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Tarique Hassan Askary, Mohammad Islam Shah Waliullah and Mohammad Maqbool Mir

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Campus, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Division of Pomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Ca

Key words: Phytonematodes, distribution, stone fruits, nut fruits, soil, rhizosphere, peach, plum, apricot, walnut, cherry, almond

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 136-140.

Abstract: Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of stone fruits viz., peach, plum, apricot, cherry and nut fruits viz., almond and walnut from three year old nurseries at five different localities of Kashmir valley and processed to assess the population density of phytonematodes at each locality. Ten species/ genera of plant parasitic nematodes viz., Pratylenchus penetrans, Paratylenchus juglansi, Meloidogyne hapla, Tylenchorhynchus spp., Criconema spp., Rotylenchus spp., Xiphinema basiri, Longidorus spp., Hoplolaimus spp. and Helicotylenchus indicus were recorded. The most common nematode species which was frequently found in the rhizosphere of the surveyed fruit crops were Pratylenchus penetrans and Helicotylenchus indicus. Meloidogyne hapla was also common in all the fruit crops except peach and walnut. Paratylenchus juglansi was reported from the rhizosphere of walnut only. Absolute frequency of P. penetrans and Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond and H. indicus in walnut was 100% in three different localities. Absolute density and prominence value of H. indicus was highest i.e. 665 in walnut followed by 623 of P. penetrans in cherry and 618 of Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond at separate localities of the survey. Presence of varying densities and types of plant parasitic nematodes associated with stone and nut fruits reveal that plant parasitic nematodes form an important component in temperate fruit ecosystem which needs to be investigated for assessing the role of relative virulence of a particular species, host specificity and tolerance level in host.
T. Shanmugasundaram and K. Haripriya

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Banana, post harvest loss, osmotic dehydration, value addition.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 141-145.

Abstract: The study was undertaken on osmotic dehydration of banana varieties viz., Poovan (AAB) and Dwarf Cavendish (AAA) to investigate the effect of temperature, sample thickness and osmotic time on the rate of osmosis. The results revealed that the maximum water loss and solid gain after osmosis were 57.9 and 15.5 per cent in Poovan and 53.1 and 11.8 per cent in Dwarf Cavendish. The moisture content of Poovan slices reduced from 2.03 kg H2O kg-1 dry matter (DM) to as low as 0.31kg H2O kg-1 DM when osmosed in 60 B syrup at 75 C. In case of Dwarf Cavendish, the moisture content reduced from 2.84 to 0.38 kg H2O kg-1 DM under similar conditions. Subsequent air dehydration resulted in further loss of moisture and the moisture content was reduced to a range of 0.03 to 0.18 kg H2O kg-1 DM after 4 to 8 h of drying.
Dimpy Raina, W.S. Dhillon and P.P.S. Gill

Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

Key words: Pyrus species, correlation, heritability, genetic advance, variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 146-148.

Abstract: A study was undertaken to analyze the variation, heritability and correlation for vegetative and fruit characters for forty seven genotypes of pear at PAU, Ludhiana. Highest range of variation was recorded in fruit weight (70.0-213.0), TSS/acid ratio (19.7-69.0) and acidity (0.2- 0.5) with the mean of 151.11g, 43.70, and 0.29%, respectively. The PCV and GCV were observed maximum for the fruits number per spur, acidity, fruit weight and TSS/acid ratio. Heritability estimates were observed high for fruit weight (100%), flower number per spur (99.95%), TSS/acid ratio (99.79%), leaf breadth (99.73%) and fruit breadth (99.24%). A highly significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation was observed for fruit length with fruit weight (0.7463 and 0.7439), fruit breadth (0.5345 and 0.5318), TSS (0.2684 and 0.2667) and low significant with TSS/acid ratio (0.1796 and 0.1740). Similarly, positive significant genotypic correlation of fruit number per spur and flower number per spur was recorded with leaf breadth (0.2816 and 0.2814) and leaf length (0.5823 and 0.3598), respectively.
M.A. Chattoo, N. Ahmed, G.R. Najar, Angrej Ali, Z.M. Dar and Q.A.H. Dar

Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Wadura Campus, Sopore (Jammu & Kashmir)-193 201, India. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Rangreth, Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir)-190 005, India.

Key words: Allfisols, INM, inorganic fertilizers, okra-pea productivity, organic manures, soil quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 149-153.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on direct and residual effect of integrated nutrient management on crop productivity and physico-chemical characteristics of allfisols in okra-pea cropping system in Kashmir valley. The okra was grown as main crop and pea as residual crop. The experiment was laid out in simple square lattice design having 25 treatments with two replications. The pooled data revealed that integrated nutrient management significantly influenced the productivity of main as well as residual crop, physico-chemical properties and microbial activity of experimental soil. Among various treatments under study, treatment T24 (FYM, sheep manure, poultry manure and vermicompost (3, 2, 0.5, 0.6 tonnes ha-1, respectively) along with biofertilizers (Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria; both as seed inoculant @ 1.0 kg ha-1 and as soil inoculant @ 2.5 kg ha-1) and 50 % recommended dose (RDF) of fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O, 60:30:30 kg ha-1, respectively) resulted significantly maximum fruit yield of okra (272.71 q ha-1) and pod yield of pea (123.56 q ha-1). The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil under study showed an improvement with organics application as compared to initial, control and RFD. Soil under the treatment T24 showed lowest bulk density, particle density and pH; and highest porosity, EC, and organic carbon content. Available nutrients in soil (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphar) and microbial population (fungi and bacteria) were also recorded maximum with treatment T24.
P. Ranchana, M. Kannan and M. Jawaharlal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC& RI, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, India

Key words: Tuberose, single types, pollen, selfing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 154-156.

Abstract: Pollen studies were conducted in ten single type genotypes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) viz., Shringar (Mexican Single x Pearl Double), Prajwal (Shringar x Mexican Single), Phule Rajani (Mexican Single x Shringar), Calcutta Single, Hyderabad Single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single, Pune Single, Navsari Local and Variegated Single at TNAU, Coimbatore, India. Studies revealed that pollen grains were round in shape, pollen viability in acetocarmine stain was 96.73% in the genotype Variegated Single and the germination was maximum (99.21%) in 15% sucrose solution with other chemicals. Pollen tubes grew to a length of 1234.949 microns 24 hours after the dehiscence of anther. Among the genotypes under study, the highest fruit set was 89% under natural open pollination and 0% under artificial self pollination.
P.R. Meghwal, S.K. Singh, Akath Singh and Rakesh Pathak

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, India.

Key words: Karonda, genetic diversity, RAPD, accessions, precocity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 157-160.

Abstract: Carissa carandas, native to India is an underutilized fruit crop with tremendous phyto-therapeutic and nutritive importance. Seven diverse accessions and a released variety were evaluated for morphological, biochemical and molecular diversity. The test accessions varied significantly with regard to all the morphological characters except plant height and number of stipules per node. The accession, CZK2011 and CZK 2031 recorded 30 and 3% higher fruit yield over the variety Pant Manohar while other accessions gave almost equal fruit yield to variety Pant Manohar. The accessions CZK2012, CZK2021 and variety Pant Manohar were found precocious due to first fruiting at three years of age. Seven primers detected low intra-specific variation amounting to 25 % polymorphism and exhibited 11.1 to 57.1% polymorphism in banding pattern indicating narrow genetic base in the available germplasm. The accessions CZK2011, CZK2022 and CZK2031 may be recommended for cultivation in arid zone on account of their higher yield and bigger sized fruits.
S. Ramesh Kumar and G. Mohammed Yassin

Department of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Pollachi,-642 103. 1Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu

Key words: Amaranthus hypochondriacus, grain yield, variability parameters, selection

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 161-164.

Abstract: In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) ten genotypes were evaluated for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high-30 20 cm (D1), high-3030 cm (D2), normal-4520 cm (D3) and low plant density-4530 cm (D4) levels to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. In all the four plant density levels, leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, precision viticulture, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 87-102.

Abstract: The possible influence of vine water status on grapevine yield components was studied in ten Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet franc vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario from 2005-2007 using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, soil moisture and leaf water potential (?; vine water status), were determined on ? 80 sentinel vines in each vineyard. Water status zones were identified in GIS-generated maps using leaf ? and soil moisture measurements. Areas of low soil moisture and low vine water status were negatively correlated linearly and spatially with vine size, yield, and berry weight. The frequency of relationships between variables was vineyard- and vintage-dependent. Spatial variability in soil moisture was temporally-stable in all vineyards across the three vintages (8-10 sites; 2005-06, 2006-07, 2005-07), while vine size (6-7 sites), berry weight (2-7 sites) and yield (2-5 sites) were likewise moderately-stable, but leaf ? was not (two sites). These data suggest that low soil moisture and low vine water status zones in vineyards are related to corresponding areas of low yield and vine size. These data further suggest that precision viticulture techniques may be utilized in this region to delineate yield-based or vine vigor-based vineyard sub-zones that relate to differing quality levels.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1.

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 03-23.

Abstract: Spatial variability of vine water status and its relationship to soil moisture (SM) and physical properties was studied in ten vineyard blocks of Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Franc in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, SM, and leaf water potential (v|/; vine water status), were determined on ~ 80 sentinel vines per vineyard. Water status zones were identified in vineyard-specific GIS-generated maps using leaf v|/ and SM measurements. SM was temporally consistent for nine of ten sites (2005-2006), all sites (2006-2007), and eight sites (2005-2007). Vine water status was temporally consistent for two sites (2005-2006) and three sites (2006-2007), but leaf v|/ zones were transient at some sites with temporally variable spatial distribution (except one site with consistent water status zones 2005-2007). SM and leaf v|/ consistently were directly-correlated spatially with % clay, % organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil pH, base saturation (BS), soil K/Ca/Mg. Low SM and water status zones were related to low % clay, OM, CEC, soil pH, BS, soil K/Ca/Mg zones. This indicate that precision viticulture may be applied to soil texture, SM, or leaf Y|/-based vineyard sub-zones that could relate to differing quality levels.
R.M. Bhatt, N.K. Srinivasa Rao, K.K. Upreti and A.D.D.V.S. Nageswara Rao

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.

Key words: Carbon exchange rate, drought, glycinebetaine, hot pepper, plant yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 24-28.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the response of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to foliar applied glycinebetaine (GB) under water stress condition. Three varieties of hot pepper e.g. Arka Lohit, Pusa Jwala and Arka Haritha were subjected to water stress at flowering stage. The plants applied with GB had the greater plant height, leaf area, fruit fresh and dry mass under water deficit conditions. GB application increased the PN under water deficit condition. It was attributed to an improvement in stomatal conductance under water stress. There was a varietal difference in invertase activity and total sugar contents to GB application under water stress. Higher yield and better water use efficiency (WUE) were found in GB applied plants. The plants treated with GB 10 days before and at the time of imposing water stress (T2) responded better. The results suggested that exogenous GB ameliorates the negative effects of water stress in hot pepper.
M.T. MacDonald, R.R. Lada and R.S. Veitch

Christmas Tree Research Center, Dalhousie Agricultural Campus, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada, B2N 5E3.

Key words: Abiesbalsamea, break strength, Christmas tree, conifer, needle density, needle retention, senescence, xylem pressure potential procedures

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 29-31.

Abstract: Balsam fir trees are the most popular choice for Christmas trees in Atlantic Canada and a major export commodity, despite postharvest needle abscission challenging the industry's viability. The objective of this study was to determine if any needle or branch biophysical and/or morphological characteristics may be linked with needle abscission resistance (NAR) in balsam fir. A total of 17 different parameters were measured in branches of clones that belonged to low, medium, or high needle abscission resistant groups. Of the parameters measured, branch diameter, initial mass, needle density, break strength, and needle retention duration were significantly (P < 0.05) different between genotype groups. It was found that high NAR genotypes had a 9.1% smaller diameter, 25.0% lower initial mass, 33.2% lower needle break strength, 32.4% lower needle density, and 91% longer needle retention than low NAR clones. Of these factors, needle density was the best predictor for needle retention duration (R2 = 47%). Identification of these parameters is an important first step to understand physiological and genetic linkage for development of Christmas trees with high NAR.
B. Hoover, D. Fuglie and R. Miller

Department of Biology, Eastern Mennonite University, 1200 Park Road, Harrisonburg, VA-22802.

Key words: Soil, organic, sustainable, mulch, Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, Bluegold, Vaccinium corymbosum, Ericaceae

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 32-39.

Abstract: To ascertain optimal soil conditions for creating an organic and sustainable blueberry operation, 160 highbush blueberry plants representing five different cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, and Bluegold) were planted at Knoll Acres Farm, Harrisonburg, Virginia in 2009 within four soil treatment plots (horse manure, sheep manure, pine straw, and Planters Choice mulches). To define optimal growth conditions, selected soil characteristics and plant vigor assessments including photosynthesis and respiration activities as well as plant growth measurements were recorded. Statistical analyses indicated that soil treatments of pine straw and Planters Choice mulches produced significantly higher plant growth values than horse and sheep manure mulches. Among the five cultivars, Chandler bushes thrived the best, based on growth parameters except for bush height. Including cost/benefit considerations, pine straw mulch was the most economical and effective treatment among four mulches tested.
M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry-605014, India.

Key words: Vermicompost, paper waste, plant growth, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 40-45.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of vermicompost generated from the paper waste spiked with cow dung slurry on the germination, plant growth and fruition of cluster bean. Two kinds of treatments were studied: (i) vermicast was applied to the soil at the rates of 5, 7.5,10 t ha-1 and (ii) amounts of essential nutrients equivalent to those present in the vermicast treatments in inorganic form was amended to the soil. There was a control with only soil without any nutrient supplement. The finding is in contrast to the reports on the beneficial impacts of vermicast on plant growth. In the present study, the inorganic fertilizer treatment exhibited better seed germination and plant growth than the equivalent vermicast treatments. The results indicate that the dose of vermicompost used in the present study was not sufficient to satisfy the nutrient demand of plant species studied. Additional fertilization would have improved the crop productivity.
L. Srimathi Priya and K. Kumutha

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: AM fungi, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Coleus forskohlii, colonization, root rot index, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, alkaloid.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: This study was taken up to determine the combined effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in controlling root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Coleus forskohlii. AM root colonization was up to 70-73 per cent under combined inoculation of Scutellospora sp + Pseudomonasfluorescens + Trichoderma viride and 44-45 per cent under individual inoculation. A correlation analysis indicated that more the AM root colonization (73 per cent) less the root rot (28 per cent) incidence. The activity of the defense enzymes viz., peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase was found to be high at 30 days after inoculation of the pathogen in the co-inoculated treatments. Another correlation study between AM colonization and enzyme activity, showed low root rot index. There was a loss in the alkaloid content due to pathogen infection, yet, the combined treatments recorded a threefold increase in disease suppression.
B. Gopu, T.N. Balamohan1, P. Soman2 and P. Jeyakumar3

Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (TN), India. 1Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Trichy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

Key words: Mango pruning, flowering, fruit set, fruit yield and quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different pruning levels on flowering, yield and quality characters in Alphonso mango under Ultra High Density Planting from 2010-2011 at Jain Irrigation Systems Pvt. Limited (JISL) Farms, Udumalpet, Tripur District, Tamil Nadu. The treatments included control, light pruning, moderate pruning, heavy pruning, 50 per cent removal of past season growth and total removal of past season growth and imposed on five-year-old uniform sized Alphonso trees grown under a close spacing of 3 x 2 m. The minimum number of days taken for first flowering and 50 per cent flowering were recorded by the control. The highest number of panicles per tree and the maximum number of panicles produced per sq.m canopy area were recorded in the control. However, highest percentage of hermaphrodite flower per panicle and per cent fruit set were found in the treatment T5 (50 per cent removal of past season's growth and tipping). Fruit and yield characters were influenced by different pruning levels. Treatment T2 (light pruning) recorded the highest mean fruit weight, fruit length, fruit volume, fruit pulp weight and stone weight. However, treatment T3 (moderate pruning) registered highest fruit circumference. Highest pulp to stone ratio was observed in T4 (Heavy pruning) followed by T2 (light pruning). Highest number of fruits per tree and yield per tree were observed in control. Highest total soluble solids, total sugars and non reducing sugars of the fruit were observed in T6 (total removal of past season's growth). The maximum acidity and ascorbic acid content were observed in control. Maximum total carotenoid content was recorded in T3 (moderate pruning) and reducing sugars in T4 (heavy pruning).

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