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P.A. Sofi1, S.A. Wani2, M.Y. Zargar1, F.A. Sheikh1 and T. Shafi1

1 Regional Research Station (SKUAST-K), Wadura, Sopore-193201, J&K. 2Directorate of Research, SKUAST-K, Shalimar-191121, J&K, India

Key words: Common bean, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, water absorption

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 54-58.

Abstract: The amount of water absorbed during soaking by dry beans before cooking may be a reliable indicator of the amount of time required to render them soft and palatable to eat. The present study was undertaken in kharif 2012 at Regional Research Station Wadura. Fifty diverse germplasm accessions (local and exotic) representing different growth habits and market classes were compared with Shalimar Rajmash-1, a high yielding bush variety released by SKUAST-K, for 12 seed morphological and physical characters namely seed colour, seed brilliance, seed shape, seed coat pattern, dry seed weight, soaked seed weight, seed length, seed breadth, seed coat proportion, water absorption ratio, hydration capacity and swelling capacity. There was a broad range of variation in the traits studied as revealed by the range and coefficient of variation (%). The CV was highest for swelling capacity (18.62) followed by water absorption (16.281), hydration capacity (13.61), soaked seed weight (10.712), dry seed weight (3.056) and coat proportion (1.221). However, CV was very low for seed length and seed breadth owing to low variation in these traits. The correlation between different traits was also worked out and revealed that highest correlation was recorded between dry weight and soaked weight (0.874) followed by hydration capacity and swelling capacity (0.720), seed dry weight and hydration capacity (0.710), dry weight and water absorption (0.308), indicating that the seeds with greater cotyledon mass absorbed more water and that greater water absorption leads to greater swelling. However, negative correlations were recorded between coat proportion and water absorption (-0.550) and between dry weight and coat proportion (-0.325). Seed physicochemical traits including the traits used in present study could be effectively used for comparing large set of germplasm lines for cooking qualities as the varieties that have high hydration and swelling capacities are usually fast to cook.
Isha Bhoyer, Mina D. Koche, Santoshi Pudake and N.B. Ninawe

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra). India.

Key words: Papaya, ringspot virus, physical properties, aphid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 59-60.

Abstract: Experiment was conducted in vitro to see the different physical properties and transmission of papaya ring spot virus with different aphid species. The virus was found to be inactivated between temperature 50 to 55C and between the dilutions of 10-3 to 10-4. It remained viable upto 24 hours at temperature 28 to 30C and 5 days at 6 to 8C temperature. The virus was transmissible by five aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Koch), Acyrthosiphonpisum (Buczacki S. and Harris K.), Dactynotus carthami (Hille Ris Lambers), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) in non persistent manner.
J. Hamzei and S. Najjari

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code: 6517833131, Hamedan, Iran

Key words: Cucurbita pepo L., fertilizer, linoleic acid, mycorrhiza fungi, oil percentage, symbiosis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 61-65.

Abstract: Phosphorus is a major nutrient and its deficiency limits plant growth of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The investigation was aimed at studying integrated application of phosphorus on growth and production of pumpkin. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) (mycorrhiza and bacteria) with and without seed inoculations, and P chemical fertilizer at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended fertilizer were applied in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data indicate that PSM and P fertilizer show significant effects on all traits. Maximum oil yield (41.80 g m-2) and linoleic acid (68.30%) were obtained with PSM and 50% of the recommended P fertilizer. Seed yield was significantly increased in response to inoculation of PSM in the presence of low levels of P fertilizer. However, maximum mycorrhizal colonization obtained in 25% recommended P fertilizer. A high level of P fertilizer had a negative effect on the activity of PSM. On the other hand, a low level of phosphorus with PSM has a simulative impact on root colonization and productivity of pumpkin and favoured the activities of PSM.
J. Shankara Swamy and A.K. Banik

Department of Postharvest Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal-741 252, India.

Key words: Blended guava-watermelon squash, blended fruit beverages, xanthan gum, non-enzymatic browning and stability.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 66-70.

Abstract: Guava fruit juices are pleasant when diluted with other tropical fruit juices due to its too acidic or strongly flavoured and less coloured nature, thus blending offers the opportunity to adjust sugar and acid ratios and eliminates some defects in juice quality or nutritional attributes by proper combination ofjuices and further adjustments in ingredients. Guava-watermelon squash at different ratio (50:50, 75:25, 25:75) of pulp blending level containing 40 oBrix TSS and 1% of acidity were prepared with incorporation of different concentrations of xanthan gum, an exocellular polysaccharide produced by obligately aerobic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, to investigate the effect of different ingredients on the product quality and stability during 180 days of storage. There were little changes in quality parameters, TSS, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid during the storage and 0.5% w/w of xanthan gum gave stability to the product during storage. Blended guava-watermelon squash (75:25) having 0.3% of xanthan gum, 40 oBrix TSS, 1% acidity showed highest overall acceptability during the storage period.
R. Ranjan, M. Longkumer and J. Kabir

Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, 741252, India.

Key words: Cauliflower, pretreatment, drying temperature, quality, dehydration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 71-75.

Abstract: Cauliflower curd were pre-treated with hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS, with/without microwave blanching for 5 minutes and were dehydrated at three levels of temperature viz., 65, 60 and 55 oC at different treatment combinations. Considering the dehydration characters and quality after dehydration and storage it was found that T2 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 65 oC) was the best treatment followed by T4 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 60 oC) and T5 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + drying at 55 oC). In T2, time taken for complete dehydration (445 minutes) and moisture content (3.62%) was least. Further, the moisture content after 6 month of storage was also less (9.63%), drying rate (135.74%) and dehydration ratio (10.70) was medium after dehydration. Ascorbic acid retention was maximum during storage in the treatment. Sensory evaluation also supported the superiority of this treatment.
Tewodros Bezu1 and Nigusse Kassa2

School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Key words: Cut-flower, freesia corm, freesia hybrid, Ethiopia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 76-79.

Abstract: Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Freesia Ethiopia Plc., located at Sululta, Ethiopia, to determine the effects of planting density and corm size on flower yield and quality of cut-freesia. Planting densities 90, 100 and 110 corms per m2 and corm sizes of 3, 3.5 and 4 cm in circumference were evaluated on two varieties 'Volante' and 'Casino' using Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement (3 x 3 x 2) with three replications. Emergence date, flowering date, cut flower yield and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed. Consequently, increment of planting density resulted highest number of cut-flowers. Corm size difference positively influenced the stem length, spike length and cut-flowers yield. Significant interaction effects were also found between corm sizes and varieties on yield and quality traits. In general, using the biggest corm and highest planting density exhibited superior result for the greenhouse production of the stated varieties. However, to come up with complete recommendations, further investigations should be conducted in line with other agronomic packages and varieties of economic viability.
S. Kapoor and P. Aggarwal

Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004

Key words: Carrot juice, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, processing, storage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 80-84.

Abstract: Fresh carrot juice is one of the widely consumed vegetable juice during winter season. Recipe for ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was standardized with the addition of sugar, salt and ginger on the basis of sensory evaluation. The effect of processing and storage on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was studied. Among the various combinations prepared, 4% sugar, 0.6% salt, 0.8% ginger and 0.05% citric acid showed highest overall acceptability on the basis of sensory scores and was chosen for further analysis. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH assay. During processing, significant losses were found in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and carrot ginger juice. The study revealed that carrot ginger juice was found to retain more antioxidant activity compared to control juice due to addition of ginger. Storage of six months had no significant effect on TSS and acidity of processed carrot juices. However, storage led to significant decrease in bioactive compounds and thus decreased antioxidant activity of carrot products.
Philip M.P. Mornya and Fangyun Cheng

Center for National Flower Engineering Research, College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing-100083, China. School of Forestry and Horticulture, Njala University, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

Key words: Bud dormancy, carbohydrates, plant hormone, temperature, tree peony

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 159-165.

Abstract: The trial to investigate hormonal and sugar changes in tree peony buds associated with dormancy was conducted in the field at the Beijing Forestry University Experimental Site in China during autumn, winter and spring seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011), the periods of dormancy development and release. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. The hormone and sugar levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and spectrophotometer, respectively. Winter temperature accumulated abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars in tree peony buds which most likely induced dormancy. Spring temperature, on the other hand, degraded ABA and sugars, and accumulated gibberellic acid (GA3) that possibly released dormancy in tree peony buds indicating that environmental temperature was the key regulator of hormone and sugar levels that influenced bud dormancy and growth. The results suggest that accumulation of ABA, GA3 and sugars in buds during dormancy or bud-break stage appears to be directly related to the degree of temperature experienced at that stage. While ABA and sugar accumulated with decreasing temperature, GA3 accumulated with increasing temperature. It is likely that the reduction of ABA and sugars played an important role in bud dormancy release or alteration in bud growth of tree peonies. Seasonal patterns of sucrose and starch were almost the same in buds of the tested tree peony cultivars which contradicts previous studies suggesting converse relationship in terms of accumulation in winter. However, seasonal accumulation of endogenous compositions varies with cultivar. Among the investigated cultivars, ?Luoyang Hong? (LH) not only accumulated less ABA, GA3 and sugars but also released bud dormancy earlier than the ?Zhao Fen? (ZF) and ?High Noon? (HN), suggesting that the level of these internal compositions in LH is less responsive to seasonal temperature change. The ability of buds to simultaneously accumulate ABA and sugar reserves while in dormant state may provide a significant adaptive advantage for peonies to survive the erratic climate, particularly in temperate regions, which could be one of the reasons for the geographically widespread of the genus Paeonia in the world.
A. Vitkova, A. Gavrilova, M. Delcheva, A. Trendafilova and M. Todorova

Department of Plant and Fungal Diversity and Resources, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria. Institute of Organic Chemistry with Ce

Key words: Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl., A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., medicinal plants, endemics, ex situ, biological productivity, flavonoids, tannins

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 166-172.

Abstract: Guidelines for introduction and ex situ cultivation of species from genus Alchemilla, known by its curative properties for a variety of health disorders are presented for the first time. Subject of the study are the rare and protected Bulgarian species Alchemilla achtarowii Pawl., A. jumrukczalica Pawl. and A. mollis (Buser.) Rothm., which showed high antioxidant activity in our recent research. Transplant material from natural populations grown in two live collections in the regions of Vitosha Mt. (1404 masl) and West Rhodopes Mt. (1500 masl) (Bulgaria) was used. The growth and development rate of the new plants was assessed according to the method of phenological observations. Nine morphometrical indices were studied and the biological productivity of the species was determined in ex situ conditions. The quantities of flavonoids (calculated as % quercetin) and tannins (calculated as % pyrogallol) during the different phenological stages of ex situ plant development were assessed via spectrophotometric methods. Several differences between the species in the two experimental stations were summarized as dependent on the ecological conditions. All results of the study were used to elaborate methodological instruction for successful cultivation of the species in field conditions.
Ajay Kumar Upadhyay, Jagdev Sharma and J. Satisha

National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune ? 412 307, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Rootstocks, Thompson Seedless, salinity tolerance, grapes, sodium, chloride, nutrients, saline irrigation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 173-177.

Abstract: Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting the productivity of the grapes in India. The response of vines differs under such conditions. Dogridge rootstock though introduced in the country to deal with salinity and moisture stress, tolerance was found lacking under such conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate the salinity tolerance of Thompson Seedless vines raised on different rootstocks and on own root at two salinity levels viz., 2 and 4 dSm-1. The rootstocks included were 110R and 1103P from Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris parentage, Dogridge (Vitis champinii) and St. George (Rupestris du Lot). The irrigation water salinity was manipulated using sodium chloride. Thompson Seedless vines raised on 110R and 1103P rootstocks did not show marginal necrosis and leaf blackening symptoms at both salinity levels whereas other rootstocks showed mild to severe symptoms. All stock-scion combinations recorded significantly higher bunch weight than own rooted vines. Highest yield was recorded in the 1103P rootstock at both the salinity levels which was on par with 110R rootstock. Significant differences existed between rootstocks and own root at both the salinity levels with the lowest mean petiole Na values recorded in case of vines raised on 110R. High content of Na in vine tissues (>1.0%) grafted on Dogridge rootstock suggest that this rootstock could not exclude Na under saline irrigation. Though below the threshold levels, at 4 dSm-1 level, Dogridge rootstock recorded significantly higher chloride in petioles than other rootstocks. The sodium ?potassium ratios in leaf blade and petiole were least in case of 110R and 1103P rootstocks whereas higher values were recorded in case of other stock-scion combinations and on own roots. Highest accumulation of sodium in vegetative parts was recorded in vines grafted on Dogridge whereas the rootstocks 110R and 1103P, accumulated highest K, Mg, Ca and P.
M.M. Burondkar, Shailendra Rajan, K.K. Upreti, Y.T.N. Reddy, V.K. Singh, S.N. Sabale, M.M. Naik, P.M. Nigade and Pooja Saxena

Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra. Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, India.

Key words: Early season, Alphonso, mango, lateritic rocky area, Konkan, paclobutrazol, flowering, harvesting season

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 178-182.

Abstract: The present study, aimed at advancing Alphonso mango harvest season through manipulation in time of soil application of paclobutrazol (PBZ) [soil application on 15th of May, June, July, and August]; foliar spray of KNO3 (3%) [August and September], was conducted during 2010 to 2012 cropping seasons in red lateritic rocky soil of Konkan (Maharashtra, India). Results of individual years and mean for three years revealed that significant earliness in flowering (85.4 day) and advancement in harvesting (82 day) was achieved with the application of PBZ on 15th May. PBZ application on 15th June was relatively less effective in inducing early flowering (56 day) and harvesting (69 days). However, the greater extent of flowering (72.23 %) and fruit yield per tree (40.72 kg/tree) were recorded with PBZ applied at recommended time i.e., on 15th August. Individual fruit weight was higher in KNO3 sprayed tree in the months of August (268g) and September (265.5 g), whereas fruit T.S.S. was higher (19.37 oBrix.) in trees receiving PBZ on 15th August. The findings of study indicated huge potential for realizing about 5-6 times higher returns from Alphonso produced in February-March months as compared to May harvest.
K.T. Kareem, B.O. Odu, V.C. Umeh, V.A. Chikaleke, K.E. Oke, O. Arogundade, A.O. Adediji and O.O. Odedara

National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan

Key words: Citrus sinensis, Citrus tristeza virus, ELISA, absorbance, rootstock, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 183-186.

Abstract: A survey was conducted on a 33 year old orchard to determine the incidence and distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus in different citrus cultivars at National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Nigeria. Compound enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Compound ELISA) was used to detect the presence of CTV in the citrus leaf samples. The results revealed 100% incidence in all the varieties tested. Of all the sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) budded on Cleopatra mandarin rootstock, Washington Navel had the least plant survival of 2 out of the 12 planted with a canopy spread of 7.91 m and fruit yield of 7.00 kg per tree. It also had the highest mean ELISA reading with an absorbance (A405nm) of 3.4780 while Bende had the least titre of 3.2158 with plant survival of 12 out of the 12 trees planted and fruit yield of 57.70 kg per tree. No significant difference was observed in Agege variety of sweet orange budded on different rootstock types and their ELISA values ranged from 3.283 to 3.384. Among the seedling trees, White grape recorded the highest mean ELISA value of 3.4698 while the average ELISA values of the other seedling trees were not statistically different from each other with their titres ranging between 3.2712 and 3.3615. The results establish the pandemic status of CTV in NIHORT orchard. The use of resistant cultivars and cross protection are recommended as effective, economical and environment-friendly means of preventing the incidence and spread of CTV.
Anant Bahadur, Amit Kumar Singh and S.N.S. Chaurasia

Division of Vegetable Production, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi 221 305, India.

Key words: Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus, drought stress, organic mulch, gas exchange, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 187-190.

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on okra by imposing water deficit and using organic mulches during spring-summer of 2009 and 2010 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. The treatments comprised of three levels of irrigation scheduling (5, 10 and 15 days intervals) and three level of mulch (pea straw, dry grass mulch at 7.0 t ha-1 and ?no mulch?). Significant differences on physiological and yield attributes were observed in various irrigation treatments and organic mulches. Organic mulching enhanced the stomatal conductance and photosynthesis by 127-154% and 50-59%, respectively over no mulch. Similarly, there was 16 and 33% reduction in photosynthesis, and 33 and 36% reduction in stomatal conductance in 15 days irrigation scheduled plant as comparison to 5 and 10 days schedule, respectively. The maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was registered with irrigation at 10 days coupled with organic mulching. Similarly, irrigation at 5 or 10 days recorded 40.3 and 45.6% higher pod yield, respectively over longer intervals. Significantly higher yield was noticed in both organic mulches over no mulch. Maximum pod yields (103.55 and 116.73 q ha-1) were recorded respectively, with irrigation at 10 days interval and mulching either with pea straw or dry grass. Mulched plants exhibited very proportional allocation of drymatter in various plant parts. The maximum water use efficiency of 351.60 kg ha-1cm-1 was recorded in treatment comprising irrigation scheduling at 10 days interval and mulching with dry grass.
R.M. Sharma, A.K. Singh, Sushil Sharma, F.A. Masoodiand Uma Shankar

Division of Fruit Science, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu-180009. Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Division of Agricultural Engineering, S.K. University o

Key words: Shading, light, plant growth, runner production, survival, crop duration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 191-194.

Abstract: Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruits and its cultivated area has increased significantly during the last few years in subtropics but the margin of profit is reduced due to lack of runnering caused by high temperature and high light intensity. The objective of the study was to exploit the possibility of its regeneration in subtropical areas by moderating the effect of high temperature and light intensity through the use of shading nets. Of the 4 shading levels, use of 50% shading tended to produce highest number of runners in Chandler (11.44/plant) and Oso Grand (16.33/plant) cultivars. The runners produced under shadings (25-75%) were significantly vigorous in respect of number of leaves (8.38/plant), leaf area (69.70 cm2), crown diameter (13.49 mm) and root length (11.26 cm) but the highest root dry matter (6.37 g/plant) was observed in the runners produced under 0% shading. In the plants regenerated under subtropical conditions, shadings resulted higher survival rate, early cropping, longer picking duration, higher fruit yield and average fruit weight than the plants raised under 0 % shedding in subtropical as well as temperate areas. The use of 50% shading treatment during regeneration tended to increase the picking duration (44.70 days), fruit yield (278.08 g/plant) and fruit weight (14.22g) of strawberries. The runners of Chandler excelled over Oso Grand statistically in respect of picking duration and fruit yield.
Barikara Umesha, S. Santhana Bosu, K.P. Rema and A.R. Murumkar

College of Agricultural Engineering & Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore-03, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrisur (Kerala), Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

Key words: Drip irrigation, fertigation, micro irrigation, soil-less media, tomato

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 195-197.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2009 to 2010 to study the effect of drip irrigation with fertigation in soil-less culture under controlled cultivation for Tomato. The highest yield per plant (2.16 kg/plant) and yield per hectare (112 t/ha) was registered in Peat:Vermicompost (T4F2 ) and the lowest yield per plant was recorded in Coir pith :Vermicompost (T2F1) (1.07 kg and 55.48 t/ha) under polyhouse condition. The highest water use efficiency (1972.87 kg/ha cm) was obtained in T4F2 and the lowest was obtained in T2F2 (977.30 kg/ha cm) in poly house. The highest N fertilizer use efficiency (700 kg/ ha.kg of N) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency was noted in T2F1 (277 kg/ ha kg of N). The highest K fertilizer use efficiency (560 kg/ ha.kg of K) was recorded in T4F2 at 80 % of fertigation and the least efficiency (222 kg /ha.kg of K) was noted in T2F1. The highest benefit cost ratio 2.33 was recorded in T4F2. The results of the study indicated that the controlled cultivation of tomato in soil-less media has more benefits, in terms of yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency, and benefit cost ratio.

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