Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso (8o 10'N and 4o 10'E) to determine the effect of mulching materials and rates of NPK fertilizer application on the growth and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). The trials consisted of three levels (0, 250 and 350 kg ha1) NPK and four types of mulching materials (white polyethylene, black polyethylene, saw dust and Panicum grass). A factorial arrangement fitted into complete randomized block was used and replicated three times. Plant height and number of leaves increased as the NPK rate increased, irrespective of the mulching materials. The yield and yield components of telfairia increased as the NPK rate increased from 0 up to 250 kg ha-1 and then declined at 350 kg NPK ha-1. These were significantly (P<0.05) improved by the main effects of fertilizer and mulching materials. Although, the best performance of telfairia in term of yield and quality were obtained from white polyethylene mulching material, this was comparable with that of dry Panicum grass mulching material. Except for fibre and vitamin C contents, telfairia seeds contained higher quality attributes investigated under this study than leaves. Therefore, the yield and quality of telfairia could significantly be improved by the application of NPK fertilizer at the optimum rate of 250 kg ha-1 with and without mulching.
N.K. Rao and Mohammed Shahid
International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), P.O. Box 14660, Dubai, UAE.
Abstract: The performance of Gaillardia aristata Pursh, irrigated with saline water was studied with the objective to identify herbaceous ornamentals for saline landscapes. Seeds were sown directly into field plots of sandy soil and irrigated with saline water at electrical conductivity (ECW) of 2 (control), 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. Increase in salinity reduced the plant stand by 38% at 5 dSm-1, 50% at 10 dSm-1 and 67% at 15 dSm-1, in comparison with the control. Increased salinity also decreased the mean height, number of branches and dry weight of the plants, but the differences among treatments lower than 15 dSm-1 salinity were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Compared with the control, the number of flowers per plant declined by 57% at 5 dSm-1, 61% at 10 dSm-1 and 67% at 15 dSm-1. The differences in flower production among 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1 treatments were not significant (P>0.05). The flower diameter was significantly reduced at 15 dSm-1, but was not affected at the lower salinities. The results show that G. aristata could be successfully cultivated upto irrigation water salinity level 10 dSm-1 in sandy soils.
M.D.J.S. Saparamadu, W.A.P. Weerakkody, R.D. Wijesekera and H.D. Gunawardhana
Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Colombo 03, Sri Lanka. Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Key words: Hydroponics nutrients, tomato, hydroponics in tropics
Abstract: Simplified hydroponics is a low cost aggregate hydroponics system which is practiced under natural climatic conditions with hand watering. Rice hull, a waste material, which is mostly under utilized and a mixture of rice hull and sand (3:2) was used in this system. A new nutrient formulation (NF) was developed using locally available commercial grade chemicals. A buffer system was incorporated to the nutrient formulation, ensuring that the pH was maintained in the optimum range. NF was composed of (in ppm), N = 167, P = 80, K = 281, Ca = 234, Mg = 57, S = 251, Cu = 0.01, Fe = 3.9, Zn = 0.13, Mn = 1.2 and Mo = 0.13. A field trial was carried out for NF in the wet zone in Sri Lanka for tomato plants in simplified hydroponics system. The nutrient uptake was monitored by measuring the changes in weekly average electrical conductivity (EC) of the root solution (compared to the EC of the applied nutrient) of tomato plant beds. The pH of the root solution was in the suitable range and no adjustment was required indicating sufficient buffering in the formulation. The nutrient cost involved to produce 1 kg of tomato was about 70% less than other commercially available nutrients formulation.
M. Prabhakar, S.S. Hebbar and A.K. Nair
Division ofVegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake, Bangalore-560089,Karnataka, India.
Key words: Organic farming, French bean, nutrients, growth and yield parameters, yield
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2007-2010 to study the effect of levels of organic manure and conventional practices on growth and yield of French bean grown organically. The trial was carried out in organic experimental block of IIHR farm, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore. The trial included four levels of organic manure nutrient and two inorganic nutrient supply treatments. The treatment which received 100 per cent recommended dose of N (RDN) through organics produced the highest pod yield (17.77 t/ha) followed by treatments which received 75 per cent RDN through organics and conventional practices (17.45 and 15.93 t/ha). Plant growth parameters such as plant height (45.5 cm), number of leaves per plant (42.9), leaf area per plant (2706 cm2), nodules per plant (43.9), pod weight per plant (160.1g) and pod length (14.7 cm) were also comparatively higher in this treatment resulting in better pod yield. Application of recommended dose of chemical fertilizer in conjunction with farm yard manure recorded higher values for growth and yield parameters like number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter production, number of pods, pod weight per plant and pod length which also resulted in significantly higher pod yield as compared to the treatment which received recommended dose of chemical fertilizer only.
R.K. Singh, S.R. Bhonde and R.P. Gupta
National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Chitegaon Phata, Post-Darna Sangavi, Taluqa-Niphad, Nashik, 422 003, Maharashtra, India.
Key words: Allium cepa, correlation, late kharif, heritability, onion, variability
Abstract: An investigation was carried out to study the genetic variability in late kharif germplasm of onion at Nashik, Maharashtra (India). The mean data indicated that the highest gross yield (41.17 t/ha) and marketable yield (39.13 t/ha) was recorded in line 744 and was at par with line 682 (39.07 t/ha) and (34.39 t/ha). A wide range of variability was observed for gross yield (19.65 to 41.17 t/ha), marketable yield (10.05 to 39.13 t/ha), bulb size index (20.40 to 35.90 cm2), bolters (0.00 to 40.83%), doubles (0.00 to 47.50 %), thrips/plant (8.75 to 25.80) and plant height (54.95 to 71.80 cm). A higher magnitude of coefficient of variation was recorded for bolters (112.78 -112.65%), followed by doubles (86.35-86.16%), thrips/plant (37.55-37.36) and marketable yield (29.34 and 29.90 %). Highest heritability was noted in doubles, gross yield, bulb diameter, plant height, bolters and thrips/plant. The genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 3.93 to 231.73. High genetic advance noted in bolters (231.73 %), doubles (177.12 %), thrips/plant (76.56%) and marketable yield (54.53%) and rest of others characters showed medium to low genetic advance. Gross yield, marketable yield, doubles, bolters, thrips/plant and bulb size index indicated higher estimates of genetic advance as percent of mean coupled with high heritability, suggesting the involvement of additive genetic variance for these traits. Marketable yield was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, neck thickness, bulb diameter, bulb size index, weight of 20 bulbs, and gross yield and negatively correlated with bolters, doubles and days for bulb initiation at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Plant height, leaves/plant, bulb diameter, bulb size index, weight of 20 bulbs and days for bulbs initiation. The study revealed that a wide range of variability for important characters exists in germplasm offering a good scope for developing improved onion varieties suitable for cultivation in Maharashtra.
Iniobong Edet Okon and Edet A. Imuk
Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Department of Soil Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Abstract: The effect of Glomus fasciculatum inoculation on the growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in a Meloidogyne incognita infested soil was investigated in a pot experiment. G. fasciculatum greatly enhanced the growth and yield of tomato in both non-nematode and nematode infested soils. Growth was greatly impeded to the point of no flowering or fruiting in non-mycorrhizal nematode infested soil treatments. While the adverse effect of nematode to the growth of tomato can be attributed to impaired transport of water and nutrients, the enhanced growth in mycorrhizal plants was associated with increased water and nutrient uptake, resulting improved growth which must have conferred more vigour on them to reduce the pathogens' effect.
Mar?a Pescie, Marcelo Lovisolo, Alberto De Magistris, Bernadine Strik and C?sar L?pez
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Ruta 4, Km. 2. (1836). Llavallol - Pvcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 ALS, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.
Key words: Vaccinium sp., southern highbush blueberry, flower bud initiation, flower bud differentiation, day length, temperature
Abstract: In Argentina, southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) exhibits two periods of vegetative growth in the same year, the first one in spring (spring growth, SpG), arising from vegetative buds on one-year-old wood, and the second in summer, from vegetative buds formed on spring growth, just after harvest (summer growth, SmG). Histological studies confirmed that flower bud initiation (FBI) occurred at the end of December on SpG and at the end of March on SmG. On SmG, FBI occurred under an 8 h photoperiod, and shortening daylength. However, on SpG, FBI was observed under increasing daylength (up to 15 h) and an average temperature of 22.5 ?C. Basal florets in apical floral buds were always in a more advanced reproductive stage on SpG than on SmG during the season. The two peaks in volume of fruit harvested were likely a result of differences in the ontogeny of buds on SpG and SmG shoots in the previous year.
J. Shankara Swamy and A.K. Banik
Department of Post Harvest Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya Mohanpur, West Bengal-741 252, India.
Abstract: Guava (Psidium guajava), called as apple of the tropics, is one of the most common fruits in India. Excellent flavour and nutritive value aid to its great potential for preparation of beverages like squash and ready to serve (RTS). A study was undertaken to produce a stable and organolepticaly preferred guava squash with proper suspension of fruit pulp supplementing the squash soluble dietary fibre with xanthan gum at five different concentrations (0.1 to 0.5%). Bottled guava squash of cv. Allahabad Safeda was prepared with 25% pulp, 40% total soluble solids (TSS), and 1% acidity with different concentration levels of xanthan gum, an exocellular polysaccharide produced by obligatory aerobic microorganism, Xanthomonas campestris. The stability of the products was studied by chemical and sensory evaluation of bottled squash during 180 days of storage. There were little changes in the quality parameters viz., TSS, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid during storage. Non-enzymatic browning in guava squash increased with prolonged storage. Xanthan gum (0.5% W/W) gave stability to the product during 180 days of storage. Overall, acceptability was highest in pure guava squash containing 0.1% of xanthan gum, 40% of TSS and 1% of acidity during the 180 days of storage period.
M. Burner and D.H. Pote
Research Agronomist and Research Soil Scientist, Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), 6883 South State Highway 23, Booneville, Arkansas 72927. USA
Abstract: Our objective was to determine temporal effects on medium pH caused by decomposition of three organic amendments incorporated with topsoil. Pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark, pine (Pinus taeda L.) straw, and red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)were ground to uniform particle size, incorporated with a silt loam topsoil at two rates (1:29 and 1:10 amendment:soil, w:w basis, referred to as 1X and 3X, respectively), placed into greenhouse pots, and sampled during 12 months to determine medium pH in comparison to an unamended topsoil (control). Compared to the control, pine straw, pine bark, and red oak 3X increased soil medium pH. All media except pine straw increased pH during the study. At any given sampling date, pine straw 3X had lower pH than the control, while red oak either did not differ from, or had higher pH than the control. By the end of the sampling period, pine bark and pine straw media had lower pH than the control. While statistically significant, change in medium pH caused by any of these substances would be trivial for most horticultural crops, and easily corrected by use of other liming or acidifying amendments.
ThiNghiem Le, ChingChang Shiesh, HueyLing Lin and Elsa Lee
Graduate School of Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Horticultural Department, Chung Hsing University. 250 Kuo Kang Road, Taichung, Taiwan.
Abstract: The objective of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of Vapour heat treatments (VHT) to disinfest the Taiwan native mango variety fruits (Tuu Shien) from the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and the effect of the treatments on the quality of mango fruits. The three stage treatment of forced air at 30oC for 30 minutes, 30 to 48oC for 60 minutes, and then 48oC forced hot air with saturated humidity over the mango fruit surface until the fruit centre temperature reached 46.5oC and fruit was held for 40 minutes. Survival tests showed that both second and third generation instars were more susceptible to the VHT than eggs and there were no surviving oriental fruit fly after 46.5oC for 40 min. The quality of local mango fruits treated with VHT and stored at ambient temperature (28 ? 3oC) for 6 days was not significantly different from the control.
School of Economics and Business Administration, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway.
Key words: Flower markets, flower production and trade, volatility, Dutch flower auctions, price analysis
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of international flower production, consumption and trade, focusing on the Dutch flower auctions in Aalsmeer, the world's leading flower trading centre. Data on prices and traded volumes for three important species of cut flowers (roses, chrysanthemums and carnations) for the period 1993-2008 are analyzed. Flower prices and traded volumes are extremely volatile. Although part of this volatility is predictable, because of regular seasonal variations in demand, a large proportion of the observed volatility is due to sudden shifts in supply. The real prices of cut flowers declined during this period, and there was a clear shift in consumer preferences toward roses and away from carnations. In addition, consumption of roses and carnations shifted from clearly seasonal toward more year-round consumption, while consumption of chrysanthemums followed consistent seasonal cycles throughout the period. During this period, non-European producers increased their market shares. This development can be traced to a significant decrease in cut flower prices relative to energy prices, especially after 2003.
Esfandiyari, G.H. Davary Nejad, F.A. Shahriyariand M. Kiani
Horticulture Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Plant Research In
Key words: Pistcia spp, sex identification, SCAR- PCR, juvenile stage.
Abstract: Sex identification in Pistacia species are economically desirable. Regarding long juvenile stage in Pistacia species and lack of morphological method to identify sex in this stage, molecular marker could facilitate breeding program. Aim of the study was to identify a marker, closely linked to sex locus in Pistacia atlantica Desf mutica, P. khinjuk and P. vera var. Sarakhs. For this purpose, samples were collected from male and female individual trees from each species and their band patterns were analysed according to band specific presence or absence. Twenty Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a pair Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR) primer were tested to determine sex in wild Pistacia species. Among RAPD primers, only BC1200 amplified a specific sex band which was present in female plant. The results indicated that all individual samples amplified an approximately 300 base pairs fragment in female trees which was absent in male samples. Although sex determination mechanism in Pistacia is unknown, it might be controlled by single locus acting as a trigger. However, SCAR technique is a reliable technique to identify gender genotypes in seedling stage of Pistacia species, that would help to save time and expanses in breeding program.
Edi Santosa, Yoko Mine, Miki Nakata, Chunlan Lian and Nobuo Sugiyama
Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia. Facutly of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako 1737, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tok
Key words: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, clonal propagation, cluster analysis, genet, genetic diversity, Indonesia, SSR
Abstract: Ten microsatellite markers were used to clarify the genetic diversity of cultivated elephant foot yams collected in 13 villages in the Kuningan District, West Java, Indonesia. Each pair of primers generated four to five alleles, with an observed heterozygosity of 0.000-1.000 and an expected heterozygosity of 0.064-0.551. These markers identified seven likely genets (clonal individuals) in the Kuningan population. Of 61 individual plants surveyed in this study, 55 plants distributed throughout the Kuningan District belonged to the same genet, while the another genet represented by a plant (ramet). These ramets were restricted to the villages located on the main road between Kuningan City and Central Java. Cluster analysis shows that the seven genets can be classified into three groups, with two groups showing a restricted distribution in the villages located on the road leading to Central Java. Elephant foot yam plants with berries were rarely observed in the Kuningan District. It is likely that a single genet has become the dominated local cultivar, possibly because of the limited genetic diversity of elephant foot yam in the Kuningan District, its reproduction by clonal propagation and the selection of a specific cultivar by farmers.
A. Radhouani and A. Ferchichi
Dry Lands and Oasian Cropping Laboratory, Institute of Arid Regions, El Jorf 4119, Medenine, Tunisia.
Key words: Muskmelon, grafting, vegetative growth, indexes of growth, quantitative production
Abstract: Plants of muskmelon variety "Calypso" were used as scion and non grafted control while two hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita mushata), TZ148 and Ferro as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown under a monotunnel heated and irrigated by geothermic water in the South of Tunisia. Plants were grown in soilless culture on sand and compost. This trial has revealed that, on sand as well as on compost, grafted plants were more vigorous than self-rooted ones. This vigor was highlighted by values of length and volume of roots, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and fresh and dry matter of leaves. Indexes of growth represented by LAI, SLA, RGR and NAR were strongly improved by grafting particularly by TZ148. This improvement implied a hasty vegetative growth. Moreover, precocity of production was greater for grafted plants. In addition to their early production, grafted plants produced more fruits on sand and compost. The average weight of fruits was enhanced, too, by this agricultural practice. Thus, the major part of fruits produced by grafted plants had a weight superior to 600g.
XiaoLong Li,, JianWen Tian, Mark A. Ritenour, JiaZheng Li, ShuYa Song, HuiLing Ma
College of Life Science, Northwestern A & F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Germplasm resources institute of Ningxia Agricultural Sciences Academy, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia Autonomous region, China. Ningxia Science and Technology Agency, Y
Abstract: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with polyolefin bags made of modified polyvinyl chloride (mPVC), micro-perforated polyethylene (mpPE), modified polyethylene (mPE), plastic film mulch (control-1), and polyvinyl chloride with holes (control-2) were evaluated for their ability to preserve quality of Fuji apple during storage at 0 to 1oC. The results showed that atmosphere in mPVC bag was adjusted to 2.73%~2.38% CO2 and 15.70%~18.13% O2 while in mpPE, mPE and control-1 bag CO2 levels were elevated and O2 level declined to 0.10-0.72%, 20.53~20.9%, respectively. In mPE bag, fruits recorded significantly less weight loss than other packagings throughout the storage, while fruit in mPVC, fresh weight loss was same as in control-1. The overall fruit quality of flesh firmness (FFF), soluble solid content (SSC) and ascorbic acid remained at almost the same level in each packaging during the first 40 days of storage, and changed thereafter. Control-1 resulted in significantly lower FFF than other packagings till day 220 and SSC showed the same trend as in control-2. Respiration rate of fruit in mPVC, control-1 and control-2 peaked on day 220 and those in mpPE and mPE peaked on day 240. Ethylene production of fruit in each packaging increased since day 40 and peaked on day 80 for mPE and control-1, day 100 for mpPE and control-2, on day 120 for mPVC. A second peak for mPE appeared on day 120. Each packaging resulted a dramatic increase and drop of SOD activity in fruit in the first 40 days. After about 220 days of storage, superficial scald and core browning occurred on fruit in mpPE, mPE, control-1, control-2 by 2.4-6.0% and 1.2-1.6%, 6.3-7.9% and 15.8-17.3%, 0-1.6% and 4.4-4.6%, 15.4-16.1% and 3.2-4.5%, respectively while no such incidence was observed in mPVC. Decay and disorder developed faster when storage duration increased.