Abstract: The effects of paclobutrazol on the fruit-leaf ratio of twelve-year-old trees of mango cultivars Alphonso and Dashehari were studied in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The soil was drenched with paclobutrazol at 0.0, 2.5, or 7.5 g a.i. per tree. In each paclobutrazol-treated tree, photosynthate and metabolite translocation to 30 leaves with a single fruit was inhibited by girdling the branch (1 cm wide ring of bark) at a uniform distance from the fruit. Girdling was conducted when Dashehari fruits were 4.9+or-0.7 cm long and weighed 27.9+or-8.5 g, and when Alphonso fruits were 4.0+or-1.0 cm long and weighed 32.9+or-7.5 g. Twenty-eight fruits on ungirdled shoots of trees not treated with paclobutrazol served as the control. In the two cultivars, thirty leaves were not sufficient to promote the growth of a single fruit, especially when the tree was not treated with paclobutrazol. In untreated trees, the weight of fruits from girdled trees of Alphonso and Dashehari was only 60.2 and 64.9%, respectively, of the cont
Singh, V K; Saini, J P; Misra, A K
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The activity of nitrogen-utilizing enzymes, i.e. nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase [glutamate-ammonia ligase] (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), during the development of healthy and malformed panicles of mango cultivars Amrapali and Dashehari was studied in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-97. Healthy and malformed panicles were evaluated at stages I (fully developed apical bud), II (flower bud at inception), III (fully grown panicles prior to full bloom), and IV (fully developed panicle at the full bloom stage). NR activity was significantly reduced in normal panicles from stage I to IV in both cultivars. Non-significant changes were observed in the malformed panicles of Amrapali. In general, the activity of GS and GOGAT followed the same trend. Contrary to the activity of NR, GS, and GOGAT, a sharp increase in GDH activity was observed in malformed panicles at the early stage of panicle development. GDH activity, which was highest at stage II in both c
Shailendra Rajan; Ram Kumar; Negi, S S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, to study foliage density and canopy diffuse non-interceptance in 26 Indian mango cultivars. The indirect measurement of leaf area index (LAI) and diffuse non-interceptance (DNI) was conducted using output of concentric silicon detectors placed at five zenith angles on the sensing head of LAI-2000, which recorded significant variability in foliage density (LAI=1.18-4.48). DNI values also exhibited large variation, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.36. UPGMA cluster analysis of the data revealed that Bangalora, Fazri, Neelum, Vanraj, Dashehari, Alphonso, Lucknow Safeda, and Banganapalli had similarity in tree leaf component. Nisar Pasand, Kishan Bhog, and Bombay Green had compact and dense canopy with more foliage component. Papatio and Fernandin exhibited comparatively less foliage under Lucknow conditions. Prabhashankar and Chausa showed similarity and were closer to compact canopy group. In general, east and north Indian cultivars recorded more foliage component
Abstract: The effects of spacing between plants (15, 30, and 45 cm) and rows (30, 45, and 60 cm) on 30-day-old L. sinuatum seedlings were studied in Pune, Maharashtra, India. At 60 and 90 days after sowing, plant height increased, whereas plant spread decreased as the spacing between plants and rows decreased. A spacing of 45 between plants and 60 cm between rows resulted in the earliest flowering (47.43 days) and highest yield in terms of the weight of flower stalks per plant (871.36 g). Flower stalk length (82.55) and flower weight per hectare (47.27 t/ha) were highest when the spacing between plants and rows was maintained at 15 and 30 cm, respectively. In general, a plant spacing of 45 cm with a row spacing of 60 cm resulted in superior growth and flower quality, but inferior yields. On the other hand, a plant spacing of 15 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm resulted in high yields but inferior flower quality. Satisfactory flower yield and quality was obtained with a plant spacing of 30 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm.
Denny, G C; Arnold, M A
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, Mail Stop 2133, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA.
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effects of substrate, phenological stage of cutting, and auxin concentration on the rooting of the ornamental Texas smoke tree (C. obovatus). Cuttings from new lush growing tips (softwood), partially matured tissues (semi-mature wood) and mature woody fully lignified cuttings from the previous season's growth (mature wood) were treated with either 0, 5000, 10 000 or 15 000 mg potassium salt of indole-butyric acid (K-IBA)/litre and placed in either 50% peat:50% perlite or 100% perlite rooting substrates. Cuttings were placed under an intermittent mist system in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Softwood cuttings rooted in both substrates, but the 50% peat:50% perlite substrate produced better quality rooted cuttings. Softwood cuttings peaked at 8000 to 10 000 mg K-IBA/litre. Semi-mature wood and previous season's growth cuttings rooted only in the 100% perlite substrate. In 100% perlite substrate, the optimum concentration for semi-mature wood cuttings was ~12 000 mg K-IBA/litre,
Arous, S; Boussaid, M; Marrakchi, M
Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Tunis, Tunisia.
Abstract: This paper reports the regeneration of Tunisian pepper cultivar from zygotic embryos cultured in vitro. Zygotic embryos of the Tunisian cultivar D'hirat cultured in vitro developed adventitious buds. The best results for bud induction were obtained in the Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 5 mg benzylaminopurine (BA)/litre and 1 mg NAA/litre. The important effect of BA in adventitious bud formation was demonstrated. Shoot bud development was enhanced by the addition of gibberellic acid to the medium. Plants were rooted in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium and transferred into pots, containing loam. To test the stability of the regenerants, characters related to the fertility, fruit quality, leaf and flower were measured. Regenerants and their progeny were compared to the control plants derived from seeds. Variance analysis and CANDISC were used. No significant differences were detected between the regenerants and the control plants for the characters tested.
Arin, L; Ankara, S
T. U. Agricultural Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of low-tunnel, mulching (black and transparent polyethylene or straw) and pruning treatments on yield and earliness of tomato cv. Fuji F1 in unheated glasshouse. A 643.72% increase in height (relative to height at the planting time) was observed in plants grown under low-tunnel (tunnelled) than those grown without tunnel (602.87%). Among the mulches, plant height increase was highest with the straw mulch (679.13%). Stem diameter increase was higher in plants tunnelled (265.36%) than plants grown without tunnel (233.83%). Straw and transparent polyethylene mulches recorded higher stem diameter than other mulches. The number of days to first harvest was 117.97 for plants tunnelled and that for plants grown without tunnel was 119.88. The shortest time to harvest was recorded in transparent polyethylene (117.90 days), which was at par with black polyethylene (118.17 days). Early fruit yield was higher in tunnelled and mulched treatments than in other treatments. The c
Mandhar, S C; Singh, K P; Kumari, C R
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Karnataka, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The naturally ventilated greenhouse (NVGH) and fan- and pad-cooled greenhouse (FPGH) were designed and constructed for conditions in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gerbera crop was cultivated in both greenhouses and temperature and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at 10.00, 13.00 and 16.00 h. The temperature in NVGH could be brought down very near to ambient temperature during hot and dry months by proper irrigation. The maximum temperature during the year in NVGH was 36.6 degrees C when the ambient temperature was 35.4 degrees C and RH 28.4% at 13.00 h in April. The maximum build up of temperature of 2.5 degrees C was recorded during rainy and cloudy days when the ambient temperature was low and RH was high. The average build up of humidity on a yearly basis in NVGH was 1.5% above the ambient RH. The drop in temperature up to 8.2 degrees C was observed in FPGH in April when the ambient temperature was very high (35.4 degrees C) and ambient RH was very low (28.4%). The maximum temperature of 30.1 degrees C
Silva, J A T da; Fukai, S
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.
Abstract: Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation requires a two-step process for its success: selection and regeneration of transformed tissues, and the elimination of the transformation vector, Agrobacterium. This study uses carbenicillin (CA), cefotaxime (CF) and vancomycin (VA) singly, or in combination, to eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and AGLO growing on Agrobacterium-favouring (LB) and plant-favouring (MS) media, at transgenic plant selection levels (10 or 25 micro g/ml kanamycin for chrysanthemum and tobacco, respectively). The three antibiotics differed in their capacities to eliminate Agrobacterium i.e., bacterial threshold survival levels (TSLs), depending on the strain, medium and light conditions. Plant TSLs differed from those for Agrobacterium, and were cultivar-, species- and light-dependent, with CA > VA > CF in terms of phytotoxicity. Since over 90% of plant transformation experiments use Agrobacterium as the transformation vector, with most of these containing an aminoglycos
Abstract: Heterosis studies on 9 bottlegurd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars (Banswara Local-1 (BL-1), Long White Prolific, Pusa Naveen, Raichur Local-1, Udaipur Local-1, IC 92352A, IC 92374, IC 42361 and PSPL), including their 36 F1 hybrids and cv. Varad as the control cultivar, were carried out under 4 environments created by sowing on two dates and at two locations in a field experiment conducted in Rajasthan, India. The analysis of variance indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among the experimental materials. The hybrids BL-1 x IC 92374, BL-1 x Pusa Naveen, and IC 92374 x PSPL were superior and exhibited significant economic heterosis for fruit yield per plant and yield components such as number of fruits and female flowers per plant. Most of the heterotic crosses were also heterobeltiotic.
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Shailendra Rajan
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P. O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: A trial was conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, to determine the effect of pruning dates on guava fruit yield. During 1991-93, fifteen trees, each of cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were pruned in the first week of February, March, April, May and June. During 1994-95, nine trees each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned on 15 and 30 April, May and June. Six trees, each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned on 15 and 30 May and June during 1995-96. Six trees each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned during 1996-98. Compared to pruning in February and March, pruning from April through June, enhanced the number of shoots and flowering percentage. Shoot growth was reduced in May- and June-pruned trees. The total yield during winter increased significantly (P0.05) in May- and June-pruned trees than the unpruned trees of both cultivars. May pruning significantly increased the harvest in the winter season. Pruning from February to March did not respond well for winter fruiting. Penet
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: Thirty-seven accessions of P. guajava and 6 Psidium species (P. chinensis, P. quadrangularis, P. molle, P. cattleianum, P. guineense and P. friedrichsthalianum) were studied for fruit weight, volume, length, breadth, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, skin colour and pulp colour. Cultivar Kamsari had the highest fruit weight. The TSS was highest in the cultivar Bangalore Local (12.70 degrees Brix), however, this cultivar has hard seeds. In most of the cultivars, the skin colour was yellow and cultivars such as Apple Colour and Chittidar had red spots on the skin. The cultivars Beaumont, EC- 147039, 147037, 162904, 147036, 147034, G-6, Kamsari, Pati, Portugal, Red Flesh had pink to red flesh colour. P. quadrangularis and P. guinees produced large fruits. The TSS was highest in P. friedrichsthalianum. The hybridization programme carried out has resulted in the isolation of one superior red-fleshed cultivar H-21.
Vishal Nath; Bhargava, R
National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner - 334 006 (Rajasthan), India.
Abstract: The variations in the ripening time of jujube (Z. mauritiana) cultivars Gola, Kaithali, Banarsi Kadaka, Umran, Mundia and Seb under the arid regions of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh; Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat; Jobner, Jodhpur and Bikaner, Rajasthan; and Hisar, Haryana, India were determined. Meteorological data, including the minimum and maximum temperature, and morning and evening relative humidity were recorded during 1986-90 in all locations except for Bikaner for which meteorological data were recorded during 1994-98. Irrespective of cultivars, the peak ripening of jujube was between the last week of November and the first week of January in the southern region of India and between the 10th of January and 30th of March in the northern regions of India. The prevailing maximum (23.3-34.4 degrees C) and minimum (6.2-19.1 degrees C) temperatures, the temperature difference of 11.9-18.3 degrees C and the morning relative humidity of 49.6-87.7% that lasts for at least a month induced the peak ripening in jujube. T
Bijimol, G; Singh, A K
Department of Horticulture, Nagaland University, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on flowering, flower quality and vase life of gladiolus cv. Red Beauty. Four spacings (15x30, 20x30, 25x30 and 30x30 cm) and four nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200 and 00 kg/ha) were taken. Corms planted at 25x30 cm and 200 kg N/ha significantly increased the diameter of spike, number of florets per spike, number of spikes per plant and number of spikes per ha and early emergence of spike under field conditions (Nagaland, India). Application of 200 kg N/ha also resulted in maximum length of spike and diameter of floret. However, early opening of flower was recorded with lower N rate (100 kg/ha), while length of floret with 300 kg N/ha. Spacing and N levels had significant effect on postharvest life of cut gladioli. Spacing 25x30 cm had striking effect on percent opening of florets per spike, number of open florets with drooping of minimum florets. N at 200 kg/ha had significant effect on percent opening of florets per spike, number of o
Jana, B R
Department of Fruit Breeding and Genetic Resources, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan 173 230, HP, India.
Abstract: Self incompatibility, one of the main problems causing low productivity of apple, was studied to determine the suitable pollenizer cultivar. The experimental materials used included 8- to 9-year-old apple trees of cultivars Anna, Aziza, Red Baron, Spur Red Delicious, EC161286, EC161287 and unknown (standard tree having greenish yellow fruit) as the pollenizers and four cultivars Red Baron, Spur Red Delicious, EC161286 and EC161287 as the female parents. Data on self pollination were recorded in first year to facilitate cross pollination in the following year. Controlled pollination was done following the standard method of emasculation and pollination on selected flower clusters. Fruit set was calculated 45 days after pollination. In terms of self pollination, Red Baron recorded the highest fruit set (5.76%) while EC161286 recorded the lowest fruit set (2.09%). EC161287 and Spur Red Delicious recorded 2.80 and 3.24% fruit set, respectively. In cross combinations, the highest fruit set (76.17%) was observed in