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H.M. Mahadeva Swamy, S.N. Nagesha, Prakash M. Navale, T.K.S. Gowda, R. Asokan and Riaz Mahmood

Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065

Key words: Synthetic crylF gene, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, cabbage, transformation, regeneration, kanamycin

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 3-9.

Abstract: Insect-resistant crops have been one of the major successes of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture. There is an urgent need for improvement in vegetable production, especially in developing countries where the economic, health and environmental benefits of bioengineered vegetables could be of great importance. In this view a synthetic cry1F gene coding for an insecticidal crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was transformed to cabbage cultivar 'Hare Krishna' by co-cultivating hypocotyls explants with AAgrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The transformed plants resistant to kanamycin were regenerated on selection medium. Confirmation of transgene in putatively transformed plants was carried out by using nptII and crylF gene specific primers. Multiple shoot regeneration of hypocotyl and shoot tip explants of cabbage after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium was optimized and medium containing 2 mg/L BAP was observed to be the best for shoot regeneration after co-cultivation. In this study, 45 and 32.5% transformation efficiencies were achieved for hypocotyl and cotyledonary leaf explants, respectively using the optimized procedure.
Farhat Naz, Jalal-Ud-Din Baloch, M. Munir and A.A. Khakwani

Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK. Pakistan;Frontier Agriculture, SOYL Division, Recommendations Dept., Newbury, United Kingdom

Key words: Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, growth and development, growing media

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 32-37.

Abstract: The seedlings of Antirrhinum majus L. cv. 'Orchid Rocket Mixed' at four leaf stage (two cotyledonary leaves and two true leaves) were planted in 15 cm diameter pots containing seven combinations of plant growing media viz., river sand, silt, leaf mold, river sand+silt (1:1), river sand+leaf mold (1:1), silt+leaf mold (1:1) and river sand+silt+leaf mold (1:1:1). The experiment was laid out in 'Randomised Complete Design' while each pot was considered as a replicate. Three equally spaced plants were kept in one pot in one replication and there were three replications in each treatment. Plant growth and development parameters indicated that plant height was significantly (P<0.05) affected by growing media and time interval. Plants grown in leaf mold attained maximum height than the other treatments. A linear and significant (P<0.05) increase in leaf development was observed in seven growing media such as plants grown in leaf mold media produced maximum number of leaves than the others. Similarly, plants grown in leaf mold media took minimum time to flowering, maximum number of flower buds per spike, maximum number of branches per plant, and maximum stem, leaf and plant fresh and dry weight.
S. Sarkar, A. Saha, P. Hazra and M. Pandit

Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Candra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal, India

Key words: Temperature, phenophases, growing degree days, yield, snapmelon.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 38-42.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to workout relationship between phenological development and yield of snapmelon in relation to temperature that could be predicted with easily obtainable weather station data and used as an aid in projecting harvest dates along with potential yield. Temperature is one of the most important elements of the climate which determines the potential productivity level of a crop. Heat unit requirement was used for characterizing the thermal response in snapmelon (Cucumis melo var. momordica) for the assessment of yield potential of a crop in different growing environments. A field experiment was carried out to find out the phenophasic development and yield attributes of snapmelon in relation to ambient air temperature and to find out suitable varieties for commercial cultivation of snapmelon with eight genotypes as influenced by three sowing dates. The studies revealed that the snapmelon sown on 22nd January, accumulated lower number of growing degree days with higher heat use efficiency, among the genotypes tried. Efficiency of converting thermal regime to yield formation was higher when the crop was sown on 22nd January and it decreased with the delayed sowing. A sharp decline in crop duration as well as days to flowering occurred with the rise in temperature irrespective of the varieties. Where as fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit length were varietal characteristics and not influenced by the different environmental conditions. Genotype IC-102K-Bh (V4) was found to be the best cultivar with regard to early female flower initiation and yield as the cultivar utilized the thermal regime for yield most efficiently.
S. Muthu Kumar and V. Ponnuswami

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India

Key words: 1-methylcyclopropene, vase life, cut roses

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 43-46.

Abstract: A lab experiment was conducted on a Hybrid Tea rose variety "First Red" to study the effect of 1-Methyl Cyclo Propene on post harvest quality of cut rose flowers. Pretreatment of flower stem with 1-Methyl Cyclo Propene was carried out in airtight chamber. The experiment was laid with 0.18 % of 1-MCP / m3 for 6 hours and 0.18 % of 1-MCP / 2m3 for 6 hours along with control. The treatment 0.18 % of 1-MCP / m3 for 6 hours recorded the lowest mean values for physiological loss in weight (11.43 per cent), loss of membrane integrity (31.63 per cent), transpirational loss of water (5.23 g stalk-1) and peroxidase activity (0.031 units g-1 of fresh weight) during the entire vase life period while the control recorded the highest mean values for physiological loss in weight (25.36 per cent), loss of membrane integrity (53.82 per cent), transpirational loss of water (8.44 g stalk-1) and peroxidase activity (0.057 units g-1 of fresh weight). Besides, the cut rose flowers treated with 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours had highest relative water content of 78.16 per cent and water uptake of 6.80 g stalk-1. Flowers exposed to 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours maintained higher mean values for appearance (score 4 - very good) and stem strength (82.40 o angle) during the entire course of study. The cut rose flowers exposed to 0.18 % of 1-MCP/ m3 for 6 hours had significantly enhanced the vase life and recorded the longest vase life of 4.3 days whereas the control recorded the shortest vase life of 2.6 days.
C. Thangamani and L. Pugalendhi

Department of vegetable crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, India

Key words: Momordica charantia L., diallel mating, diverse parents, relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis, standard heterosis, earliness, yield and quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 47-56.

Abstract: Evaluation of ninety hybrids of bitter gourd resulting from full diallel mating of ten genetically diverse genotypes for earliness, yield and quality characters had revealed the presence of heterotic vigour. Fifty nine hybrid combinations were found to exhibit negative significant heterobeltiosis for days to first female flower appearance and the hybrid CO-1 x GL had registered favourable values for this trait. The hybrid CO-1 x MC-105 registered negative significant relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for node at which the first female flower appears. The heterosis for sex ratio was found to be in the desired direction in UB x GL and seventy six hybrids showed significant negative heterobeltiosis for sex ratio. The highest significant relative heterosis (KR x UB) and heterobeltiosis (MC-10 x KR) for fruit length was also observed. The highest positive and significant standard heterosis was observed in the hybrid Priyanka x GL for fruit length. The estimate of heterobeltiosis for fruit weight had shown positively significant value for fifteen hybrids, and it was the highest in KR x USL. Among the ninety hybrids, sixteen hybrids had registered positive and significant heterobeltiosis values for number of fruits per vine, and the hybrid Preethi x MC-30 had the highest value for this trait. The highest positive heterobeltiosis for yield of fruits per vine was recorded in KR x USL followed by Preethi x MC-30. However, the estimates of standard heterosis for fruit yield revealed that the hybrid Preethi x MC-30 had the highest positive significant value followed by the hybrid KR x USL. In order of merit the hybrids viz., Preethi x MC-30, KR x USL and MC-105 x MC-10 were noted to be the top performing hybrids with respect to yield and quality parameters since they had showed significant heterotic values.
Henry A. Akintoye, Olusola O. AdeOluwa, Olukemi Y. Akinkunmi

Floriculture Improvement Programme, National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B.5432, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: Flowers production, plant characters, responses, rooting, beefsteak begonia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 57-61.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted over a two-year cropping season to determine the effect of growth media on rooting, growth and flowering. Nine growth media viz., river sand (RS), topsoil + poultry manure (T+P), topsoil (T), river sand + poultry manure (RS+P), sawdust (S), topsoil + river sand + poultry manure (T+RS+P), topsoil + sawdust (T+S), sawdust + river sand (S+RS), topsoil + poultry manure + river sand + sawdust (T+P+RS+S) were used for the study. It was found that growth media significantly (P>0.05) affected the number of branches and branch length per plant; number of leaves and number of flowers per plant. The quantity of flowers produced per week varied according to each growth media as follows: Begonia planted in topsoil + poultry manure (4:1) produced the highest number of flowers per plant, while sawdust + river sand (3:1) produced the least number of branches per plant, branch length per plant, number of leaves per plant and number of flowers per plant in the two years of the experiment. The slow growth, poor development and late blooming in soil + sawdust (4:1) and sawdust + river sand (3:1), could be as a result of inadequate nutrients in the substrates. Topsoil + poultry manure (4:1) growth medium (with or without river sand), appeared to be the suitable growth medium that will significantly enhance early rooting, establishment, growth and development of beefsteak begonia and sustain flower production for a good length of time.
J.D. Mantec?n

Facultadde Ciencias Agrarias, UNMDPy Estacion ExperimentalAgropecuaria, INTA. CC 276, 7620Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Key words: Rhizoctonia, scurf, soil inoculum, Kennebec, sclerotia, fludioxinil, pencycuron

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: During 2008 to 2010 growing seasons, three trials were conducted on fungicide treatment of soil and seed tuber for control of potato black scurf at INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina in randomized complete block design. Before planting, fungicides Monceren 25SC (pencycuron 25%) at 1.25 L/t and Celest 25FS (fludioxinil 2.5%) at 0.5 L/t were sprayed on potato whole seeds. After planting, the same fungicides were sprayed on each row at 2.5 and 1.0 L ha-1, respectively. Whole healthy (no symptons) and diseased (15-20% surface covered by sclerotia) seeds of Kennebec cultivar were used. Artificial inoculations to the soil were made with Rhizoctonia solani AG3 anastomosys group. Disease incidence was registered every year. Yields were recorded and each tuber was goruped according to health. Fungicides showed better results than both checks and reduced plant disease incidence in the field. Inoculated check showed 50% of unhealthy plants while the fungicides reduced it to 10%. Yield increase of marketable tubers was 42% better in fungicide treatments than in the inoculated check. Both fungicides produced more healthy tubers than the inoculated check or uninoculated check. Yield increase of healthy tubers was 45% higher when compared with the inoculated check. Fungicide seed treatment was better when disease seeds were used and fungicide soil treatment was better than healthy seeds.
Gurteg Singh and Sat Pal Saini

Krishi Vigyan Kendra (PAU), Haveli Kalan, Ropar -140 001, Punjab, India.

Key words: Key words: Prunus persica, pruning, fruit thinning, fruit yield, fruit weight, farmer practice

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 65-68.

Abstract: Fruit and shoot management in peaches (Prunus persica L.) is an important intervention to improve fruit quality and its yield . Studies were conducted through on-farm trials at farmer's fields in Ropar (Punjab) district during 2006-2009 to evaluate the technology of pruning and fruit thinning and its effects on crop yield and fruit quality in six-year-old peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab trees with three treatments viz., T1=50% pruning of fruitful shoots + cutting of dead and diseased wood in early-January, T2=T1+ Fruit thinning during mid-March and T3=No pruning and no fruit thinning (Farmer Practice-FP). The pruning treatments caused the development of an abundant number of long shoots, which are valuable for fruiting. Mean fruit yield was 50 kg per plant in T1; 48 kg per plant in T2 and 32 kg per plant in T3 (FP). Mean fruit yield was 56.25 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and by 50.00% higher in T2 over T3 (FP). Results revealed that mean fruit weights were 55.10, 70.10 and 41.00 grams in T1, T2 and T3 respectively during 2006-07. Mean fruit weight was 34.39 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and it was 70.97 % higher in T2 over T3 . Similar trend was observed during the following years 2008 & 2009 at all the locations except in 2009 where non-significant reduction in fruit yield was noticed in T2 over T3 . The highest benefit cost ratio was obtained in T2 (3.31) followed by T1 (3.20) and T3 (2.32). It was concluded that economic fruit yield can significantly be obtained by imposing 50% pruning of fruited shoots and cutting of dead and diseased wood during early January followed by fruit thinning in mid- March in peaches cv. Shan-i- Punjab in sub mountain zone of Punjab.
S.N. Jha, Pranita Jaiswal, K. Narsaiah, Rishi Bhardwaj, Poonam Preet Kaur, Ashish Kumar Singh, Rajiv Sharma and R. Kumar

Agricultural Structures and Environmental Control Division, Central Institute of Postharvest Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana 141004, India.

Key words: Bacteria, biochemical, diversity, filamentous fungi, mango, relative abundance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 102-109.

Abstract: Microbial diversity on fruit surface of nine mango cultivars (Alphonso, Banganapalli, Chausa, Dashehri, Kesar, Langra, Mallika, Maldah and Neelam) harvested from orchards of nine Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh) were studied using standard methods. A total of 47 fungal and 123 bacterial isolates were purified from 761 mango samples, which included 63 Gram positive and 60 Gram negative bacterial isolates. The relative abundance of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and different filamentous fungi varied among cultivars. Gram positive bacteria dominated on Langra of Uttar Pradesh, while Dashehri from Punjab showed dominance of Gram negative bacteria. Among total fungal isolates, the common genera were Aspergillus and Fusarium, while among bacterial isolates, the most common genera were Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Citrobacter, Mycobacterium and Serratia. Alphonso and Kesar variety from Maharashtra showed maximum and minimum fungal diversity, respectively. Genera and species identified include members known for spoilage of fruits; having all types of pectinase and cellulase activities and those used in biocontrol of plant pathogens.
M.P. Singh, H.S. Sodhi, A. Singh and P.K. Khanna

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Agaricus bisporus, cabinet drying, microwave-oven drying, color index, texture index, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 110-113.

Abstract: White button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (strains U3 and S11) were dried in cabinet at two temperatures (45 and 55?C) and microwave oven at 380W for 30 minutes. Dried mushrooms were subjected to physical (color, texture, rehydration ratio, dehydration ratio), biochemical (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) and microbiological (total bacterial count) parameters after three months of storage period. In strain U3, carbohydrate content was highest in 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms dried at 45?C, protein ranged between 3.43 to 3.89 g/100 g of fresh mushrooms, lipid content ranged between 0.06 to 0.30 g/100 g of mushrooms and the total bacterial count ranged between 1.48 to 2.07 log cfu/g which was within the permissible limits of dried fruit products while in microwave oven dried mushrooms there was no significant difference in two strains in terms of carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents. Bacterial count was found to be within the permissible limit of dried fruit products (1.85-2.17 log cfu/g). The weight of dried mushrooms remained almost constant throughout the storage period of 3 months. However, cabinet drying was preferred for most of the color and texture index parameters. Springiness was maximum for microwave oven dried mushrooms of S11 strain treated with 0.1% KMS, followed by the unwashed mushrooms. Resilience ranged between 0.23 to 0.33 in all the treatments. Cohesiveness was maximum in unwashed mushrooms of U3 dried at 55?C, followed by cabinet dried mushrooms of S11 strain (55?C) both unwashed and 0.1% KMS treated. Chewiness and gumminess were also maximum for cabinet dried unwashed mushrooms of U3, followed by microwave oven dried 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms. A. bisporus was most acceptable in cabinet drying for 0.1% KMS treated U3 strain at both 45?C and 55?C while in case of microwave oven drying, total color difference (2.88 for U3 and 2.58 in S11) was minimum and rehydration ratio (1.91 to 3.06) was found to be maximum for U3 strain.
Jagdev Sharma, A.K. Upadhyay, Indu S. Sawant and S.D. Sawant

National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune (MS)-412307, India.

Key words: Powdery mildew, nutritional status, grapevines, potassium, disease incidence

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 114-117.

Abstract: Relationship between nutritional status of open field grown Thompson Seedless grapevines and powdery mildew incidence was studied for two years at two growth stages. Amongst different nutrients, potassium showed highest degree of significant and negative correlation with the powdery mildew disease rating (r= -0.817 and -0.875) at two growth stages. Regression analysis also revealed the importance of potassium nutrition in powdery mildew incidence. During the first year of the study, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 82.7 % (R2 = 0.826) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 66.8 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.667). During the second year N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 85.7 % (R2 = 0.857) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 76.6 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.765).
B.L. Attri, Hare Krishna, B. Das, N. Ahmed and Akhilesh Kumar

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station, Mukteshwar - 263 138, Uttarakhand, India.

Key words: Apple varieties, salicylic acid, Ca-EDTA, physico-chemical characters, ambient storage, anti-oxidants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 118-123.

Abstract: For extending the shelf life, a study was carried out on the effect of bio-regulators viz., salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA on three apple varieties viz., Fanny, Golden Delicious and Vance Delicious. The selected fruits were dipped for 30 minutes in aqueous solution of salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, Ca-EDTA @ 0.4% ppm and control (distilled water dip). The treated fruits were stored in CFB boxes at ambient temperature (18-20oC) for 60 days. During storage, the effect of bio-regulators on various physico-chemical characteristics such as TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidants of apple fruits were studied at 10 days interval. The results revealed that the fruits treated with bio-regulators had significantly better retention of firmness and low PLW (12.10, 12.80 and 13.69%) as compared to control (20.26, 18.75 and 19.35%) during storage for 60 days. The TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidant contents in the treated fruits were stable, whereas in untreated ones the conversion rate was faster. During storage, salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA slowed down respiration rate resulting better shelf life of apple. The treated fruits of Golden Delicious had a shelf life of 60 days as compared to 40 days in control. The study revealed that the shelf life of the apple fruits could be increased with better physico-chemical characteristics using bio-regulators like salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA.
Muzaffar Mir and Som Dev Sharma

Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P), India-173230.

Key words: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), azotobacter, mycorrhizal fungi, PSB, soil enzymes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 124-128.

Abstract: The present study represents the positive response of biofertilizers in pomegranate cuttings followed by their transplantation in field conditions. Nursery and field experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of selected N2-fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and AM fungi alone or in combination, on the growth and biomass production of Punica granatum. In both experiments, the combined treatment of Azotobacter chroococcum + Glomus mosseae was found to be the most effective. Besides enhancing the rhizosphere microbial activity and concentration of various metabolites and nutrients, these bioinoculants helped in better establishment of pomegranate plants under field conditions. A significant improvement in the plant height, plant canopy, pruned material and fruit yield was evident in 6-year-old pomegranate plants in field conditions. In view of the above results, use of biofertilizer technology may be adopted for the establishment and development of other horticultural plant species in rainfed agroecosystem..
Mehrdad Madani, Ahmad Akhiani, Mahmoud Damadzadeh and Ahmad Kheiri

University of Tarbiat Modares, College of Agriculture, Plant Pathology Department, Tehran, Iran. Present address: Uni?versity of Manitoba, Soil Science Department, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute. Ministry of Agriculture an

Key words: Pistachio vera, root knot nematodes, gall index, eggmass index, cultivar

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 129-133.

Abstract: Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a edible nut native to Iran, the country that ranks first in worldwide pistachio production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne species, are among the most important pathogens that restrict the cultivation of pistachio in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance of native pistachio rootstocks for resistance to isolates of M. incognita. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the reaction of eleven cultivars of P. vera and six accessions of wild pistachio viz P. mutica, P. khinjuk, P. terebintus, P. atlantica, P. atlantica sub sp mutica and P atlantica sub sp cabilica, against five selected populations of RKN. Meloidogyne incognita andM. javanica were identified based on the morphological characters, and esterase isozyme phenotype. Resistance was characterized based on root gall and egg mass indices and nematode reproduction. Resistance to M. incognita was detected among the cultivars and wild accessions of pistachio. There was a significant interaction among nematode populations and host genotypes, suggesting the presence of virulent pathotypes among the M. incognita isolates. These data suggest that it will be possible to development cultivars with resistance as a means of suppressing damage to pistachio that is caused by RKN.
L. Saravanan and Vipin Chaudhary

Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi-534 450, Andhra Pradesh, India. Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi-387 310, Gujarat, India.

Key words: Dichromia orosia, Tylophora asthmatica, biology, seasonal activity, longevity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 134-138.

Abstract: Dichromia orosia (Cramer), a near monophagus pest was observed to cause severe defoliation to its host plant, anthmool (Tylophora asthmatica Wight and Am), an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic formulations to treat asthma world over. Biology and seasonal activity of the pest was studied during 2009-10 at Anand, Gujarat. Though incidence was observed throughout the year, however, the pest activity was more during July, August, December, January and February months. The pest completed its life cycle in 24.53?0.40 days (Eggs 3-4, larvae 10-14 and pupae 6-7 days). The longevity of the male and female was 15.70?0.68 and 19.70?0.42 days, respectively. Each female laid an average of 178.5?17.66 eggs, mostly on the under surface of the leaves in 12.20?0.49 days of oviposition period. The larvae developed through five instars in 12.9?0.35 days and pupal period lasted for about 6.8?0.11 days. Correlation of peak pest population periods with corresponding and previous Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) revealed that prevalence of maximum temperature (27.5-30.20C) mean temperature 29.31 0C, high RH and low rainfall recorded in increase of larval population.

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