration of pollen grain-water suspension and the response of each date palm cultivar to this pollination technique.
S. Zivdar, E. Khaleghi and F. Sedighi Dehkordi

Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.

Key words: Germination percentage, germination rate, length of rootlet, salinity, zinnia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 48-51.

Abstract: Laboratory studies were conduced to determine the effect of salinity and temperature on seed germination of zinnia plant with two temperature regimes (25 and 30 oC) and 5 levels of salinity (distilled water as control and 3, 6, 9 and 12 dSm-1) in a factorial completely randomized design. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) between different levels of salinity, and salinity and temperature interactions on germination percentage, germination rate and length of rootlet. But temperature treatment only influenced rootlet length (P<0.05). Mean comparison of seed germination percentage showed that increasing salinity decreased the seed germination. The highest rootlet length was recorded in the control (8.273 cm) and the lowest (1.92 cm) was at 12 dSm-1 of salinity. The effect of temperature on the germination percentage, germination rate and length of rootlet determined that the highest germination percentage and length of rootlet was at 25 oC temperature. The study on the interaction of temperature and salinity exhibited that highest percentage of germination, germination rate and length of rootlet were in control at 25?C, whereas it was lowest at 30?C and 12 dSm-1 salinity.
Pooja Manchanda, Ajinder Kaur and Satbir Singh Gosal

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiasna, Punjab -141004, India.

Key words: Suckers, tissue culture, transformation, shoot length, fresh weight, antibiotic

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 52-56.

Abstract: This is the first report of antibacterial and growth promoting effectiveness of cefotaxime in banana tissue culture. Young suckers (3-13 cm diameter) of commercially important banana varieties viz., 'Grand Naine' and 'Robusta' were regenerated into shoots on MS-medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 5 mgL-1) and multiplied on Banana Multiplication Medium (BMM) for 7 cycles of 3 weeks each. Shoots were separated and cultured on BMM supplemented with IBA (1.0 mgL-1) and cefotaxime at various concentrations viz., 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mgL1. Maximum shoot multiplication and elongation with respect to number of shoots, shoot length and plantlet fresh weight in both the genotypes was obtained with cefotaxime used at the rate of 400 and 500 mgL-1 in the medium. Among the different varieties, on the basis of mean of 50 shoot cultures, number of shoots per culture and shoot length was highest in cv. Robusta i.e. 7.20 (41.6% increase over control) and 8.50 cm (30.5% increase over control), respectively. Whereas, plantlet fresh weight was highest in cv. Grand Naine (494.8 mg, 38.9% increase over control) after 3 weeks of culturing with cefotaxime used at the rate of 500 mgL-1. Results revealed significant differences among varieties and media for different shoot multiplication and elongation parameters. Therefore, use of cefotaxime during tissue culture and genetic transformation of banana can improve frequency of shoot multiplication and transformation, respectively.
Y.A. ALKamal, A.I. Abdalla and A.A. Taha

University of Al Zaeim Al Azhari -Faculty of Agriculture, Khartoum North - P.O. Box 1432- Sudan

Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, okra, combining ability, line x tester analysis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 57-60.

Abstract: Seven lines of okra Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] (MOENCH) were evaluated for general and specific combining ability using three diverse testers following a line x tester mating design as described by Kempthorne (1957). Twenty one F1's hybrids along with ten parental lines were raised at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al Zaeim Al Azhari, Sudan, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes existing for yield and associated traits (P=0.01), indicating the presence of sufficient genetic variability in the material studied. Significant variability existed among hybrids (P=0.01) for number of pods per plant, length of pod, pod yield per plant and 100 seeds weight. Estimation of general combining ability effect identified lines HSD 1835, HSD1840 and HSD 2550 as a good general combiners for pod dry weight (P=0.05). Among testers Sinnar was found to be a good general combiner for number of pods per plant, length of pod, yield per plant, number of seed per pod and 100 seeds weight. Estimation of specific combining ability effect identified hybrids HSD 2550 x Sinnar as the best parent combination for number of pods per plant and yield per plant. HSD2543 x Sinnar and HSD1840 x Clemson Spineless recorded as the best parental combination for length of pod. The additive as well as non-additive gene effects played significant role in the inheritance of yield and yield related traits with predominance of additive gene action in the inheritance of major yield contributing traits. Testers contribution percentage were significantly higher for number of pods per plant (77.04%), pod dry weight (40.06 %) and number of seeds per pod (45.04%). The percentage contributions of the interaction were significantly higher and evident in the rest of the traits.
J.O. Olaniyi and M.A. Ajao

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Key words: Telfairia occidentalis, growth, yield, NPK fertilizer application rates, mulching materials.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 61-65.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso (8o 10'N and 4o 10'E) to determine the effect of mulching materials and rates of NPK fertilizer application on the growth and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). The trials consisted of three levels (0, 250 and 350 kg ha1) NPK and four types of mulching materials (white polyethylene, black polyethylene, saw dust and Panicum grass). A factorial arrangement fitted into complete randomized block was used and replicated three times. Plant height and number of leaves increased as the NPK rate increased, irrespective of the mulching materials. The yield and yield components of telfairia increased as the NPK rate increased from 0 up to 250 kg ha-1 and then declined at 350 kg NPK ha-1. These were significantly (P<0.05) improved by the main effects of fertilizer and mulching materials. Although, the best performance of telfairia in term of yield and quality were obtained from white polyethylene mulching material, this was comparable with that of dry Panicum grass mulching material. Except for fibre and vitamin C contents, telfairia seeds contained higher quality attributes investigated under this study than leaves. Therefore, the yield and quality of telfairia could significantly be improved by the application of NPK fertilizer at the optimum rate of 250 kg ha-1 with and without mulching.
N.K. Rao and Mohammed Shahid

International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), P.O. Box 14660, Dubai, UAE.

Key words: Blanket flower, Gaillardia aristata Pursh, ornamental plants, salinity tolerance, sandy soil, urban greenery

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 66-68.

Abstract: The performance of Gaillardia aristata Pursh, irrigated with saline water was studied with the objective to identify herbaceous ornamentals for saline landscapes. Seeds were sown directly into field plots of sandy soil and irrigated with saline water at electrical conductivity (ECW) of 2 (control), 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. Increase in salinity reduced the plant stand by 38% at 5 dSm-1, 50% at 10 dSm-1 and 67% at 15 dSm-1, in comparison with the control. Increased salinity also decreased the mean height, number of branches and dry weight of the plants, but the differences among treatments lower than 15 dSm-1 salinity were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Compared with the control, the number of flowers per plant declined by 57% at 5 dSm-1, 61% at 10 dSm-1 and 67% at 15 dSm-1. The differences in flower production among 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1 treatments were not significant (P>0.05). The flower diameter was significantly reduced at 15 dSm-1, but was not affected at the lower salinities. The results show that G. aristata could be successfully cultivated upto irrigation water salinity level 10 dSm-1 in sandy soils.
M.D.J.S. Saparamadu, W.A.P. Weerakkody, R.D. Wijesekera and H.D. Gunawardhana

Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Colombo 03, Sri Lanka. Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Key words: Hydroponics nutrients, tomato, hydroponics in tropics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 69-71.

Abstract: Simplified hydroponics is a low cost aggregate hydroponics system which is practiced under natural climatic conditions with hand watering. Rice hull, a waste material, which is mostly under utilized and a mixture of rice hull and sand (3:2) was used in this system. A new nutrient formulation (NF) was developed using locally available commercial grade chemicals. A buffer system was incorporated to the nutrient formulation, ensuring that the pH was maintained in the optimum range. NF was composed of (in ppm), N = 167, P = 80, K = 281, Ca = 234, Mg = 57, S = 251, Cu = 0.01, Fe = 3.9, Zn = 0.13, Mn = 1.2 and Mo = 0.13. A field trial was carried out for NF in the wet zone in Sri Lanka for tomato plants in simplified hydroponics system. The nutrient uptake was monitored by measuring the changes in weekly average electrical conductivity (EC) of the root solution (compared to the EC of the applied nutrient) of tomato plant beds. The pH of the root solution was in the suitable range and no adjustment was required indicating sufficient buffering in the formulation. The nutrient cost involved to produce 1 kg of tomato was about 70% less than other commercially available nutrients formulation.
M. Prabhakar, S.S. Hebbar and A.K. Nair

Division ofVegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake, Bangalore-560089,Karnataka, India.

Key words: Organic farming, French bean, nutrients, growth and yield parameters, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 72-73.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2007-2010 to study the effect of levels of organic manure and conventional practices on growth and yield of French bean grown organically. The trial was carried out in organic experimental block of IIHR farm, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore. The trial included four levels of organic manure nutrient and two inorganic nutrient supply treatments. The treatment which received 100 per cent recommended dose of N (RDN) through organics produced the highest pod yield (17.77 t/ha) followed by treatments which received 75 per cent RDN through organics and conventional practices (17.45 and 15.93 t/ha). Plant growth parameters such as plant height (45.5 cm), number of leaves per plant (42.9), leaf area per plant (2706 cm2), nodules per plant (43.9), pod weight per plant (160.1g) and pod length (14.7 cm) were also comparatively higher in this treatment resulting in better pod yield. Application of recommended dose of chemical fertilizer in conjunction with farm yard manure recorded higher values for growth and yield parameters like number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter production, number of pods, pod weight per plant and pod length which also resulted in significantly higher pod yield as compared to the treatment which received recommended dose of chemical fertilizer only.
R.K. Singh, S.R. Bhonde and R.P. Gupta

National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Chitegaon Phata, Post-Darna Sangavi, Taluqa-Niphad, Nashik, 422 003, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Allium cepa, correlation, late kharif, heritability, onion, variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 74-78.

Abstract: An investigation was carried out to study the genetic variability in late kharif germplasm of onion at Nashik, Maharashtra (India). The mean data indicated that the highest gross yield (41.17 t/ha) and marketable yield (39.13 t/ha) was recorded in line 744 and was at par with line 682 (39.07 t/ha) and (34.39 t/ha). A wide range of variability was observed for gross yield (19.65 to 41.17 t/ha), marketable yield (10.05 to 39.13 t/ha), bulb size index (20.40 to 35.90 cm2), bolters (0.00 to 40.83%), doubles (0.00 to 47.50 %), thrips/plant (8.75 to 25.80) and plant height (54.95 to 71.80 cm). A higher magnitude of coefficient of variation was recorded for bolters (112.78 -112.65%), followed by doubles (86.35-86.16%), thrips/plant (37.55-37.36) and marketable yield (29.34 and 29.90 %). Highest heritability was noted in doubles, gross yield, bulb diameter, plant height, bolters and thrips/plant. The genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 3.93 to 231.73. High genetic advance noted in bolters (231.73 %), doubles (177.12 %), thrips/plant (76.56%) and marketable yield (54.53%) and rest of others characters showed medium to low genetic advance. Gross yield, marketable yield, doubles, bolters, thrips/plant and bulb size index indicated higher estimates of genetic advance as percent of mean coupled with high heritability, suggesting the involvement of additive genetic variance for these traits. Marketable yield was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, neck thickness, bulb diameter, bulb size index, weight of 20 bulbs, and gross yield and negatively correlated with bolters, doubles and days for bulb initiation at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Plant height, leaves/plant, bulb diameter, bulb size index, weight of 20 bulbs and days for bulbs initiation. The study revealed that a wide range of variability for important characters exists in germplasm offering a good scope for developing improved onion varieties suitable for cultivation in Maharashtra.
Iniobong Edet Okon and Edet A. Imuk

Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Department of Soil Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Key words: Glomus fasciculatum, Meloidogyne incognita, Solanum lycopersicum, nutrient uptake, yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 79-81.

Abstract: The effect of Glomus fasciculatum inoculation on the growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in a Meloidogyne incognita infested soil was investigated in a pot experiment. G. fasciculatum greatly enhanced the growth and yield of tomato in both non-nematode and nematode infested soils. Growth was greatly impeded to the point of no flowering or fruiting in non-mycorrhizal nematode infested soil treatments. While the adverse effect of nematode to the growth of tomato can be attributed to impaired transport of water and nutrients, the enhanced growth in mycorrhizal plants was associated with increased water and nutrient uptake, resulting improved growth which must have conferred more vigour on them to reduce the pathogens' effect.
Mar?a Pescie, Marcelo Lovisolo, Alberto De Magistris, Bernadine Strik and C?sar L?pez

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Ruta 4, Km. 2. (1836). Llavallol - Pvcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 ALS, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Key words: Vaccinium sp., southern highbush blueberry, flower bud initiation, flower bud differentiation, day length, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 8-12.

Abstract: In Argentina, southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) exhibits two periods of vegetative growth in the same year, the first one in spring (spring growth, SpG), arising from vegetative buds on one-year-old wood, and the second in summer, from vegetative buds formed on spring growth, just after harvest (summer growth, SmG). Histological studies confirmed that flower bud initiation (FBI) occurred at the end of December on SpG and at the end of March on SmG. On SmG, FBI occurred under an 8 h photoperiod, and shortening daylength. However, on SpG, FBI was observed under increasing daylength (up to 15 h) and an average temperature of 22.5 ?C. Basal florets in apical floral buds were always in a more advanced reproductive stage on SpG than on SmG during the season. The two peaks in volume of fruit harvested were likely a result of differences in the ontogeny of buds on SpG and SmG shoots in the previous year.
J. Shankara Swamy and A.K. Banik

Department of Post Harvest Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya Mohanpur, West Bengal-741 252, India.

Key words: Guava squash, xanthan gum, non-enzymatic browning, stability.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 1, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Guava (Psidium guajava), called as apple of the tropics, is one of the most common fruits in India. Excellent flavour and nutritive value aid to its great potential for preparation of beverages like squash and ready to serve (RTS). A study was undertaken to produce a stable and organolepticaly preferred guava squash with proper suspension of fruit pulp supplementing the squash soluble dietary fibre with xanthan gum at five different concentrations (0.1 to 0.5%). Bottled guava squash of cv. Allahabad Safeda was prepared with 25% pulp, 40% total soluble solids (TSS), and 1% acidity with different concentration levels of xanthan gum, an exocellular polysaccharide produced by obligatory aerobic microorganism, Xanthomonas campestris. The stability of the products was studied by chemical and sensory evaluation of bottled squash during 180 days of storage. There were little changes in the quality parameters viz., TSS, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid during storage. Non-enzymatic browning in guava squash increased with prolonged storage. Xanthan gum (0.5% W/W) gave stability to the product during 180 days of storage. Overall, acceptability was highest in pure guava squash containing 0.1% of xanthan gum, 40% of TSS and 1% of acidity during the 180 days of storage period.
M. Burner and D.H. Pote

Research Agronomist and Research Soil Scientist, Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), 6883 South State Highway 23, Booneville, Arkansas 72927. USA

Key words: Growth media, Pinus taeda, Quercus falcata, soil amendments

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 102-106.

Abstract: Our objective was to determine temporal effects on medium pH caused by decomposition of three organic amendments incorporated with topsoil. Pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark, pine (Pinus taeda L.) straw, and red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata) were ground to uniform particle size, incorporated with a silt loam topsoil at two rates (1:29 and 1:10 amendment:soil, w:w basis, referred to as 1X and 3X, respectively), placed into greenhouse pots, and sampled during 12 months to determine medium pH in comparison to an unamended topsoil (control). Compared to the control, pine straw, pine bark, and red oak 3X increased soil medium pH. All media except pine straw increased pH during the study. At any given sampling date, pine straw 3X had lower pH than the control, while red oak either did not differ from, or had higher pH than the control. By the end of the sampling period, pine bark and pine straw media had lower pH than the control. While statistically significant, change in medium pH caused by any of these substances would be trivial for most horticultural crops, and easily corrected by use of other liming or acidifying amendments.
ThiNghiem Le, ChingChang Shiesh, HueyLing Lin and Elsa Lee

Graduate School of Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University. 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan.

Key words: Vapour heat, oriental fruit fly, quarantine pests, 'Tuu Shien' mango

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 107-112.

Abstract: The objective of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of Vapour heat treatments (VHT) to disinfest the Taiwan native mango variety fruits (Tuu Shien) from the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and the effect of the treatments on the quality of mango fruits. The three stage treatment of forced air at 30oC for 30 minutes, 30 to 48oC for 60 minutes, and then 48oC forced hot air with saturated humidity over the mango fruit surface until the fruit centre temperature reached 46.5oC and fruit was held for 40 minutes. Survival tests showed that both second and third generation instars were more susceptible to the VHT than eggs and there were no surviving oriental fruit fly after 46.5oC for 40 min. The quality of local mango fruits treated with VHT and stored at ambient temperature (28 ? 3oC) for 6 days was not significantly different from the control.

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