Abstract: Growth and survival percentage of Curculigo latifolia Dryand under different light intensity and various soil media was studied to work out suitable growing conditions for the species. Three light intensity (25, 50 and 100%) and soil media consisting topsoil, organic manure and sand as 1:1:1 (T1), 2:3:1 (T2) and 3:2:1 (T3) were used as treatments for planting C. latifolia. When multiplied by rhizomes, the survival rates in all treatments were 100%, however the leaf growth and number were influenced by light intensity and soil media. There were no significant differences of leaf growth between T1 and T3 under 50% light and T2 under 100 % light. However, in T2 under 25% light higher leaf number and in T1 (1:1:1) under 50% light higher plant height was observed. The species was successfully regenerated by rhizomes for the present study. The studyrevealed that light intensity has significant effect on plant height and leaf number of C. latifolia. Soil media influenced the height and leaf number with different effect under varying light intensities.
R.S. Negi, B.S. Baghel and U.S.Gautam
Deendayal Research Institute Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Satna (MP)-485331, India. College of Horticulture, JNKVV, Mansour (MP), India. Zonal Project Directorate, Zone- VII(ICAR), Jabalpur (MP), India.
Key words: Aonla,in situ,ex situ, method of orchard establishment, method of propagation, budlings/graft
Abstract: To standardize the rehabilitation technology for degraded pasture/grazing lands through aonla (Emblica officinalis), an experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deendayal Research Institute, Satna for two consecutive years with 5 methods of orchard establishment (in situ raising of seedlings/rootstocks, transplanting of one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags, transplanting of one year old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly tubes, transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in poly bags and transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in nursery) and 5 methods of propagation, i.e. patch, shield, chip, forkert budding and wedge grafting. Growth parameters were higher in the plants raised by transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling method for orchard establishment. The in situ raising of seedlings was found to be next suitable method in respect of growth parameters. Among the different methods of propagation, chip budding recorded the maximum growth of budlings closely followed by patch budding. The interaction between method of orchard establishment and propagation registered better growth of budlings under transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling and performing chip budding next year. Based on these results, transplanting one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags and performing chip budding next year during last week of June can be recommended for the rehabilitation of wastelands on a commercial scale for the economic utilization of such wastelands through aonla cultivation.
R.A. Patil, D.V. Sudhakar Raoand B. Manasa
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru-560 065. Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru-560 089. India.
Abstract: Laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of modified atmospheric packaging on chilling injury and shelf-life of custard apple fruits at the division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru, during September-October, 2009. The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. Three different kinds of flexible films viz. low density polyethylene (LDPE), Cryovac Opti 300 and Cryovac PD-961 of 30 x 25 cm size were used for packaging of fruits as main treatment. Eight fruits were packed in each film bag and these packs were further master packed in ventilated CFB boxes. The boxes were then stored in "Walk-in" cold rooms maintained at 8, 12 and 15 oC (85-90 % RH), respectively. The observations were recorded at weekly intervals. Results of the study revealed that MAP of custard apple fruits with LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film could alleviate the chilling injury at 8 ?C to considerable extent, besides extending the storage life. The non-packed control fruits could be stored up to three weeks at 8 oC, but these fruits lacked desirable appearance due to development of chilling injury. At 12 oC, the fruits could be kept in unripe condition up to two weeks, when the fruits were packed either in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film, when compared to four days in non-packed fruits at room temperature. These fruits ripened normally without chilling injury (CI) in three days when they were shifted to RT after unpacking. It can be concluded that the storage life of custard apple fruits could be extended at 12 oC without any CI by packing the fruits in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film.
Manoj Kundu, Ritu Joshi, P.N. Rai and L.D. Bist
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), India
Key words: Pear, plant bio-regulators (PBRs), trunk soil line pore (TSLP), productivity, total sugar content, TSS to acid ratio.
Abstract: Pear (Pyrus spp.) mainly cultivated in the temperate Himalayan region of India, is an important fruit crop. Although, it is a temperate fruit but tarai region of northern India have great potential for growing different low chilling cultivars of this fruit. But the main problem of these low chill cultivars in this area is vigorous growth with shy bearing habit with heavy fruit drop and poor fruit growth resulting very low yield with much inferior fruit quality as compared to fruits produced in temperate region. Plant bio-regulators have the great potential to boost up reproductive growth resulting higher yield with better quality fruits under tarai region. Hence, a field experiment was conducted to study the role of different plant bio-regulators (PBRs) to prevent fruit drop and to improve fruit growth, quality and the productivity of low chill pear cv Gola. Fifteen years old Gola trees were foliar sprayed or soil drenched with different PBRs viz., gibberellin (GA3), benzyl adenine (BA) and paclobutrazol (PP333) at petal fall (PF) stage followed by two and four weeks after PF or at late fall stage. The results indicate that different treatments had significant effect on all the parameters studied. Minimum fruit drop and maximum productivity was depicted in foliar and soil application of PP333 followed by foliar spray of GA3. However, fruit growth (length and width) and volume at maturity and total sugar content was recorded maximum in combined application of GA3 and BA. Foliar as well as soil application of PP333 was also found effective for increasing the sugar content of the fruit while maximum TSS to acid ratio was also recorded in these two treatments. Based on results, it could be said that the foliar as well as the soil application of PP333 is highly effective for controlling shy bearing problem with minimal fruit drop and improved fruit quality resulting higher productivity of marketable fruits of better quality.
K. Swathi, Tejaswini and K.V.Jayaprasad
Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesserghatta, Bangaluru-560089, India
Abstract: Petunia is one of the important bedding plants and occupies an ever increasing demand in flower seed industry. The present study was carried out to evaluate various selfing techniques to identify the efficient one for the production of large quantity of seeds in short duration to facilitate inbred development. Different selfing techniques like threading, manual pollination, bagging of single bud and bagging of multiple buds were tried in three inbred lines and also their interactions were studied. The results indicated that bagging of multiple buds took minimum days to seed set, higher pod weight and highest number of seeds/mg. Seed germination percentage was high in manual pollination followed by bagging of multiple buds. Inbred lines IIHRP-WT gave best results as compared to other inbred lines. Interaction of this inbred line with bagging of multiple buds gave good seed quality results like higher pod weight and number of seeds/mg.
Durga Singh, R.P.S. Shaktawat and I.S. Naruka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra and Department of Plantation and Spice Crops, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (MP)-458001 India
Abstract: Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci L.) is a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.) of family Alliaceae in India and widely spread in summer season. For the control of its infestation, the crop is sprayed intensively with insecticides. In order to find out the most efficient and eco-friendly method of thrips control, an experiment was conducted at Shajapur (M.P.) during the year 2007 and 2008 to assess the thrips population. Thrips population was counted at 15 days interval. Thrips population was peaked in February when they reached the maximum mean values ranging between 15.30 and 153.45 thrips per plant. The seven treatments of insecticides i.e. fipronil 5 % SC, lambda-cyhalothrin 5 % EC, lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS, thiacloprid 21.7 % SC, deltamethrin 11 % w/w EC, malathion 50 % EC were applied at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting of onion crop for management of onion thrips. Among all the insecticides applied fipronil 5 % SC and lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS was the most effective insecticide in reducing the thrips population and increasing the weight of exportable bulb and yield of onion as compare to control and other insecticides. Fipronil 5 % SC treatment reduced the thrips population by 98.56 percent over control and increased the bulb yield by 124.90 percent compared with control.
U. Amala, D.S. Yadav and A.M. Bhosale
Department of Entomology, National Research Centre of Grapes, Solapur Road, P.B. No. 3, Manjri Farm, Pune - 412 307, Maharashtra, India
Abstract: Survey was conducted to investigate the parasitoid complex of mealybug infesting grapes in the vineyards during 2012 to 2013. The parasitized mummies of mealybugs were collected and held in the test tubes until the parasitoid emerged out. The emerged parasitoids were identified and preserved. Three encyrtid parasitoids viz., Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault, Anagyrus dactylopii Howard, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard were found to effect parasitization of the mealybugs. A. dactylopii was found specific to pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. L. dacylopii and C. perminutus were found parasitizing Planococcus citri. Percent parasitization of mealybug by C. perminutus, A. dactylopii andL. dactylopii was 56.25, 72.72 and 81.81 per cent, respectively during the peak incidence of mealybugs. Mean population of C. perminutus A. dactylopii and L. dactylopii were 6.3, 5.4 and 5.9 individuals per vine.
Sheikh Khursheed, Desh Raj and Nisar A. Ganie
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University Palampur-176 062 (H.P.) India.
Key words: Red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis, cucumber, population dynamics
Abstract: The population dynamics of Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas in relation to abiotic factors was studied on cucumber (Cucumis sativus), var. 'Khira-90' during 2009 and 2010. Incidence of red pumpkin beetle in field indicated that its initial activity and peak period varied with the locations and prevailing weather conditions. At Palampur, the insect was found active from second fortnight of April with three peaks during 2nd and 4th weeks of May and 3rd week of July, 2009 whereas, one major peak during 2nd week of May was recorded in 2010. At farmer's field, Bara (Hamirpur) the insect first appearance was noticed during first fortnight of March and reached to its peak during 3rd and 2nd weeks of April, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The highest plant infestation (100 %) was observed when the crop was at its early growing stage. The correlation studies revealed that average minimum temperature showed significant negative correlation at farmer's field whereas other weather parameters had no significant effect on the beetle population at Palampur as well as Bara.
Hassan A. Hamouda, A.A. El-Sayed, Mohamed M. El-Fouly, A.A. Fawzi, B.M. Mansour and H.A. Bosila
Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki-Egypt
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate which nitrogen source gives the highest vegetative growth, nutrient uptake and highest nitrogen use efficiency of Ocimum canum plant. Nutrient film technique was used to grow O. canum using different nitrogen sources; Nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate) (N), urea (U) and Ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Results showed that in general, growth parameters and nutrient uptake by whole plant and different plant organs were significantly higher in nitrate treatment in comparison with the other sources. The nutrient solution containing ammonium nitrate gave the highest number of leaves, number of branches, height and leaf area per plant, as well as fresh and dry weights. Nitrogen use efficiency of N treatment (57 %) was a little bit higher than of AN (53 %), while U nitrogen utilization was much lower (NUE = 31). In conclusion, when growing O. canum using NFT, it is recommended that N should be supplied as ammonium nitrate.
Sharmistha Naik, Poonam and Vishal Rana
Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230, India.
Abstract: Insufficient pollination due to asynchrony between staminate and pistillate blossoms in kiwifruit and unfavourable environmental conditions results in reduced fruit size and unequal fruit shape. In the present investigation an attempt was made to develop a simple and reliable method for storage of kiwifruit pollen and their utilization in hand pollination in following year. Pollen were stored at different temperatures [room temperature (25 ? 2 0C), 4, 0 and -20 0C] for a period of one year. Pollen viability was determined at monthly intervals using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and percent in vitro germination using 14 % sucrose,1.7 mM calcium nitrate and 3mM Boric acid. Initial TTC stainability (78.83 %), in vitro germination (65.55%) and absolute viability (51.72 %) of fresh pollen went on reducing with storage periods. -20 0C was the best temperature at which maximum viability of kiwifruit pollen can be retained up to one year. Pollination using pollen stored for one year showed that pollen stored at -20 0C were able to set 100 % fruits, pollen stored at 0 0C could set 36 % fruits, while there was no fruit setting with pollen stored at room temperature and 4 0C. These findings have practical implications for kiwifruit production in India. Artificial pollination with stored pollen can circumvent several uncertainties of natural pollination and guarantee adequate pollination in kiwifruit.
C.S. Ravi, B.S. Sreeramu, A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda and G.R. Smitha
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065, Karnataka, India.
Abstract: Evaluation of seventeen genotypes of makoi (Solanum nigrum L.) revealed maximum dry herbage yield in MG-1 (209.07 g) followed by MG-14 (161.73 g). While, for total alkaloid content the genotype MG-13 (0.23 % w/w) recorded highest followed by MG-16 (0.22 %w/w). The genotype MG-14 had maximum total alkaloid yield (12.26 kg ha-1) followed by MG-13 (11.91 kg ha-1). Result of genetic studies revealed that phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits studied, indicating environmental influence on expression of these characters. Both GCV and PCV were high for total alkaloid yield, moderate to high for remaining traits and low for days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was recorded for leaf area, total alkaloid content and total alkaloid yield indicating the presence of additive gene effects. Hence, selection can be employed for improvement of these characters in makoi. Dry herbage yield per plant was found to be positive and highly significant genotypic association with fresh herbage yield, leaf area, number of leaves, plant spread and plant height and significant with total alkaloid content. The total alkaloid yield had positive and highly significant genotypic correlation with total alkaloid content. The total alkaloid yield had the maximum direct positive effect on dry herbage yield followed by number of leaves and fresh herbage yield. The total alkaloid content and dry herbage yield had the maximum direct effect on total alkaloid yield.
M.R. Choudhary, S. Dadheech, S.P. Singh and R.S. Dhaka
S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Distt. Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract: Dried lasoda fruits are generally used as off-season vegetable in kitchen for preparing curry, pickle, 'Pachkutta', a special five star hotel dish and snacks. The aim of the study was to determine effect of concentration of magnesium oxide and drying method on quality attributes of lasoda fruits viz., protein content, ascorbic acid, organoleptic acceptance, solid gain ratio and minimum non-enzymatic browning (NEB). Mature, green and uniform sized lasoda fruits were selected and blanched in various concentrations of magnesium oxide (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 %) before drying and dried under different drying methods (open sun, solar and oven). The statistically better quality dried lasoda fruits were obtained when blanched with 0.2 % magnesium oxide solution and dried in a solar drier.
Margaret Chiipanthenga,, Moses Maliro, Paul Demo, Joyce Njoloma, and Navin Khumar
Bunda college of Agriculture, University of Malawi
Abstract: Potato yields in developing countries are below potential yield because potato production is mainly constrained by lack of quality seed. Lack of potato seed systems to provide farmers with quality clean and certified potato seed has led majority of farmers save their own seed. Such potato seed is characterized by systemic viral and bacterial diseases that are transmitted from generation to generation and this leads to low crop yields. The study was aimed at exploring the use of tissue culture and aeroponics techniques in the production of quality potato seed. Potato plantlets were produced in the tissue culture laboratory at Bvumbwe Research Station, 15? 41' 0" South, 35? 8' 0" East in Thyolo district of Malawi and then transferred to an aeroponics facility at Njuli Estate, 15? 41' 0" South, 35? 8' 0" East in Chiradzulu district of Malawi. The four potato genotypes did not differ on plant growth performance, but responded differently to aeroponics system in terms of mini tuber yield and stolon numbers. Genotypes CIP381381.20 and CIP381381.13 showed superiority among the other tested genotypes in terms of tuber number per plant. Genotype CIP381381.20 produced significantly higher number of stolons than the rest. In this study, on an average 30 tubers were produced per plant under aeroponics system which is six times more than the conventional (use of soil-based substrate) seed potato production system under screen house conditions (5 tubers per plant) under Malawian conditions.
S. Chehaibi, B. Douh, El B. Mohandes Dridi and M.W. Hadj Bechir
Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, University of Sousse, Tunisia
Abstract: Demand for organic produce is expected to increase due to increasing concern in urban society about food quality. However, crop management options are extremely limited in an organic system, often leading to reduced yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different mechanical planting densities (3.05 and 3.91 plant/m2) and depths (0.07 and 0.12 m) on the agronomic parameters under organic culture. Field study was conducted at the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, Tunisia from February to June. The results indicate that different treatment combinations could affect the vigor and growth of the plant, size of tubers and weight of fresh and dry matter of different plant organs, as well as the final yield. Moreover, it was shown that planting in-row spacing of 0.41 m and depth of 0.12 m improved the growth parameters of the plant. This study showed that there is a relationship between the number of plants per square meter and the crop yield. Indeed, yields with the density of 3.91plant/m2 was higher than that of 3.05 plant/m2 (13.75 and 10.83 t/ha, respectively).
S.M. Chavan, Sushil Kumarand S.S. Arve
Department of Entomology, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India.
Abstract: Investigation on the population dynamics and evaluation of pest management modules against major insect pests of tomato were carried out at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, south Gujarat in rabi, 2007-08. Results revealed that aphid and whitefly population commenced from transplanting with 1.35 aphids leaf-1 and 0.37 whiteflies leaf-1, reached to peak level (7.31 aphids leaf-1and 6.01 whiteflies leaf-1) at 11 WAT. Peak level of percent infested leaves by leaf miner was 31.75 % at 10th WAT. The higher population of Helicoverpa on foliage (2.80-3.40 plant1) was noticed during third week of January to end of February (10-16 WAT). The population of mirid bug, which acts as a potential predator of sucking pests reached peak (1.90-2.05 plant-1) when population of aphid and whitefly reached maximum. Correlation studies between insect pest population/damage and weather parameters showed that there was significant negative correlation of aphid (r=-0.491) and whitefly (r=-0.449) with maximum temperature and negative significant correlation with minimum temperature (r=-0.645, r=-0.599). Further, the wind velocity showed significantly positive correlation with aphid (r=0.574) and whitefly (r=0.534) population. The wind velocity gave positive and significant correlation with the population of mirid bug as natural enemies. The IPM module was found most promising in reducing the population of aphids (2.1 leaf-1), whitefly (2.4 leaf-1), Helicoverpa larva (1.0 plant1) on foliage. Besides, it reduced leaf infestation by leaf miner (17.8 %) and fruit infestation by Helicoverpa (15.4 %) and increased yield (36445 kg ha1). The sole insecticidal module was equally effective as IPM module in recording low population of aphids (2.2 leaf-1), whitefly (2.5 leaf-1), Helicoverpa (1.1 plant1), leaf infestation (18.3 %), fruits infestation (16.3 %) and also increased fruit yield (34684 kg ha-1). The biological module and botanical module ranked third and fourth in efficacy with respect to pest control. Besides pest management, population of mirid bugs (0.8 plant-1) as natural enemy was also conserved in IPM module. The net ICBR obtained in IPM module was 1:9.45 which was comparable to the insecticidal module (1:15.92).