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Abdul J. Cheruth, Khadija I.M. Ramadhan and Shyam S. Kurup

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Key words: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), salinity, morphology, pigments, physiology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 138-140.

Abstract: Salinity represents an increasing threat to agricultural production in every region of the world. The objective of this investigation was to determine ameliorative effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on salt stressed lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in terms of growth, pigments and biochemical contents. The treatments were divided into 4 sections: control, 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl +5mM CaCl2 and 5mM CaCl2 alone. NaCl and CaCl2 stress decreased lettuce plant root and stem length, number of leaves and fresh weight versus the control. NaCl combined with CaCl2 increased these parameters versus treatments with NaCl or CaCl2 alone. Salt stress reduced the shoot and root fresh weight. The roots showed slightly increased growth under salinity, but after the treatment with CaCl2 the plants were normal. The pigment chlorophyll showed a diminishing trend in NaCl stressed plants, but it increased with CaCl2 application. The chlorophyll content increased in all plants with age. There was a slight decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents with NaCl treated plants. CaCl2 also showed decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, but it was still higher than that of NaCl treated plants. Proline and phenol contents increased in lettuce plants under treatment with NaCl and CaCl2 when compared to the control. From these results, it can be concluded that the addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed lettuce plants have a significant role in partial alleviation of salinity stress. Our results indicated that the cultivation of vegetable plants like lettuce in saline areas would be possible with supplemental calcium application.
M.A. Hegazi and M.M.S. Metwaly

Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-sheikh University, 33516, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Seashore Paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum, late season nutrition, cold wear.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 141-147.

Abstract: The present research was conducted on Kafer El-Sheikh University garden turfgrass during the winter season (November-May) of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the possibility of improving cold tolerance of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turfgrass during late season through either nutrition by compost alone or in combination with foliar application of potassium, silicon, iron or calcium separately. Compost was applied to all area except control on 1st November of each season at 10m3/feddan (2.38kg/m2). Aqueous solutions containing the recommended dose of each element plus 0.1% Tween 20 as a wetting agent were sprayed on the above ground parts until runoff, twice a month. The results showed that compost and Fe combination followed by compost and K2SO4 recorded the best results for most growth and anatomical measurements. The least growth values were observed from the compost alone or in combination with silicon and control treatments.
V. Srilatha, Y.T.N. Reddy, K.K. Upreti, R. Venugopalan and H.L. Jayaram

Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaragatta Lake post, Bangalore- 560 089.

Key words: Mango, pruning, paclobutrazol, vigour, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flowering

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 148-153.

Abstract: Dominant vegetative phase, if not regulated, can adversely affect the mango production particularly under high density planting systems. Pruning after fruit harvest and use of paclobutrazol (PBZ) have been identified as common strategies for tree vigour regulation and productivity enhancement in mango. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of 50% pruning of current and previous season vegetative growth and PBZ (3 mL/ m canopy diameter) on tree vigour, flowering and phenol contents in three mango cvs. Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali. Suppression of plant height, tree girth, canopy spread, shoot length and girth was witnessed with PBZ application in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth and unpruned trees. Early flowering witnessed as a result of PBZ application led to advanced fruit harvest by 20.4, 13.0 and 14.7 days in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth and 18.7, 13.7 and 15 days in trees pruned to 50% previous season growth in the cvs Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali, respectively. Drastic increase in total phenols, total flavonoids and phenolic acid contents were observed at 75 days after PBZ application in PBZ treated unpruned trees and in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by in trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth. The high levels of o-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and salicylic acid and low levels of caffeic acid and t-cinnamic acid were observed following PBZ application in tree pruned to 50% of current season growth and unpruned trees compared to control. From the study it was apparent that the pruning of trees to 50% of current season growth and PBZ application are vital for regulating tree size, early flowering and advancing fruit harvest in mango and such beneficial effects of treatments were mediated through increases in phenols and flavonoids contents.
D. Sulistyowati, M.A. Chozin, M. Syukur, M. Melati and D. Guntoro

Agronomy and Horticulture Study Program, Post Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and Bogor Agricultural Extension Institute (STPP Bogor). Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor, Indonesia.

Key words: Cluster analysis, euclidean distance, principal component analysis, relative productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 154-159.

Abstract: Tomato genotypes exibit different shade intolerance and shade-tolerant tomatoes have potential for vegetable-agroforestry system. To obtain shade-tolerant tomatoes, a study on several tomato traits were evaluated on their morphological and physiological characteristics and their yield as responses to low light intensity. This experiment was conducted at farmers field, Bogor (October 2014-February 2015) using nested factorial design with three replications. Study was conducted on 50 tomato genotypes cultivated under 50 and 100% light intensity. Variables observed were: leaf number and area, flower number, fruit number, fruit weight and production, flowering and harvesting time. The tolerance levels of tested genotypes were classified based on plant relative productivity rate. Analysis of variance was used to differentiate between genotypes within response group; principal component analysis to define variance characters between genotypes; and cluster analysis using Euclidean distance method to determine relationship among tomato genotypes and similarity level . The 50 genotypes under shading condition were classified into 5 shade-loving genotypes, 16 shade-tolerant genotypes, 15 shade-moderately-tolerant genotypes and 14 shade-sensitive genotypes. First two principal components explained 57.19% variation. The first principal component was plant production and reproduction with the value of 37.69%; and the second one was plant morphological characters with the value of 19.50%. The dendrogram from cluster analysis separated 50 genotypes to 3 clusters with a distance of 20. There were 7 genotypes in the first cluster, 11 genotypes in the second cluster; and 32 genotypes in the third cluster.
Gurlabh S. Brar, M.I.S. Gill, N.K. Arora and H.S. Dhaliwal

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (141001) Punjab, India.

Key words: Grapes, Cardinal, Punjab Purple (H-516), Merlot, fruiting behaviour.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 160-163.

Abstract: Grape vines, trained on Y-trellis system were evaluated for their fruiting behaviour during the fruiting season of 2011-12 in Punjab conditions (North India). The maximum number of bunches per vine were recorded in variety Punjab Purple (H-516) and the maximum berries per bunch were recorded in variety Chardonnay. While, the variety Cardinal was promising in other berry characteristics such as berry weight, length, breadth and firmness, juice recovery was higher in variety Merlot. Varieties Himrod, Punjab Purple (H-516) and Pusa Navrang performed better as compared to other varieties with respect to physico- chemical parameters. Based on the overall performance, variety Punjab Purple (H-516) was found to be the most promising under North Indian conditions.
Ashok Kumar Bishoyi, Aarti Kavane, Anjali Sharma and K.A. Geetha

PDPIAS, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand, Gujarat, India. ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research, Boriavi, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Key words: CTAB, DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, ISSR, SSR, barcode, gene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 164-168.

Abstract: Extraction of DNA from medicinal and aromatic plants is often problematic, since these plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites which interfere with PCR based downstream applications and restriction digestions. Removal of these secondary metabolites requires appropriate reagents for DNA isolation. This investigation optimised an efficient DNA isolation protocol for Cymbopogon species that yielded sufficient quantity of DNA and could be used for diverse molecular applications. The modified protocol was also compared with the two existing DNA extraction procedures for cost effectiveness, time efficiency and quality DNA recovery. The modified protocol yields good amount of DNA ranging from 76 to 90 g/ g of fresh tissues which was significantly higher in comparison to the other two protocols. A260/A280 ratio of the DNA obtained from the modified method ranged from 1.81 to 1.87 indicates purity of DNA and was also found to be suited for downstream applications such as restriction digestions. Subsequent RAPD, ISSR, SSR and barcode gene amplification analysis suggested that the DNA isolated by our modified method was suitable for various molecular research applications. The efficiency of this method in terms of lesser time requirement and cost effectiveness makes the present method a noticeable alternative for total cellular DNA extraction for Cymbopogon species and could be adoptable by the developing countries across the world.

Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Key words: Land suitability, land availability, multi-criteria decision-making, spatial overlay, SPOT-6 imagery

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 87-99.

Abstract: In Indonesia, Java Island still contributes a large amount of the total number of vegetables produced. In this tropical country, vegetables are produced in two different agro-ecological conditions, which are high altitude and low altitude. The rapidly increasing population growth has caused the centre's production of high altitude vegetables on Java Island to be increasingly pressured by other types of land utilization. This study was conducted in one of the production centres of tropical high altitude vegetable crops in the upper slope area of Mts Gede-Pangrango, West Java, covering an area of 78,290 ha. The research objective was to delineate the suitable land that is available for high altitude vegetables crops. In the first step, land suitability was analysed using multi-criteria decision-making methodology. The criteria used include those grouped within the parameters of land, topography, climate and ease of management; criterion consists of sub-criteria. The criteria were weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, while sub-criteria were scored according to their contributions to land suitability. The weights of the criteria and scores of the sub-criteria were used for delineating land suitability in a geographic information system model. In the second step, the land availability was analysed by taking into account the constraints of forest area status designation and the spatial pattern of official land use plan map. Results of both analyses were used to delineate suitable and available land for tropical high altitude vegetables crops. The results showed that the amount of land that was suitable and available for tropical high altitude vegetables crops was 23.7% of the analysed area. The area of suitable and available land that is actually not used yet is 9% of the area analysed, which could be recommended for the expansion of vegetable crops. Land that is suitable and available, either land that is already used or land that is not yet used, could be designated as priority lands to be protected from the pressure of non-agricultural land utilization in order to maintain the sustainability of vegetable availability
Hiren Bhavsar, Fisseha Tegegne and Krisden Ingram

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A Merritt Blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, USA.

Key words: Greenhouse, energy use, middle Tennessee, profitability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 12-15.

Abstract: The greenhouse industry is an important sub-sector of agriculture. On average, greenhouse and nursery farms in the U.S. have 57 percent more cash receipts than all farms (Muhammed, 2000). Tennessee cash receipts for greenhouse and nursery farms was 307 percent above than the average in the US. However, greenhouse operations in Tennessee have declined over the years. The goal of this study was to acquire a better understanding of energy use by greenhouse businesses in Tennessee. The latest database containing greenhouse businesses was provided by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. A mailed survey was used to collect data that covered questions on energy use, marketing and skill needs of the businesses. The respondents were mixed in terms of size of their operations, education and income levels. Out of the 279 surveys, 56 were returned, resulting in a 20 percent response rate. To determine the different factors affecting profitability of greenhouse operations, this study utilized correlation and chi-square tests using different variables. Results indicate that profitability of greenhouse operations is influenced by the rising energy cost, economic downturn and size of operation. The survey also indicates that growers would consider adopting alternative energy saving methods depending on their income and age. The study shows the need to assist the growers in learning more about alternative energy saving methods and technologies. This study is beneficial not only for greenhouse businesses but also other stakeholders including policy makers and those working with growers. Other researchers can also undertake similar studies using the approach used here with appropriate modification.
V.R. Logegaray, D. Frezza, A. Chiesa. and A.P. Le�n

Departamento de Horticultura, Facultad de Agronom�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Mart�n 4453 (C1417DSE) CABA, Argentina.

Key words: Nasturtium officinale, quality, gas concentration, chlorophyll, weight loss, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, oxalic acid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 16-18.

Abstract: Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is an aquatic plant of the Brassicaceae family and used as a leafy vegetable that grows in and around water. It is consumed raw or steamed and has a short shelf life of approximately seven days. The objective of this study was to evaluate the postharvest behaviour of watercress minimally processed and stored at optimal storage temperature vs. market temperature. Treatments were: shoots packed with plain film (PD961EZ, 31�m thickness) and stored in refrigerated chambers at 1 � 0.5 oC and 8 � 2 oC for 10 days. Overall visual quality, gas concentration inside the packages, chlorophyll, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and weight loss were evaluated. At the end of the storage period overall visual quality, gas concentration and reducing sugars were affected by storage time and temperature, whereas dehidro ascorbic, oxalic acid and weight loss were not.
X. Alex Isac, K.R.Rajadurai, M. Jawaharlal, K. Arul Mozhi selvan, D. Uma, Hena roy and Nabrun Bhattacharyya

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. 2Horticultural College & Research Institute for Women, Navalur kutapattu, Trichy, India. 3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Ch

Key words: Jasminum sambac, Electronic Nose, MOS, volatile emission

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 19-24.

Abstract: The Jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) flowers are highly fragrant and used for extraction of essential oil, preparation of perfumes and scented water. Since there is a growing demand for the fresh flowers, there arises a need to develop a technique to identify the flower quality in non-destructive and quickest possible manner. A study was undertaken using hand held electronic nose technology (HEN) at the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year 2013-2015.The result showed that, the HEN device generated Aroma Index (AI) score increased over the flower development stages and varied from 0.41 in immature bud (stage I) to 4.26 in matured bud (stage V). The comprehensive study on quantum of fragrance releasing pattern at different flower opening stages (physiologically matured bud to fully opened flower) over period of time interval showed that, minimum of 5.41 was recorded in an unopened closed bud stage which gradually increased upto 41.26 in the fully opened flowers. The biochemical constituents responsible for the unique jasmine flower fragrance were identified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).
K.S. Nirmala, B.V. Champa and A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda

University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065. University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot 587 102. University of Horticultural Sciences, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru-560 065

Key words: Genetic diversity, Jasminum, AFLP, wild, cultivated

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 25-29.

Abstract: Jasmines (Jasminum sp.), a native of tropical and subtropical region, are esteemed for their attractive fragrant flowers and essential oil. However, very meagre information is available on the genetic relatedness among species and cultivars of jasmine. This study analyzed genetic relatedness of 48 genotypes across 26 species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers. Of the ten sets of primers screened, four sets were selected for the present investigation on genetic diversity. A total of 212 bands were scored, of which 90.5% were polymorphic. The relationship among genotypes was analyzed using Unweighted Pair Group method of cluster analysis. Among 48 genotypes J. auriculatum formed a separate node while rest of the 47 genotypes formed two major clusters with two sub clusters in each. Cluster I comprised of 28 genotypes and cluster II had 19 genotypes. It was difficult to classify the genotypes either based on geographical region or based on their cultivation since there was assortment of wild and cultivated species. However the results reflect a high level polymorphism suggesting occurrence of genotypes of diverse genetic background that will be useful in breeding programmes.
Shigeru Satoh, Yoshihiro Nomura, Shigeto Morita, and So Sugiyama

1Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu 520-2194, Japan. 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan. 3Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto 619-0224, Japan. * E-mail: ssatoh@agr.ryukoku.ac.jp

Key words: pyridinedicarboxylic acids; spray-type carnation; carnation cultivars; flower bud; time to flower opening; vase life; gross flower opening

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 3-6.

Abstract: Pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) analogs accelerate flower opening and retard senescence, which markedly extend the vase life of spray-type Light Pink Barbara (LPB) carnation. In the present study, we characterized the activity of these chemicals to develop a novel flower care agent for a practical use. A representative PDCA analog 2,4-PDCA is effective in a wide range of spray-type carnation cultivars, Barbara, Beam Cherry, Candle, Collin, Rascal Green and Scarlet Ostara, as well as LPB and Mule. Treatment of LPB flowers for the initial 24 h with 2,4-PDCA at 5 and 10 mM was almost as effective as the continuous treatment with the chemical at 2 mM.
Shafna Kalarikkal, P. S. Udayan and M. Asha Sankar

1Department of Plantation Crops & Spices, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur District, Kerala, 2 P.G. Department of Botany & Research Centre, Sree Krishna College, Ariyannur P.O., Guruvayur, Thrissur District, Kerala,

Key words: Phyllanthus spp., Kerala, harbaceous, morphology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 30-33.

Abstract: Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn belonging to Euphorbiaceae is reputed for its hepatoprotective activity against Hepatitis B virus. Preponderance of other herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. often leads to deliberate adulteration or substitution, lowering the efficacy of medication. Hence surveying agro ecological zones of Kerala and characterizing natural population of Phyllanthus spp. morphologically will ensure the correct identity. Exploratory surveys were conducted adopting purposive sampling procedure and accessions of Phyllanthus spp. were collected from different agro-ecological zones of Kerala (coastal, plains, midlands and high altitude regions) representing northern, central and southern Kerala. The collected accessions were identified using morphological key characters of herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. as described in Flora of Madras Presidency by Gamble and Fischer (1915-1936). No considerable variations were observed for characters like, growth habit, branching pattern, leaf margin, capsule colour, capsule shape and flower colour. Accessions representing P. amarus were found to have oblong leaflet shape, obtuse apex and round base. Dark green, light green and purple green stem colour and faintly mucronate to mucronate leaf apices were observed for the collected accessions of P. urinaria. The accession of P. maderaspatensis had obcordate leaf apex. Number of sepals and pedicel length were identified to be the non variable quantitative characters in Phyllanthus. Highest plant height, was observed for P. virgatus var. gardnerianus, inferring that it is the tallest herbaceous Phyllanthus spp among the collected ones. Broad leaves were observed in P. rheedei and longest leaflets in P. virgatus var. gardnerianus and P. virgatus var. virgatus.
P.R. Paul, A.H.K. Robin and M.R. Hossain

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Key words: Musa sapientum L, seeded banana, endosperm culture, seedlessness, triploid, callus blackening, cold treatment

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 34-38.

Abstract: The local Bangladeshi banana varieties, possessing similar brix percentage to that of commercial varieties, grow well under adverse conditions with minimum care but are less popular due to the presence of seed. Endosperm culture of seeded banana can produce triploid seedless varieties which can be cultivated commercially in unsuited environments with less agricultural inputs. The current study was conducted to optimize the initial steps of endosperm culture using the immature endosperm of seeded banana cultivar Bhutia. Young fruits at various stages were collected from the local banana gardens to find out suitable developmental stage of endosperm for culture. Endosperms of juvenile fruits at 25 days age, exhibited jelly state, was selected for culture because endosperm explants at that age survived the most in MS medium. It was observed that non-treated explants produced larger calli comparatively quickly than that of cold-treated explants. Largest calli (0.41 cm) within shorter time period (27 days after inoculation) was produced in MS medium additionally supplemented with 0.5 ppm 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) besides 0.5 ppm 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 ppm Kinetin (Kn). The produced calli gradually became blackish in appearance and higher ascorbic acid content (480 mg/100g) was observed in blackish calli. Avoiding the blackening of calli derived from endosperm of seeded banana would be a challenge to establish a successful triploid production protocol in future.
Fatih Hanci, Esra Cebeci and Ayse Fidanci

Atatrk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova-Turkey.

Key words: Onion, Allium cepa L., in vitro, callus, salinity, embryo, explant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 39-43.

Abstract: Salinity is one of the major limitations for onion growth and productivity all over the world. There are several methods to determine of salt stress tolerance of plants such as germination tests, pots trials, in vitro experiments etc. This study was conducted for optimisation of rapid and practical method to compare onion genotypes under salinity conditions. In the first stage of the study, three explant types and twenty one combinations of plant growth regulators were tested for optimization of callus protocol. Callus indicate percentage (%), callus fresh weight (mg) and callus dry weight (mg) were measured on the 31st day. According to results, the best medium (MS + 2 mg/L 2,4-D + 0,5 mg/L BAP) and explant type (mature zygotic embryo) for the proliferation of callus were determined. After choosing the best hormone and explant type, the effect of salinity on callus induction was tested using different level of NaCl. Akgun-12 consistently performed the best in callus culture. Responses of onion cultivars were different for different parameters. The proposed method was simple to perform, as no long time is required, and offers a possibility to screen genotypes in any time of year.

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