Abstract: Under the impact of new cultivation and socioeconomic trends, and the aspiration for agricultural sustainability, a research study was conducted under Cyprus conditions. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cvs. 'Paris island', 'Lollo rosa', and 'Oakleaf') and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Camarosa') plants were used to evaluate horizontal and vertical growing setups in a 'closed' soilless system. For lettuce, the vertical system provided more marketable lettuce per system's surface area compared to the horizontal setup. However, the horizontal system provided greater lettuce mass and higher percentage marketable yield than the vertical one. The nitrate content of all lettuce cultivars was not significantly different between the two systems and remained lower than the European standards all over the experiment. For strawberry, the vertical setup offered higher yield compared to the horizontal one. The quality characteristics were not different between the two systems. These results suggest that the studied setups and the 'closed' soilless system can be used as a tool for the improvement of Cyprus greenhouse production, water use efficiency and prevention of environmental damage from regular' disposal of hydroponics solution. The possibility of an improved greenhouse production system could be considered as technique of choice under semi-arid Cyprus and E. Mediterranean conditions using such materials.
H.A. Kassem and H.A. Marzouk
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Abstract: A field study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 seasons on twenty-six years old Zaghloul cultivar of date palm growing in clay silt soil. One level of nitrogen alone or plus P and K from mineral (ammonium nitrate alone or ammonium nitrate + calcium superphosphate + potassium sulphate, NPK) and organic sources [poultry /chicken manure (CM), cow dung (CD) and town refuse compost (TR)] were applied either alone or in combinations to study their influence on the yield and fruit physico-chemical quality. The results revealed that applying organic manure either alone or combined with mineral fertilizers increased palm yield and enhanced fruit colour as compared with mineral fertilization alone. CM and CD resulted in the best fruit weight, fruit flesh weight and length. Fruit TSS, anthocyanin and sugars content increased while, tannins content was decreased by CM and CD as compared with combining organic manure with NPK or mineral alone. However, fruit acidity was not affected by any of the treatments when compared among each others. In general, micronutrients contents were significantly higher in fruits by applying organic manure alone than organic manure combined with NPK or mineral fertilization alone. Organic manure fertilization alone (especially CM and CD) resulted in decreasing lead, cadmium, nitrate and nitrite content than mineral fertilization.
R.K. Singh and P. Gogoi
Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar - 791112. India.
Abstract: A green house study was carried out to investigate the effect of inoculation with four native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme on growth performance of a medicinally important plant "Long pepper" (Piper longum L.). Inoculation with all AMF species enhanced plant growth, however, significant variation in effectiveness of the four AMF species was observed in relation to both root and shoot growth. A significantly higher total biomass (0.84g/plant) was observed in G. fasciculatum and G. clarum inoculated plants. The performance of G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme were statistically on par to each other in increasing the chlorophyll content over the control plants. The root colonizing capacity of G. fasciculatum was found to be significantly higher, the next being G. versiforme.
Department of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Laurus nobilis L., was examined by GC and GC/MS. The main components of the oil were identified. 1,8-cineole was the major component in the oil together with a - terpinyl acetate, terpinene - 4 - ol, a - pinene, P - pinene, p - cymene, linalool and terpinene - 4 - yl - acetate. The essential oil was tested against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens larvae. The results obtained show that the essential oil could be considered as natural larvicidal agents.
The National centre for Agricultural Research and Extension, PO Box-93. Postal code: 11623, Jordan..
Abstract: This study was conducted at Jordan Valley to evaluate the use of locally available tuff and sand substrates in comparison with soil for growing sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Reehan) using an open soilless culture. Treatments were randomly distributed according to RCBD with three replications. Sweet pepper plants, grown in soil or tuff gave higher total yield (6.0, 5.5 and 8.7, 6.5 ton/1000m2, respectively) and yield/plant (2.0, 1.58 and 1.3, 1.38 kg/plant, respectively) in both the years, while those grown in sand produced the least. Fruit weight of plants grown in soil was the highest in the first season (200.6 g) followed by tuff and lastly the sand (177.0 and 169.4 g, respectively), however, it was not affected by the substrates in the second season. Substrates had little effect on fruit length in both seasons and fruit diameter in the first season, but, in the second season those grown in soil gave the highest diameter (74.4 mm) followed by those in tuff and sand (70.6 and 70.3 mm, respectively). This study indicated that open soilless system using tuff as a substrate may be suitable for sweet pepper production without dramatic changes in yield or fruit quality and it saved about 65-70% of water applied by conventional farmers for sweet pepper production under plastic house.
H.E. Palmucci, Z. Premuzic, L. Mascarini, C. Campetella and V. L?pez
Cdtedra Fitopatologia. Cdtedra Quimica Analitica. Cdtedra Floricultura. Intensificando. Cdtedra Estadistica. Fac-ultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (FAUBA) Av. San Martin 4453. Capital Federal (1416) TE: 4524-8063. PROYECTO UBACyT G005, Argen
Abstract: Chlorination constitutes a practical and economical chemical control method for the disinfection of recycled nutrient solutions in soil?less growing systems. Although the chlorination can prevent the development of pathogenic organisms, the use of inadequate doses of chlorine could produce damages to the culture and environment. It is necessary to select doses for each plant species that do not cause damages nor produce undesirable effects on the productivity and quality. Zinnia sp. in South America has large potential for cultivation as an ornamental potted or vase flower. Tests for disinfection of the recycled nutrient solution were performed with different chlorine quantities (control, 11, 22, 44 and 88 mg L-1) to evaluate the potential phytotoxicity and effects on the flower production (weight and number) of Zinnia elegans var. Enana. The production and phytotoxicity were analyzed in relations with the contents of macronutrients (N, P, Ca, and K), sodium and chlorides levels in leaves and related chemical changes (pH, EC and chlorides) in the nutrient solution. The results showed improvement of the development of foliage, roots and the production of flowers with the doses of 11 and 22 ppm, associated to a minor toxicity. The larger doses did not surpass the toxicity levels, although affected the productivity and quality of plants. These results enabled us to select doses under the value of 22 ppm for futures effectiveness test to control pathogens.
N. Bumgarner and S. Verlinden
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV26506-6057, USA.
Abstract: Four microclimate modification methods including spun-bonded and slitted low tunnels both with and without the addition of water-filled plastic tubes were tested for their effect on early and total yields of warm and cool season vegetable crops in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Peppers, tomatoes, radishes, and lettuce were organically grown in 2006 and 2007. Early season pepper yields were higher when water tubes were included with low tunnels while early tomato yields did not differ. Total yields for warm season crops in some microclimate modification treatments were higher than the control, and harvests started up to four weeks earlier in the spring. Cool season crop yields in the four treatments showed no increase over the control despite one to three weeks earlier harvests for radish and lettuce. These results show potential for earlier safe planting dates and increased yield, especially in warm season vegetable crops using low tunnels and water tubes. Additionally, economic analysis demonstrated a potential for increased profits over control plots using these microclimate modification techniques.
T Ban, A. Nakatsuka, K. Akaura, S. Matsumoto, M. Ishimaru and H. Itamura
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; BFaculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504, Japan; Department of
Abstract: The grape berry morphologically consists of epidermis, an outer wall, an inner wall and placenta. The inner contents such as soluble solids, organic acids and moisture distribution of grape berries are dramatically changed during the veraison between the growth and ripening period. However, we know little about the changes in the inner contents of the outer wall, inner wall and placenta. Our purpose of the study is to clarify the tissue specificity of the total soluble solids content, sugar composition, flesh firmness and moisture distribution of 'Kyoho' grape berry during growth and ripening period. The moisture distribution of the grape berries was analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The total soluble solids contents of the outer wall were higher than those of the inner wall during the investigation period. In this study, fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in the berries. The concentrations of these sugars in the outer wall were higher than those in the inner wall; however, the components of these sugars were not different between the outer wall and inner wall. Even within the same berry, the flesh firmness and the moisture distribution were different from one part of the tissue to another. These results indicate that the growth rate of grape berry varies considerably among the different parts of the berry.
Mohd Zahid, C.S. Cheow, A.R. Norizzah, Z.M.S. Halimahton and M.S. Adi
Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: Application of edible coating represents a method that can extend the shelf life of picked guava by minimizing the loss of weight mainly due to natural migration process of moisture and gases. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to search for best composition of edible coating which comprised of three variables namely palm stearin, palm olein and beeswax. Based on central composite rotatable designs of RSM and weight loss as response, 15 coating compositions were established involving 8 factorial points, 6 axial points and 1 centre point. From the RSM-generated model, optimum coating composition for minimizing guava weight loss was identified as palm stearin 4.5% (w/v), palm olein 1% (v/v) and beeswax 1% (w/v). Under this optimum composition, the predicted weight loss of coated guava was 7.18%, whereas, the experimental weight loss of coated guava was 7.51% after tenth days of storage period. The RSM-predicted and experimental weight loss were not significantly different from each other. The weight loss of uncoated guava was 3 times higher (25%) after 8 days of storage as compared to coated guava. Thus, the use of optimum composition of edible coating provides acceptable alternative for post harvest control of weight loss of guava during storage.
JalalUdDin Baloch, M. Qasim Khan, M. Munir and M. Zubair
Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK; University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
Key words: Ornamental annuals, short day plants, flowering, photoperiod, facultative short day plants
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study flowering response of six facultative short day plants (zinnia cv. Lilliput, sunflower cv. Elf, French marigold cv. Orange Gate, African marigold cv. Crush, cockscomb cv. Bombay and cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) under four distinct controlled photoperiods (8, 11, 14 and 17 h d-1). A curvilinear facultative response was observed in almost all cultivars studied. zinnia, sunflower, French marigold, African marigold, cockscomb and cosmos took minimum time to flower when grown under 8 h d-1 photoperiods however it was significantly (P<0.05) increased when photoperiod was increased to 17 h d-1. These findings revealed plant scheduling prospect that is, the flowering time of facultative SDPs grown under long day photoperiod can be extended in order to continue supply of these plants in the market
Song, Paul V. Nelson, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., and D. Keith Cassel
Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, 11 Dongwhari Bongdam Hwasunsi Kyonggido, R.O. Korea 445-890, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609, Department of Biology, Elon University, Elon, N
Abstract: Ground, composted rice hulls were combined as a root substrate component with peat moss and coir at five rice hulls percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100) in a factorial design. Seventy-five percent of the rice hull particles were 0.51 to 1.40 mm and 90% of the particles were 0.51 to 2.00 mm. In physical property evaluations, increasing the percentage of rice hulls in both the peat moss and coir series of substrates increased the dry bulk density and airspace at container capacity; however, as air space increased, container capacity and available water decreased. In the first two of three plant growth experiments, Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. 'Super Elfin White' was grown in 288 cell plug trays. In the third experiment, Verbena Xhybrida Voss. 'Romance Deep Rose' was grown in 48 cell bedding plant flats. Due to problems with high pH in the coir, only the peat moss growth results were reported. Overall, growth was best in 25% rice hulls plus 75% peat moss. Rice hulls increased substrate Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both the peat moss and coir. Adding rice hulls to the substrate increased K+ in peat and decreased K+ in coir. There was no effect of rice hulls on substrate NO3- -N, NH4+-N, and PO4-P in the substrate solution. Ground, composted rice hulls are a potential alternative component of soilless substrate for plugs and bedding plants.
Marchionni Bast?, D.R. Liberatti, S.L. Mahuad, G.R. Rodriguez, G.R. Pratta, R. Zorzoli and L.A. Picardi
CONICET, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. FONCyT, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias UNR, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla, Argentina. CIUNR, Cdtedra de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias Agr
Abstract: Five recombinant inbred lines, generated from a single interspecific cross S. lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium, were crossed in a complete diallel combination without reciprocal. Fruit quality traits were analyzed according to Griffing (1956), method 2, model 1 (fixed effects). Significant general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) effects were found for all traits. Weight, reflectance percentage, chroma index, firmness, soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity presented SCA values greater than GCA values, indicating nonadditive effects. Both additive and nonadditive effects were significant in determining diameter and shape. Positive unidirectional dominance was found for shape, shelf life and chroma index, while negative unidirectional dominance was involved in the expression of weight, diameter, height, reflectance percentage and firmness. Bidirectional dominance was found for soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity. In spite of being a genetic pool generated from a single interspecific cross, high levels of genotypic and phenotypic variability was found among the fifteen genotypes for important agronomic traits. Both additive and nonadditive effects were important in the genetic determination of these traits.
Mohamed Thabet and Khemaies Zayani
Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisie. Institut Superieur des Sciences et Technologie de I'Environnement BP 1003, Hammam-Lif2050, Tunisie.
Abstract: Field experiments were performed to study the impact of two different irrigation systems (surface drip and surface) on water use efficiency and yield components of a pepper crop (Capsicum annum. L). Irrigation scheduling was carried out based on estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using crop coefficients for pepper and reference evapotranspiration ETo calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation (Allen et al., 1998). The crop received total water needs computed according to Veirmeiren and Jobling (1983) procedure for surface drip irrigation. Border irrigation was scheduled by Cropwat model (Smith, 1992). Experimental plots were irrigated simultaneously during the appropriate duration for each one and received the same nutrients (N, P, and K) ratio. Comparison was made on fruit number per plant, fruit weight, fruit weight by harvest and yield per unit surface. The results showed that compared with surface irrigation, drip irrigation presented a significant difference in total fruit yield and water use during cropping season (May to September). With drip irrigation, average yield was 19.73 kg m2 which was 68% greater than that irrigated with surface irrigation (11.90 kg m2). Applied water volume by unit production (m3/kg) was 0.38 for drip and 1.05 for border, respectively. Drip irrigation increased fresh pepper fruit yield with a reduction of 60% in water use compared to traditional surface irrigation.
O. Borsani, G. GonzalezNeves, M. Ferrer and J. Monza
Laboratorios de Bioquimica and Viticultura - Enologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Avda. Garzon 780 CP 12900. Montevideo, Uruguay, Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura, Dr. Pouey 463. Las Piedras, Uruguay.
Key words: Anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, berries, hydric deficit,Vitis vinifera L.
Abstract: Anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression in berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat trained in Lyre system was investigated. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway as chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4- reductase (DFR), and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O- glucosyl transferase (UFGT)was examined. On the other hand, the influence of plant architecture, Lyre and vertical shoot positioned (VSP) trellis systems, on anthocyanins accumulation and gene expression was also analyzed. Final contents of total anthocyanins were not affected by trellis systems but varied in two years with different water deficit imposition period. However, the individual profile of the genes and anthocyanidins modified according to the moment of water deficit imposition (veraison or harvest) and by the trellis systems (Lyre or VSP). Analysis of gene expression in Lyre along the berry development period showed that low leaf water potentials after veraison cause an earlier and greater induction compared with expression in a year with low leaf water potential at harvest. At harvest, the hydric deficit induced an increase in the expression of CHS, F3H and DFR genes and a higher total anthocyanins content. The study revealed that plant architecture affect the expression of anthocyanins related gene in berries possibly by modifying the canopy microclimate.
Yaser Hassan Dewir, Nisha Singh, Siveshni Govender and Pragashnee Pillay
School of Biological & Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt.
Key words: Bioreactor, in vitro flowering, Gentian, mass propagation, microponics
Abstract: Hormonal control of flower induction in vitro was investigated in Gentian. The effect of PBZ concentrations on flowering was studied in plantlets cultured in MS medium containing 30 g L-1sucrose. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) concentration at 1.0 mg L-1 induced the highest flowering in terms of flowering percentage (91.5%), number of flowers, days to first flowering, flower length and flower diameter. PBZ did not trigger flowering but it rather stimulated flowering and its role seemed to be additive but not essential for flowering. Comparison between solid and bioreactor cultures (continuous immersion with a net) revealed that shoot multiplication and growth were more efficient using bioreactor culture. The highest shoot number per explant (29.9) was obtained in bioreactor culture. Regenerated shoots were cultured microponically for 6 weeks. Hundred percent of plants rooted and were acclimatized successfully in growing media containing perlite: vermiculite (1:1).