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Randall P. Niedz*, Joseph P. Albano and Mizuri Marutani-Hert

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road Ft. Pierce, FL34945-3030, USA

Key words: Water, nonionic surfactants, gelling agents, malachite green, sodium sulphate, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. paradisi Macf., C. sinensis L. Osbeck

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 121-128.

Abstract: The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined. Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity, malachite green, nonionic surfactants, and sodium sulphate. Tap water, with the highest levels of SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+, resulted in the most shoots compared to the other 5 sources, suggesting a mineral nutrient effect. Carrageenan produced fewer shoots than agar and gellan gum. Explants inserted into the medium produced more shoots than those cultured on the surface, presumably because of better exposure to water and nutrients. Seed size, light intensity, malachite green, and sodium sulphate had no effect on the number of shoots regenerated. Triton X-100 at 0.1 % resulted in significantly fewer shoots; otherwise, nonionic surfactants had no effect.
Widiatmaka, Wiwin Ambarwulan, Atang Sutandi, Kukuh Murtilaksono, Khursatul Munibah and Usman Daras

Department of Soil Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Geospatial Information Agency, Indonesia. 3Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia.

Key words: Geographic information system, horticultural crop, land evaluation, land use planning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 129-139.

Abstract: Cashews have a potential economic value for local people, and as a conservation plant that is appropriate for small islands, which usually have limited resource capacities. The research for this paper was conducted on Lombok Island, Indonesia with the objective to delineate the potential areas for cashew, based on land availability and land suitability. Land availability was analyzed by taking into account the land use and land cover maps interpreted from SPOT-6 imagery, a Forest Areas Status map and a map from the Official Spatial Land Use Plan. The evaluation of the lands suitability for cashews was conducted at a land mapping unit resulting from a soil survey, carried out at a scale of 1:25,000. The suitability analysis was done using a maximum limitation method, where the suitability level was defined by the lowest soil characteristics which determined the plants requirements. The land evaluation criteria were established in previous research, which included this island as an area of criteria establishment. The research results show that the land on this island has suitability status for cashews ranging from S2 (moderately suitable) to N (not suitable). The limiting factors include water availability, nutrient retention, available nutrients and rooting media, some of which can be improved. According to the available and suitable land, an area of 4,075.6 ha can be assigned as first priority, 18,167.3 ha as second priority and 43,582.8 ha as third priority for cashew expansion areas.
S. Abdullakasim, K. Kaewsongsang, P. Anusornpornpong and P. Saradhuldhat

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom-73140, Thailand.

Key words: Dendrobium, cytokinin; BA, inflorescence, pseudobulb, deformed flower

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 140-144.

Abstract: Improvement of flower quality is a major concern which plays a part in the enhancement of the marketability of the Dendrobium cut flower. In this study, both synthetic cytokinins: N-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) and N-6-benzyladenine (BA), were foliar sprayed at rates of: 1, 5 or 10 mg L-1 and 100, 200 or 400 mg L-1, respectively, on current pseudobulbs of the Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul with 45-50 cm in length. The treatments were applied thrice at fortnight intervals, prior to terminal bud initiation. The results revealed that an application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU significantly increased the numbers of inflorescence per pseudobulb (from 1.1 to 1.7 flowers), and the number of flower on an inflorescence was increased from 12.2 to 13.8 flowers. The length and the diameter of flower inflorescence, having 10 mg L-1 CPPU application, also increased from 49.4 cm to 55.1 cm, and 0.57 cm to 0.66 cm, respectively. In addition, the largest flower width and the highest fresh inflorescence weight were also obtained with application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU treatment. Despite the application of BA, at 400 mg L-1, enhancing the highest amount of flower counts of inflorescence (at 14.8 flowers), 33.3% of those inflorescence obtained at least one deformed flower. Overall, the results suggest that CPPU spray has a higher potential to elevate flowers, along with the inflorescence qualities of Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul. Furthermore, according to this study, CPPU has lower effects upon abnormal flower shapes, and their times of harvest.
K. Ranjitha, C.K. Narayana, T.K. Roy and A.P. John

Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.

Key words: Sapodilla, wine, yeast, phenolics, wine clarification, head space volatiles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 145-150.

Abstract: Process was standardized for preparation of fermented beverage from sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill) Foseberg). The starter culture using yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae UCD 522 fermented juice from two sapodilla varieties viz., Cricket Ball and Oval, to obtain wines with 10.1-11.2 % alcohol, 0.44- 0.58 % acidity, 3.6-3.9 pH, 0.26-0.28 % residual sugar, 300-645 mg/L phenolics and <0.09 % volatile acidity in six to nine days at 18 C. Retention of peel while pulping improved the phenolics level; but reduced the sensory quality of wine. Bentonite dosage and period required for clarification was optimized as 0.04 % for 14 days and 0.08 % for 21 days for production of wine from peeled fruits of Cricket Ball and Oval varieties, respectively. Sensory evaluation of dry, sweet, and flavored wines revealed the potential market acceptability of the wines. Head space volatile analysis showed the presence of new odorous compounds like esters and short chain fatty acids during vinification of sapodilla juice. Methoxy compounds and carbonyl fractions were less in the finished wine compared to natural juice.
Khumukcham Joshna and P. Pal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Carotene, Meteorological Standard Weeks, planting time, Tagetes erecta L. cv. Siracole.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: The investigation was carried out to evaluate the growth, flowering, yield and quality of African marigold cv. Siracole, as influenced by different planting dates. The crop planted on 9th June (T3) was found to have the highest plant height (96.93 cm). Maximum number of primary (5.3) and secondary (14.15) branches/plant, total fresh weight (502.00 g/plant), contribution by stem (385.00 g/plant) to the total fresh weight, higher dry (126.25 g/plant) matter accumulation and also the dry matter accumulation in stem per plant (98.00 g/plant) were found maximum with 12 April (T1) planting. The individual leaf area (4.73 sq cm) on 90 days after planting was significantly higher in the crop planted on 16 May (T2). It took minimum days (13.01 days) from visible bud to colour shown and bud emergence to full bloom (20.16 days), maximum diameter of individual flower (3.99cm) were found with 12 April (T1) planting. Heaviest flower (2.55 g) was recorded with October 12 (T7) planting. 16th May (T2) planting produced maximum number (7434.67) of flowers per plot (6.4 m2). Maximum carotene content was noted with 12th October (T7) planting. Crops planted between 50th MSW (T9) 2011 to 3rd MSW (T10) 2012 produced very less crop biomass, dry matter content and flower yield.
Bhalchandra Waykar and R.K. Baviskar

Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (Maharashtra), India.

Key words: Bee flora, floral calendar, honey flow period, dearth period, Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea, A. mellifera.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 155-159.

Abstract: The study was conducted at Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district during October 2012September 2013 to identify existing bee flora and to determine honey flow and dearth period to develop the floral calendar. The flowering plants were visited and observed for the presence of honey bees and their foraging activities. Plants were reported as bee foraging species when at least three honey bees had visited the flowers within the period of 10 minutes. The result revealed that 63 plant species were useful to honeybees as source of food, out of which 41 were wild and 22 were agro-horticultural plants. The identified flora was further grouped into nectar, pollen and both nectar and pollen supplying plants. Out of 41 wild bee plant species, 17 were nectar producing, 4 were pollen producing and 20 were both nectar and pollen producing. Results also revealed that out of 22 agriculture bee plant species, 6 were nectar producing, 5 were pollen producing and 11 were both nectar and pollen producing. Mid-October to mid-December was identified as honey flow period of the year, having number of flowering plants. Mid-May to mid-August was the critical dearth period with few flowering plants. Based on the availability of flora, major characteristics of these plant species, utility status and flowering duration, the bee floral calendar was developed for Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district. The result indicated that the area has rich bee flora and is suitable for commercial bee keeping. Paithan taluka has four honey bee species, viz., Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea and A. mellifera. Among these, A. florea and A. dorsata were dominant bee species, whereas A. mellifera was introduced species and only few colonies of A. cerana indica were observed.
S.S. Dhage, V.P. Chimote, B.D. Pawar, A.A. Kale, S.V. Pawar and A.S. Jadhav

State Level Biotechnology Centre, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Fig, regeneration, genotype-specific, shoot tip culture, multiple shooting, rooting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 160-164.

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to develop an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol in four fig cultivars viz., Poona Fig, Brown Turkey, Conadria and Deanna. Highest shoot tip establishment was observed in Deanna (100 %), followed by Conadria (79.2 %) and Brown Turkey (76.7 %) on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.5 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3). Establishment of shoot tips was very poor in cultivar Poona Fig (11.7-13.3 %). Further inoculation of shoots on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in both multiple shooting as well as rooting. Significant number of newly formed shoots were observed in Conadria (4.7) and Deanna (3.8) as against in Brown Turkey (1) and Poona Fig (0.6). Highest root induction was observed in Conadria (73.3 %), followed by Deanna (52.2 %), Brown Turkey (26.7 %) and Poona Fig (24.4 %). These results confirmed that the shoot bud establishment and multiple shoot induction in fig is highly genotype specific. As the response of popular cultivar Poona Fig to shoot tip culture was very poor, tender leaf explants were further used for regeneration study. Optimum regeneration was observed using MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for callusing; 7 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.25 mg/L ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shooting and 1.0 mg/L IBA for rooting.
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Regional Centre, Coimbatore-3, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Curry leaf, prepackaging, color scores, physiological weight loss, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 165-168.

Abstract: Curry leaf, which is a leafy spice, used in Asian culinary has limited shelf life. Investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of fresh curry leaf by prepackaging in different packaging materials i.e., polyethylene bags of 38 and 75 micron thickness, polypropylene bags of 20 and 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient (30?2?C) and refrigerated (5 ?1?C) conditions. It was found that prepackaging fresh and stripped curry leaf in polypropylene bag of 20 micron thickness with 0.1 % vent area of 5 mm diameter vent could prolong the keeping quality for 4 days under ambient storage. Also under refrigerated condition, under the same packaging treatment, the sample kept well for a period of 16 days in polyethylene bag of 75 micron thickness.
Kenji Beppu, Hidemi Sumida and Ikuo Kataoka

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: AP3, class B gene, double pistils, PaPI, PaTM6, PI, Prunus avium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 87-91.

Abstract: We isolated APETALA3 (AP3)-like and PISTILLATA (PI)-like cDNA clones called PaTM6 and PaPI from sweet cherry (Prunus avium). PaTM6 showed very high similarity to the TM6 lineage of AP3 of other Rosaceae species. PaTM6 contained three amino acid residues (F, T, M) within the MADS box and the (H/Q)YExM sequence near the K box, both of which are characteristic of the AP3 subfamily. A paleo AP3 motif was present at the C-terminal end of PaTM6. PaPI showed very high similarity to PI of other Rosaceae species. PaPI had the serine residue and the KHExL sequence within the MADS box and near the K box, respectively, both of which are characteristic of the PI subfamily. A PI motif was present at the C-terminal end of PaPI. Both PaTM6 and PaPI genes were expressed specifically in petals and stamens, the same expression patterns as those of class B MADS-box genes. These results indicated that PaTM6 and PaPI are homologues of AP3 and PI, respectively.
So Sugiyama, Shigeto Morita and Shigeru Satoh

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan. 1Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto 619-0224, Japan.

Key words: Flower bud opening, display value, pyridinedicarboxylic acids senescence, spray-type carnation, vase life.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 92-95.

Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, time to flower opening and vase life, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion gross flower opening which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
Ganesh C. Bora, Purbasha Mistry and Dongqing Lin

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA, 1Natural Resource Program, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA.

Key words: Vineyards, sensors, variable rate technology (VRT), tree-sensing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 96-100.

Abstract: Sensors have been used to detect tree sizes for agrochemical and fertilizer applications in grape vineyards. Rugged and reliable sensors are required to measure the size and quality of tree canopy volume for variable rate fertilizer application. Real time sensing is important as size of the tree changes with time due to biological factors and management practices. This study evaluated ultrasonic sensor, optical sensor and a laser sensor for their sensing characteristics and field of view (FoV) in a range of conditions. The FoV was established by moving targets perpendicular to the centerline on both sides. The maximum sensig range of sensors varied from 6 to 8 m with ultrasonic sensor having the highest range. The beam widths for ultrasonic sensors were found to be wide (maximum 950 mm) whereas optical sensor has a narrow maximum beam width of 70 mm. The laser sensor has a sharp beam and did not work well in outdoor environment with plant materials. Statistical analysis was also done for sensors and found that P value is lower than 0.001 and R2 value closer to 1.0 which indicates significant better result in the vineyard for sensing characteristics.
K. Ranjitha, S. Shivashankar, G.S. Prakash, P. Sampathkumar, T.K. Roy, and E.R. Suresh

Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Division of Fruit crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.

Key words: Vitis vinifera, Pinot Noir, aroma, GC MS, mesoclimate, headspace volatiles, phenolics.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 03-06.

Abstract: The effect of vineyard shading on the composition, sensory quality and volatile flavours of grape wines from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir under Bangalore conditions, a region endowed with mild tropical climate, was studied. Wines from 50 and 75 per cent shaded vineyards were found to have better sensory appeal, significantly higher titratable acidity and lower levels of phenolics than those from open conditions. The wine colour parameters viz., hue and chroma, were significantly superior in wines prepared from berries of open vineyards. Head space volatile analysis showed that wines from shaded vineyards possessed higher levels of Pinot Noir aroma varietal specific compounds such as phenyl ethyl alcohol, methyl anthranillate, methyl and ethyl hexanoate, linalool, octanoic acid, and decanoic acids. The study showed the possibility of improving Pinot Noir wine quality by vineyard shade management in warmer viticulture areas...
Bruce L. Dunn, Arjina Shrestha and Carla Goad

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078-6027. USA. Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078-6027,USA.

Key words: Pelargonium, nutrition, plant growth, reflectance sensors, NDVI, SPAD, CRF

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 07-11.

Abstract: Greenhouse production of geraniums is popular for sales in the spring, and monitoring plant nutrition is important for high quality plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate if nondestructive handheld sensors could be used to quantify nitrogen (N) status in Pelargonium hortorum Maverick Red using controlled release fertilizer (CRF). Fertilizer treatments of 0, 4, 8, 10, or 12 g of 16N-9P-12K were topdressed on greenhouse grown plants. Individual plants were scanned from 10 pots per treatment for Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) over eight different sampling dates starting 7 days after fertilizer treatment application (DAT). Height, width, number of flowers, number of umbels and leaf N concentration were also recorded. Linear and quadratic trends were seen for both NDVI and SPAD. Plant height and width was highest in the 12 g treatment, but was not different than the 8 g or 10 g treatments. Number of flowers was highest in the 10 g treatment, but was not different from the 8 g and 12 g treatments. Number of umbels was not significantly different among fertilizer treatments, but all were greater than the control. For all measurement dates, a correlation was seen for fertilizer rate and leaf N concentration. Neither sensor showed correlations with leaf N concentration at 7 DAT or 14 DAT; however, both were correlated with each other and leaf N concentration starting 28 DAT. Results from this study indicated that 8 g CRF produced the best quality plants. Both NDVI and SPAD can be used to predict N status in potted geraniums grown with CRF, but consistency in sample collection and sampling time may be necessary to correlate the values with N status.
S. Naganeeswaran, T.P. Fayas, K.E. Rachana and M.K. Rajesh

Bioinformatics Centre, Division of Crop Improvement, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, P.O. Kudlu, Kasaragod 671124, Kerala, India.

Key words: miRNAs, RNA, gene expression, in silico, miRBase, coconut, leaf transcriptome

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 12-17.

Abstract: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded, small and non-coding endogenous RNA molecules, which control the gene expression at the post-transcriptional level either by suppression or degradation. Because of its highly conserved nature, in silico methods can be employed to predict novel miRNAs in plant species. By using previously known plant miRNAs available at miRBase, we predicted 16 miRNAs, which belongs to 11 miRNA families, and also targets for seven potential miRNAs in coconut leaf transcriptome. A majority of these seem to encode transcription factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of in silico prediction and characterization of miRNA from coconut. These findings form an useful resource for future research into miRNA prediction and function prediction in coconut and for studies on their experimental validation and functional analyses.
B.S. Sekhon and C.B. Singh

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004.

Key words: Potato, India, complex fertilizer, farmyard manure, irrigation, contrasts

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 18-21.

Abstract: India is the second largest producer of potatoes in the world. Shallow root system makes potato crop an inefficient nutrient consumer and sensitive to water stress. Anecdotal evidence hints that many potato growers of northwest India prefer complex NPK fertilizers or compound NP fertilizers over the straight fertilizers because they believe the former to be more efficient on agronomic basis. Thus, this study was aimed at conducting a comparative evaluation of various fertilizer sources across different irrigation and FYM regimes over two years on a loamy sand soil. A field experiment in split-split plot design was used with one additional blocking factor of soil variability. The main plot involved two FYM levels (0 and 50 t ha-1) and three irrigation water pan evaporation (IWPE) based irrigation regimes (IR1 with IWPE 2.0, IR2 with IWPE 1.4, and IR3 with IWPE 0.8) in sub-plots. Four fertilizer treatments in sub-sub plot involved a check (T0); T1 with N,P, and K respectively from straight fertilizers urea, single superphosphate (SSP), muriate of potash (MOP); T2 with P from DAP, remaining N from urea, and K from MOP; T3 with P from NPK complex (12:32:16) fertilizer and the remaining N from urea and K from MOP. General trends in tuber yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) during the year 2011 and statistically proven results of various a priori single degree of freedom contrasts showed that NPK complex fertilizer and NP compound fertilizer performed better than straight fertilizers.

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