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Yoshihiko Shiga, Sakio Tsutsui and Tetsuo Mikami

Hokkaido Agricultural Laboratory for Business Development, Eniwa, 061-1405, Japan.

Key words: Allium sativum L., garlic, genetic diversity, germplasm, morphological characteristics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 210-212 .

Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an ancient and clonally propagated crop that has been under rather continuous selection since antiquity. In Japan, each garlic-growing region had its own local cultivars (clones) at one time. This is still the case in some regions, but with expanding transport networks and the requirements for high yield of commercial quality, only a few clones dominate the garlic production in the country. Here we describe the morphological characteristics of Japanese garlic clones. The review also focusses on the possible ancestry of Japanese garlics inferred from molecular genetic analysis.
Rifat Bhat, Sharbat Hussain, W.M. Wani, F.A. Banday and M.K. Sharma

Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Intecropping, productivity, quality, leaf nutrient status, apple, relative economics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 213-216 .

Abstract: The present investigations were conducted to assess the effect of intercrops like maize, pea, strawberry, cabbage, red clover, french bean, oats and clean cultivation (control) on productivity, quality, leaf nutrient status and relative economic yield of apple cv. Red Delicious. The results obtained revealed that the intercrops of leguminous nature like (pea, red clover, french bean) resulted in higher productivity, better quality fruits and increased leaf nutrient content in apple as compared to heavy feeder(requiring high level of soil nutrients) crops like maize, oats, strawberry and cabbage. However the apple plants intercropped with control (clean cultivations) performed better than heavy feeder crops. The impact of intercrops on relative economics of apple (system equivalent yield) revealed that the apple plants intercropped with pea gave a net income of Rs 291814.00 per ha with benefit : cost ratio of 1.71 followed by cabbage Rs 224428.00 per ha with the benefit: cost ratio of 1.41 and red clover with a net income of Rs 232395.00 with benefit : cost ratio of Rs 1.40, respectively.
Chandra Kant Sharma and Vinay Sharma

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India-304022.

Key words: Simple sequence repeat, A. marmelos (L.) Corr., heterozygosity.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 217-221.

Abstract: Analysis of diversity by citrus based microsatellite set in Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. was undertaken because molecular markers are DNA based markers and reveal the genetic diversity which is more universal. Genetic diversity of A. marmelos was measured by using 10 microsatellite markers. A total of 47 alleles were detected in A. marmelos across the 10 loci investigated, all these alleles were polymorphic, thus revealing a level of 100% polymorphism. The number of observed alleles assorted flanked by 4 to 7 with mean 4.71.059 alleles at each locus. The experimental no. of alleles intended for every 10 loci gone beyond the effectual no. of alleles that assorted between 1.384 and 3.164 with an average value 1.9950.11. In present study the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.127+0.06, which was not more than heterozygosity (expected). The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.164 (CCSM147) to 0.685 (CT19) with mean value 0.4070.177. Since, observed heterozygosity is less than the expected heterozygosity seems to be due to inbreeding.
A.K. Bera, T.R. Maity, A. Samanta, A. Dolai, B. Saha and S. Datta

Mahishadal Raj College, Mahishadal-721 628, West Bengal, India. Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia-721 657, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Efficient protocol, coconut coir, in vitro corms, Gladiolus, RAPD, genetic fidelity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 222-224.

Abstract: An efficient protocol was developed for mass scale in vitro corm production of Gladiolus (cv. White Friendship) using liquid culture and coconut coir explored as a matrix. The culture was initiated from the basal portion of the innermost leaf of the sprout. The cut surface of responding explant was swelled in MS solid basal media supplemented with 2 mg L-1 NAA. Ten to fifteen shoot buds were observed when the responding explant was transferred in MS media with 2 mg L-1 BAP and 0.2 mg L-1 NAA. The high frequency of in vitro corms were initiated in liquid MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6% sucrose in coir matrix. The corms with highest mean fresh weight (4570 mg) and diameter (25 mm) developed on periodically replaced media (every three weeks) than unchanged media. Using RAPD profiling, the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised corms were tested.
Suchita V. Gupta, Vaishali R. Wankhade, Bhagyashree N. Patil and P.M. Nimkar

Department of Agricultural Process Engineering, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola,444104 Maharashtra.

Key words: Sapota fruit, dimensions, physical properties, post-harvest processing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 225-229.

Abstract: Most of the sapota fruit processing methods employed is still traditional. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view to understand the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. Objectives of this study were to generate data for physical and mechanical properties of sapota fruit (cv. Kalipatti) in order to facilitate the design of some machines for its processing. The moisture content of sapota fruit was found to be 72 to 76% wb. The results showed that linear dimensions varied from 62.19 to 50.10 mm in length, 42.16 to 31.90 mm in width, and 41.42 to 27.40 mm in thickness. Average weight and volume of fruit were measured as 55.50 to 38.20 g and 587.7 to 408.3 cc, respectively. The bulk density, true density and porosity were 0.915 g/cc, 1.053 g/cc and 13.10%, respectively. The geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area were obtained as 41.81 mm3, 0.75, and 19715.81 mm2, respectively. The average static coefficients of friction were measured as 0.20, 0.18, 0.12 and 0.15 on plywood, galvanized iron, glass and acrylic surfaces, respectively. The average peak cutting force, energy used for cutting, specific energy, ultimate cutting stress and deformation of fresh sapota was found to be 73.96 N, 228.42 N cm, 1.23 N/cm, 0.40 N/cm2 and 3.18 cm, respectively. The average peak puncture force, energy used for puncture, specific energy, ultimate puncture stress and deformation of fresh sapota fruit was found to be 62.17 N, 25.50 N cm, 0.13 N/cm, 0.33 N/cm2 and 0.42 cm, respectively.
Simrat Singh, R.K. Dubey and S.S. Kukal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Chemical properties, cocopeat, farm yard manure, leaf mould, potted chrysanthemum, physical properties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 230-235.

Abstract: Restricted pot volume and inadequate gaseous exchange in root zone environment restricts satisfactory growth and development of chrysanthemum plants. To this effect, an experiment was conducted to study the performance of cocopeat amended media mixtures in improving the root zone environment for satisfactory growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. The growing media mixtures such as farm yard manure and leaf mould as base media (25%) were amended with varying proportions each of soil: cocopeat (CP) as 75%:0; 50%:25%; 25%:50% and 0%:75% on volume basis. The media mixtures amended with increasing proportion of CP lowered the pH, bulk density, particle density and weight of the pots. The plants raised in media mixtures with increasing proportions of CP were observed to be well anchored and exhibited excellent quality of flowers. Utilizing 75% CP as a growing media amendment in FYM proved to be the best media mixture for ideal growth and performance of potted chrysanthemum. Better aggregate stability provided by the base media and increased K content in CP coupled with improved physical characteristics of media mixtures provide a suitable reason to utilize CP as a alternative light weight potting media for an ideal display of pot mums.
A. Kaur and H.S. Sodhi

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Volvariella volvacea, single spore cultures, growth, enzyme activity, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 236-240.

Abstract: Volvariella volvacea is a tropical mushroom with variable biological efficiency which may be stabilized through isolation of single spore cultures. Eighty seven single spore cultures (VAT-1 to VAT-87) of V. volvacea strain VV132 were isolated from three fruit bodies. The single spore cultures were characterized for their growth and enzyme producing capability followed by yield trials. Maximum growth rate was recorded in VAT- 81 and maximum biomass production was recorded in VAT-15 and VAT-82. On the basis of growth characteristics, twelve single spore cultures were selected for enzyme activity and cultivation trials along with the parent strain VV-132. Maximum endo-1,4-?- glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) activity was recorded in VAT-82 (0.158U/h/mg). Maximum xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) activity and exo-1,4-?-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.91) activity were recorded in VAT-15 (0.155U/h/mg and 0.083U/h/mg, respectively). The laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) activity was maximum for VAT-73 (3.66U/min/mL). In comparison to parent strain V. volvacea VV132, five single spore cultures VAT-15, VAT-26, VAT-33, VAT-73 and VAT-81 had shown higher yield whereas the number of fruit bodies was higher for single spore culture VAT-81. During the present study, these five V. volvacea single spore cultures have been identified as high yielding strains.
K.L. Mary Rani, B. Narsimha Rao and M. Rambabu

Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi, Andhra Pradesh., India.

Key words: Oil palm, software, database, irrigation, module, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 241-242.

Abstract: Oil palm requires adequate irrigation and demands a balanced and adequate supply of nutrients for its growth and yield. Under irrigated conditions, studies were undertaken to standardize fertilizer and irrigation dose through fertigation and micro irrigation to improve nutrient and water-use efficiency, respectively. For these studies, the palm-wise data needs to be compiled and analysed to know the performance of various treatments. Software requirement analysis was done to identify the input and output characteristics of the experiments and related data management. Database modules were designed and developed in MS Access using the Visual Basic for Applications to record the palm-wise data on different characters and to retrieve information in the form of various reports for the selected period like day, month and year. User friendly screens were designed for this purpose. The software enables to retrieve the data on treatment means for various parameters and export it to Excel format for further analysis using any statistical software. The software was tested for its function and is implemented.
Swati Kumari, Mala Trivedi and Maneesh Mishra

ICAR - Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow, India. Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Key words: Transgenic papaya, coat protein, papaya ring spot virus, microprojectile, Agrobacterium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 243-248.

Abstract: Papaya is the first fruit crop which was not only successfully genetically engineered but also deregulated and commercialized. Pathogenic derived resistance was utilized for harnessing PRSV resistance. Coat protein gene from PRSV was invariably used to confer resistance against papaya ring spot virus. Microprojectile transformation has been the most preferred pathway. However, several reports are also available involving Agrobacterium pathway. Majority of workers found somatic embryos as the explant of choice for genetic manipulation in papaya compared to other explants. This paper highlights the global status of development of genetically engineered papaya for viral resistance.
S.S. Miller, C. Hott and T. Tworkoski

USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA.

Key words: Apple, carbohydrate, fruit quality, productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 101-105.

Abstract: Light is a critical resource needed by plants for growth and reproduction. A major portion of the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees canopy is subjected to shade during most daylight hours each day and such shade may affect productivity. The current research determined effects of morning, afternoon, and all-day shading on processes that are significant to orchard productivity. In 1996 Ginger Gold/M.9 apple trees were planted in the field near Kearneysville, WV and shade treatments were imposed from 2002 to 2005. Trunk and branch growth were reduced consistently by morning shade (MS) compared to no shade (NS) and full shade (FS) and afternoon shade (AS) had intermediate effects. Total branch growth from 2002 to 2005 was 164, 168, 145, and 157 cm for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Although shade affected yield inconsistently from year-to-year, total yield from 2002 to 2005 was 7.8, 201.6, 72.5, and 110.6 kg/tree for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Time of shading clearly affected yield with full shade causing the greatest reduction, followed by partial shade treatments, MS and AS. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, particularly sorbitol, were greater in leaves of AS compared to MS. It is postulated that MS may have adversely affected photosynthesis at a time of day that was most conducive to high net assimilation. Planting and training apple trees to minimize shade, especially morning shade, may benefit orchard productivity.
Eric T. Stafne, Becky Carroll and Damon Smith

Coastal Research and Extension Center, Plant and Soil Sciences Department, Mississippi State University, Poplarville, MS, USA 39470, 1-601-403-8939. 1Agricultural Hall, Department of Horticulture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

Key words: Disease control, disease severity, Guignardia bidwellii, interspecific hybrid, organic, vine stress, Vitis spp.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 106-108.

Abstract: Black rot, caused by Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, and bud cold hardiness are both management issues in eastern U.S. viticulture. Black rot infections lead to vine stress, resulting in premature defoliation and rotten fruit, potentially compromising cold acclimation of the vine. No studies have targeted bud cold hardiness in relation to severity of prior season black rot infection. Thus, in 2011, �Noiret�, a hybrid winegrape, was subjected to four black rot control treatments: conventional (C), organic 1 (O1), organic 2 (O2), and no spray (N). Leaves and fruit were scored for black rot severity. The O1 and N treatments had the highest level of leaf and fruit disease severity and were not significantly different. The C treatment had the least amount of leaf and fruit disease severity and the O2 treatment was intermediate and significantly different from the O1, N, and C treatments. Bud samples were taken in January, February, and March 2012 and exposed to subzero temperatures (-21 �C, -23 �C, -26 �C, -29 �C) in an ethylene glycolbath to assess if prior season black rot infection impacted primary bud hardiness. In January and March nearly all buds were still alive at -21�C and -23�C, but -29�C caused more damage. Black rot control treatments were not a statistically significant factor in the bud hardiness experiment. This could be due to black rot severity being below a critical threshold for impact or the vines had enough time to recover in late summer and fall to reach full mid-winter hardiness.
Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Mohammad Hosein Rezadoost, Amir Hosein Zamani, Mohammad Reza Mirzaii and Ali Reza Afsharifar

Biotechnology Department, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. 2Plant Virology Research Center, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Acetosyringon, vir gene induction, virus induce gene silencing, Citrus tristeza virus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 109-114.

Abstract: Citrus trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates due to their luscious taste, nutritional and medical benefits. Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia and are among the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. Breeding programs including the incorporation of genetic resistance to pests and diseases are necessary in this crop. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is of particular importance due to its rapid epidemic resulting in severe plant damage. The present research was aimed at transforming Citrus aurantinum with a gene encoding virus coat protein from CTV through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. P25 coat protein gene was identified and then isolated from different CTV strains. Two regions of the gene were conserved among the genera and subcloned as a single chimer into a pFGC5941 silencing vector. Epicotyls-originated explants of C. aurantium were transformed by EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Some of the effective factors in gene transformation were examined by inoculation methods with Agrobacterium such as Acetosyringon effect (0, 50, and 100 �M), inoculation time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min), and co-cultivation period (1, 2, 3 and 4 days). Based on our results, maximum number of transformed plants (13.7%) were obtained under combined treatment of 50 �M acetosyringone after 15 min inoculation time and 2 days of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. One of the advantages of the current protocol is regeneration of explants through direct organogenesis which avoid callus phase and consequently somaclonal variation.
Fenghua Wang, Guangyuan Li, Shuangchen Chen, Yan Jiang and Shaoxian Wang

Forestry College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China.

Key words: Radish, mutant, compound leaf, microstructure, SRAP

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 115-120 .

Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, time to flower opening and vase life, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion gross flower opening which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
Randall P. Niedz*, Joseph P. Albano and Mizuri Marutani-Hert

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road Ft. Pierce, FL34945-3030, USA

Key words: Water, nonionic surfactants, gelling agents, malachite green, sodium sulphate, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. paradisi Macf., C. sinensis L. Osbeck

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 121-128.

Abstract: The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined. Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity, malachite green, nonionic surfactants, and sodium sulphate. Tap water, with the highest levels of SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+, resulted in the most shoots compared to the other 5 sources, suggesting a mineral nutrient effect. Carrageenan produced fewer shoots than agar and gellan gum. Explants inserted into the medium produced more shoots than those cultured on the surface, presumably because of better exposure to water and nutrients. Seed size, light intensity, malachite green, and sodium sulphate had no effect on the number of shoots regenerated. Triton X-100 at 0.1 % resulted in significantly fewer shoots; otherwise, nonionic surfactants had no effect.
Widiatmaka, Wiwin Ambarwulan, Atang Sutandi, Kukuh Murtilaksono, Khursatul Munibah and Usman Daras

Department of Soil Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Geospatial Information Agency, Indonesia. 3Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia.

Key words: Geographic information system, horticultural crop, land evaluation, land use planning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 129-139.

Abstract: Cashews have a potential economic value for local people, and as a conservation plant that is appropriate for small islands, which usually have limited resource capacities. The research for this paper was conducted on Lombok Island, Indonesia with the objective to delineate the potential areas for cashew, based on land availability and land suitability. Land availability was analyzed by taking into account the land use and land cover maps interpreted from SPOT-6 imagery, a Forest Areas Status map and a map from the Official Spatial Land Use Plan. The evaluation of the lands suitability for cashews was conducted at a land mapping unit resulting from a soil survey, carried out at a scale of 1:25,000. The suitability analysis was done using a maximum limitation method, where the suitability level was defined by the lowest soil characteristics which determined the plants requirements. The land evaluation criteria were established in previous research, which included this island as an area of criteria establishment. The research results show that the land on this island has suitability status for cashews ranging from S2 (moderately suitable) to N (not suitable). The limiting factors include water availability, nutrient retention, available nutrients and rooting media, some of which can be improved. According to the available and suitable land, an area of 4,075.6 ha can be assigned as first priority, 18,167.3 ha as second priority and 43,582.8 ha as third priority for cashew expansion areas.

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