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S. Ramesh Kumar and G. Mohammed Yassin

Department of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Pollachi,-642 103. 1Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu

Key words: Amaranthus hypochondriacus, grain yield, variability parameters, selection

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 161-164.

Abstract: In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) ten genotypes were evaluated for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high-30 20 cm (D1), high-3030 cm (D2), normal-4520 cm (D3) and low plant density-4530 cm (D4) levels to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. In all the four plant density levels, leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, precision viticulture, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 87-102.

Abstract: The possible influence of vine water status on grapevine yield components was studied in ten Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet franc vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario from 2005-2007 using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, soil moisture and leaf water potential (?; vine water status), were determined on ? 80 sentinel vines in each vineyard. Water status zones were identified in GIS-generated maps using leaf ? and soil moisture measurements. Areas of low soil moisture and low vine water status were negatively correlated linearly and spatially with vine size, yield, and berry weight. The frequency of relationships between variables was vineyard- and vintage-dependent. Spatial variability in soil moisture was temporally-stable in all vineyards across the three vintages (8-10 sites; 2005-06, 2006-07, 2005-07), while vine size (6-7 sites), berry weight (2-7 sites) and yield (2-5 sites) were likewise moderately-stable, but leaf ? was not (two sites). These data suggest that low soil moisture and low vine water status zones in vineyards are related to corresponding areas of low yield and vine size. These data further suggest that precision viticulture techniques may be utilized in this region to delineate yield-based or vine vigor-based vineyard sub-zones that relate to differing quality levels.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1.

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 03-23.

Abstract: Spatial variability of vine water status and its relationship to soil moisture (SM) and physical properties was studied in ten vineyard blocks of Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Franc in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, SM, and leaf water potential (v|/; vine water status), were determined on ~ 80 sentinel vines per vineyard. Water status zones were identified in vineyard-specific GIS-generated maps using leaf v|/ and SM measurements. SM was temporally consistent for nine of ten sites (2005-2006), all sites (2006-2007), and eight sites (2005-2007). Vine water status was temporally consistent for two sites (2005-2006) and three sites (2006-2007), but leaf v|/ zones were transient at some sites with temporally variable spatial distribution (except one site with consistent water status zones 2005-2007). SM and leaf v|/ consistently were directly-correlated spatially with % clay, % organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil pH, base saturation (BS), soil K/Ca/Mg. Low SM and water status zones were related to low % clay, OM, CEC, soil pH, BS, soil K/Ca/Mg zones. This indicate that precision viticulture may be applied to soil texture, SM, or leaf Y|/-based vineyard sub-zones that could relate to differing quality levels.
R.M. Bhatt, N.K. Srinivasa Rao, K.K. Upreti and A.D.D.V.S. Nageswara Rao

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.

Key words: Carbon exchange rate, drought, glycinebetaine, hot pepper, plant yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 24-28.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the response of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to foliar applied glycinebetaine (GB) under water stress condition. Three varieties of hot pepper e.g. Arka Lohit, Pusa Jwala and Arka Haritha were subjected to water stress at flowering stage. The plants applied with GB had the greater plant height, leaf area, fruit fresh and dry mass under water deficit conditions. GB application increased the PN under water deficit condition. It was attributed to an improvement in stomatal conductance under water stress. There was a varietal difference in invertase activity and total sugar contents to GB application under water stress. Higher yield and better water use efficiency (WUE) were found in GB applied plants. The plants treated with GB 10 days before and at the time of imposing water stress (T2) responded better. The results suggested that exogenous GB ameliorates the negative effects of water stress in hot pepper.
M.T. MacDonald, R.R. Lada and R.S. Veitch

Christmas Tree Research Center, Dalhousie Agricultural Campus, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada, B2N 5E3.

Key words: Abiesbalsamea, break strength, Christmas tree, conifer, needle density, needle retention, senescence, xylem pressure potential procedures

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 29-31.

Abstract: Balsam fir trees are the most popular choice for Christmas trees in Atlantic Canada and a major export commodity, despite postharvest needle abscission challenging the industry's viability. The objective of this study was to determine if any needle or branch biophysical and/or morphological characteristics may be linked with needle abscission resistance (NAR) in balsam fir. A total of 17 different parameters were measured in branches of clones that belonged to low, medium, or high needle abscission resistant groups. Of the parameters measured, branch diameter, initial mass, needle density, break strength, and needle retention duration were significantly (P < 0.05) different between genotype groups. It was found that high NAR genotypes had a 9.1% smaller diameter, 25.0% lower initial mass, 33.2% lower needle break strength, 32.4% lower needle density, and 91% longer needle retention than low NAR clones. Of these factors, needle density was the best predictor for needle retention duration (R2 = 47%). Identification of these parameters is an important first step to understand physiological and genetic linkage for development of Christmas trees with high NAR.
B. Hoover, D. Fuglie and R. Miller

Department of Biology, Eastern Mennonite University, 1200 Park Road, Harrisonburg, VA-22802.

Key words: Soil, organic, sustainable, mulch, Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, Bluegold, Vaccinium corymbosum, Ericaceae

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 32-39.

Abstract: To ascertain optimal soil conditions for creating an organic and sustainable blueberry operation, 160 highbush blueberry plants representing five different cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, and Bluegold) were planted at Knoll Acres Farm, Harrisonburg, Virginia in 2009 within four soil treatment plots (horse manure, sheep manure, pine straw, and Planters Choice mulches). To define optimal growth conditions, selected soil characteristics and plant vigor assessments including photosynthesis and respiration activities as well as plant growth measurements were recorded. Statistical analyses indicated that soil treatments of pine straw and Planters Choice mulches produced significantly higher plant growth values than horse and sheep manure mulches. Among the five cultivars, Chandler bushes thrived the best, based on growth parameters except for bush height. Including cost/benefit considerations, pine straw mulch was the most economical and effective treatment among four mulches tested.
M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry-605014, India.

Key words: Vermicompost, paper waste, plant growth, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 40-45.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of vermicompost generated from the paper waste spiked with cow dung slurry on the germination, plant growth and fruition of cluster bean. Two kinds of treatments were studied: (i) vermicast was applied to the soil at the rates of 5, 7.5,10 t ha-1 and (ii) amounts of essential nutrients equivalent to those present in the vermicast treatments in inorganic form was amended to the soil. There was a control with only soil without any nutrient supplement. The finding is in contrast to the reports on the beneficial impacts of vermicast on plant growth. In the present study, the inorganic fertilizer treatment exhibited better seed germination and plant growth than the equivalent vermicast treatments. The results indicate that the dose of vermicompost used in the present study was not sufficient to satisfy the nutrient demand of plant species studied. Additional fertilization would have improved the crop productivity.
L. Srimathi Priya and K. Kumutha

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: AM fungi, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Coleus forskohlii, colonization, root rot index, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, alkaloid.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: This study was taken up to determine the combined effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in controlling root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Coleus forskohlii. AM root colonization was up to 70-73 per cent under combined inoculation of Scutellospora sp + Pseudomonasfluorescens + Trichoderma viride and 44-45 per cent under individual inoculation. A correlation analysis indicated that more the AM root colonization (73 per cent) less the root rot (28 per cent) incidence. The activity of the defense enzymes viz., peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase was found to be high at 30 days after inoculation of the pathogen in the co-inoculated treatments. Another correlation study between AM colonization and enzyme activity, showed low root rot index. There was a loss in the alkaloid content due to pathogen infection, yet, the combined treatments recorded a threefold increase in disease suppression.
B. Gopu, T.N. Balamohan1, P. Soman2 and P. Jeyakumar3

Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (TN), India. 1Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Trichy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

Key words: Mango pruning, flowering, fruit set, fruit yield and quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different pruning levels on flowering, yield and quality characters in Alphonso mango under Ultra High Density Planting from 2010-2011 at Jain Irrigation Systems Pvt. Limited (JISL) Farms, Udumalpet, Tripur District, Tamil Nadu. The treatments included control, light pruning, moderate pruning, heavy pruning, 50 per cent removal of past season growth and total removal of past season growth and imposed on five-year-old uniform sized Alphonso trees grown under a close spacing of 3 x 2 m. The minimum number of days taken for first flowering and 50 per cent flowering were recorded by the control. The highest number of panicles per tree and the maximum number of panicles produced per sq.m canopy area were recorded in the control. However, highest percentage of hermaphrodite flower per panicle and per cent fruit set were found in the treatment T5 (50 per cent removal of past season's growth and tipping). Fruit and yield characters were influenced by different pruning levels. Treatment T2 (light pruning) recorded the highest mean fruit weight, fruit length, fruit volume, fruit pulp weight and stone weight. However, treatment T3 (moderate pruning) registered highest fruit circumference. Highest pulp to stone ratio was observed in T4 (Heavy pruning) followed by T2 (light pruning). Highest number of fruits per tree and yield per tree were observed in control. Highest total soluble solids, total sugars and non reducing sugars of the fruit were observed in T6 (total removal of past season's growth). The maximum acidity and ascorbic acid content were observed in control. Maximum total carotenoid content was recorded in T3 (moderate pruning) and reducing sugars in T4 (heavy pruning).
P.A. Sofi1, S.A. Wani2, M.Y. Zargar1, F.A. Sheikh1 and T. Shafi1

1 Regional Research Station (SKUAST-K), Wadura, Sopore-193201, J&K. 2Directorate of Research, SKUAST-K, Shalimar-191121, J&K, India

Key words: Common bean, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, water absorption

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 54-58.

Abstract: The amount of water absorbed during soaking by dry beans before cooking may be a reliable indicator of the amount of time required to render them soft and palatable to eat. The present study was undertaken in kharif 2012 at Regional Research Station Wadura. Fifty diverse germplasm accessions (local and exotic) representing different growth habits and market classes were compared with Shalimar Rajmash-1, a high yielding bush variety released by SKUAST-K, for 12 seed morphological and physical characters namely seed colour, seed brilliance, seed shape, seed coat pattern, dry seed weight, soaked seed weight, seed length, seed breadth, seed coat proportion, water absorption ratio, hydration capacity and swelling capacity. There was a broad range of variation in the traits studied as revealed by the range and coefficient of variation (%). The CV was highest for swelling capacity (18.62) followed by water absorption (16.281), hydration capacity (13.61), soaked seed weight (10.712), dry seed weight (3.056) and coat proportion (1.221). However, CV was very low for seed length and seed breadth owing to low variation in these traits. The correlation between different traits was also worked out and revealed that highest correlation was recorded between dry weight and soaked weight (0.874) followed by hydration capacity and swelling capacity (0.720), seed dry weight and hydration capacity (0.710), dry weight and water absorption (0.308), indicating that the seeds with greater cotyledon mass absorbed more water and that greater water absorption leads to greater swelling. However, negative correlations were recorded between coat proportion and water absorption (-0.550) and between dry weight and coat proportion (-0.325). Seed physicochemical traits including the traits used in present study could be effectively used for comparing large set of germplasm lines for cooking qualities as the varieties that have high hydration and swelling capacities are usually fast to cook.
Isha Bhoyer, Mina D. Koche, Santoshi Pudake and N.B. Ninawe

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra). India.

Key words: Papaya, ringspot virus, physical properties, aphid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 59-60.

Abstract: Experiment was conducted in vitro to see the different physical properties and transmission of papaya ring spot virus with different aphid species. The virus was found to be inactivated between temperature 50 to 55C and between the dilutions of 10-3 to 10-4. It remained viable upto 24 hours at temperature 28 to 30C and 5 days at 6 to 8C temperature. The virus was transmissible by five aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Koch), Acyrthosiphonpisum (Buczacki S. and Harris K.), Dactynotus carthami (Hille Ris Lambers), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) in non persistent manner.
J. Hamzei and S. Najjari

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code: 6517833131, Hamedan, Iran

Key words: Cucurbita pepo L., fertilizer, linoleic acid, mycorrhiza fungi, oil percentage, symbiosis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 61-65.

Abstract: Phosphorus is a major nutrient and its deficiency limits plant growth of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The investigation was aimed at studying integrated application of phosphorus on growth and production of pumpkin. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) (mycorrhiza and bacteria) with and without seed inoculations, and P chemical fertilizer at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended fertilizer were applied in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data indicate that PSM and P fertilizer show significant effects on all traits. Maximum oil yield (41.80 g m-2) and linoleic acid (68.30%) were obtained with PSM and 50% of the recommended P fertilizer. Seed yield was significantly increased in response to inoculation of PSM in the presence of low levels of P fertilizer. However, maximum mycorrhizal colonization obtained in 25% recommended P fertilizer. A high level of P fertilizer had a negative effect on the activity of PSM. On the other hand, a low level of phosphorus with PSM has a simulative impact on root colonization and productivity of pumpkin and favoured the activities of PSM.
J. Shankara Swamy and A.K. Banik

Department of Postharvest Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal-741 252, India.

Key words: Blended guava-watermelon squash, blended fruit beverages, xanthan gum, non-enzymatic browning and stability.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 66-70.

Abstract: Guava fruit juices are pleasant when diluted with other tropical fruit juices due to its too acidic or strongly flavoured and less coloured nature, thus blending offers the opportunity to adjust sugar and acid ratios and eliminates some defects in juice quality or nutritional attributes by proper combination ofjuices and further adjustments in ingredients. Guava-watermelon squash at different ratio (50:50, 75:25, 25:75) of pulp blending level containing 40 oBrix TSS and 1% of acidity were prepared with incorporation of different concentrations of xanthan gum, an exocellular polysaccharide produced by obligately aerobic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, to investigate the effect of different ingredients on the product quality and stability during 180 days of storage. There were little changes in quality parameters, TSS, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid during the storage and 0.5% w/w of xanthan gum gave stability to the product during storage. Blended guava-watermelon squash (75:25) having 0.3% of xanthan gum, 40 oBrix TSS, 1% acidity showed highest overall acceptability during the storage period.
R. Ranjan, M. Longkumer and J. Kabir

Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, 741252, India.

Key words: Cauliflower, pretreatment, drying temperature, quality, dehydration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 71-75.

Abstract: Cauliflower curd were pre-treated with hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS, with/without microwave blanching for 5 minutes and were dehydrated at three levels of temperature viz., 65, 60 and 55 oC at different treatment combinations. Considering the dehydration characters and quality after dehydration and storage it was found that T2 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 65 oC) was the best treatment followed by T4 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 60 oC) and T5 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + drying at 55 oC). In T2, time taken for complete dehydration (445 minutes) and moisture content (3.62%) was least. Further, the moisture content after 6 month of storage was also less (9.63%), drying rate (135.74%) and dehydration ratio (10.70) was medium after dehydration. Ascorbic acid retention was maximum during storage in the treatment. Sensory evaluation also supported the superiority of this treatment.
Tewodros Bezu1 and Nigusse Kassa2

School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Key words: Cut-flower, freesia corm, freesia hybrid, Ethiopia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 76-79.

Abstract: Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Freesia Ethiopia Plc., located at Sululta, Ethiopia, to determine the effects of planting density and corm size on flower yield and quality of cut-freesia. Planting densities 90, 100 and 110 corms per m2 and corm sizes of 3, 3.5 and 4 cm in circumference were evaluated on two varieties 'Volante' and 'Casino' using Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement (3 x 3 x 2) with three replications. Emergence date, flowering date, cut flower yield and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed. Consequently, increment of planting density resulted highest number of cut-flowers. Corm size difference positively influenced the stem length, spike length and cut-flowers yield. Significant interaction effects were also found between corm sizes and varieties on yield and quality traits. In general, using the biggest corm and highest planting density exhibited superior result for the greenhouse production of the stated varieties. However, to come up with complete recommendations, further investigations should be conducted in line with other agronomic packages and varieties of economic viability.

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