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Sadeghi Pour Marvi Mahdi

Department of Soil and Water Research, Varamin Agricultural Research Center, Ghodosi Blvd. Varamin, 3371616738, Iran.

Key words: Lactuca sativa, logistic equation, nitrogen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 73-76.

Abstract: Modern fertilization recommendation must optimize crop yield and quality and minimize chances of negative environmental effects due to over fertilization. Data from fertilizer studies can be fitted to several mathematical models to determine optimum fertilizer rates, but resulting recommendations can vary depending on the model chosen. In this research, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as a case study vegetable crop to compare models for estimating fertilizer N requirements. Field studies were conducted to measure yield response to applied N. The area was located at 25?21' E longitude and 51?38' N latitude in the North of Varamin city, (Tehran province, Iran) in the alluvial plain of Varamin. Soil family was fine, mixed, active, thermic, typic haplocambids based on Soil Taxonomic system (USDA, 1999). Plants were grown in Central Research Station of Varamin and received five rates of N (0, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1) as a urea in split applications. Data for plant fresh mass and N uptake were recorded. Logistic, linear-plateau and quadratic models were compared for the field data. The logistic model described the data for cultivar quite well, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 and above. Coefficients for the linear-plateau model were derived from the logistic model. All three models for lettuce production were compared graphically and analytically. The model coefficients were used to make improved estimates of fertilizer recommendations for field production of lettuce.
Liliana Marban, Lidia Giuffre, Marta Riat, Romina Romaniuk and Ernesto Giardina

Ingeis-Conicet Pabellon Ingeis. Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Av. San Martin 4453 (1417), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Key words: Fertilization, vermicompost, Ocimum basilicum L., basil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 77-80.

Abstract: The effect of conventional fertilization was compared with a vermicompost that was mixed with substrate for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in a greenhouse experiment. The study was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Eight treatments were compared: a control treatment of a substrate mixture (T0: with no vermicompost added), five treatments with increasing percentages of vermicompost added to the substrate mixture (H1 to H5), and two treatments using two application rates of a chemical fertilizer (F1 and F2). Both fertilizer and vermicompost presented very low levels of heavy metals, which assured agronomical suitability. Vermicompost from SS-MSW (Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste) and slaughterhouse sludge, presented significant value as soil conditioner and biofertilizer and produced increased levels of C and N (P<0.05). The phosphorus addition by vermicompost was high, with a decrease of zinc absorption by plants and potential contamination risk. Mixtures including more than 50% of the vermicompost and the highest rate of fertilizer showed statistically significant differences for dry weight, leaf length, plant survival and P-Zn antagonism (P<0.05).
Kouju Nozaki and Seiichi Fukai

Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium), floral development, high temperature.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 8-14.

Abstract: Delayed flowering of chrysanthemum under high temperature conditions is a serious obstacle for all year round cut chrysanthemum flower production in southern temperate and subtropical zones. To clarify the causes of flowering delay in spray chrysanthemum, two different genotypes of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) were grown under high-temperature conditions: summer-to-autumn flowering type (SA type, high temperature tolerant) and autumn flowering type (A type, high temperature sensitive). Their flower-bud initiation and development were subsequently compared. Results clarify that two independent events caused by high temperatures occur in the shoot apex of spray chrysanthemum under short-day conditions. First, high temperatures slowed floral development in inflorescence, thereby increasing the number of florets in both SA and A chrysanthemum genotypes. Secondly, high temperatures slowed the developmental speed of inflorescence after the budding stage, and the time to reach the bud break stage was prolonged, thereby delaying flowering, especially in A chrysanthemum genotypes.
F. Nazoori, A. Talaie and A. Javanshah

Rafnajan's Payam Nor University; Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran; Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan-Iran.

Key words: Dormancy, bud break, cold storage, chilling requirement, bud development

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 81-84.

Abstract: Effects of different chilling periods were evaluated on growth and development of floral buds of male seedling trees (Pistacia.vera L.) for chilling requirements of male genotypes helpful in predicting overlapping of flowering with female trees and escape from spring cold damage. The chilling requirement and responses of male genotypes to chilling treatment were determined by applying eight levels of chilling to shoots (i.e. 600-1300 h) at 3?1 oC. Based on the effect of chilling hours on bud break on four male pistachio genotypes were grouped to early (P1 and P6) and late flowering (P7 and P10) types. Percentage and rate of bud break, duration of flowering, growth and development of bud (length and width) were evaluated. The results indicated that genotypes had different chilling requirement. Among the male pistachio genotypes, the adequate chilling hours (bud break >80%) for P1, P6, P7 and P10 genotypes were 800, 700, 1100, and 1300 hours, respectively. P1 and P6 had low chilling requirement (700 hours) for 50% bud break compared to P7 and P10 (900 and 800 hours). Increased chilling led to decreased heat unit requirements for sprouting, resulting in greater overall growth and development. Chilling was a determining factor in floral bud break for all the genotypes, increasing chilling also produced greater bud break percentages. All genotypes required fewer heat units for bud break as chilling increased. Increasing the chilling hours also increased the length and width of flower buds and reduced duration of flowering.
Omveer Singh; Misra, K K

Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, girth, growth, leaf area, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 103-106.

Abstract: The performance of 24 ber (Z. mauritiana) in terms of growth, yield and yield components were studied under the tarai conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 1998-99. Sanaur 6 recorded the highest tree height (5.75 cm) and spread (11.90 m), trunk girth (2.13 m), cross trunk sectional area (3616.08 cm2) and volume (1698.39 m3). Rohtak Gola, Seo, Nazuk, Narikeli and Sanaur 2 recorded the highest shoot length (248 cm), number of leaves per shoot (515.50), leaf length (10.68 cm), length:breadth ratio (2.32) and photosynthetic efficiency (0.182 mg/cm2/h), respectively. Sanaur 3 recorded the highest leaf breadth (7.71 cm) and area (43.19 cm2); ZG3 recorded the highest number of fruits per shoot (50.50) and per tree (11665.50), and yield (214.40 kg); and ZG 2 recorded the highest yield efficiency by weight (0.215 kg/cm2) and number of fruits per m3 volume of tree (59.05).
Mandal, A B; Aparna Maiti; Elanchezhian, R

Plant Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, Andamans, India.

Key words: auxins, benzyladenine, culture media, cytokinins, fruits, IBA, in vitro culture, micropropagation, NAA, pineapples, plant growth regulators, rooting, shoots, suckers, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 107-112.

Abstract: Axillary buds from crown of mature fruits, slips and suckers of pineapple cv. Queen cultured in MS medium supplemented with high auxin:cytokin ratio and then transferred to MS medium with high cytokinin:auxin ratio showed high establishment percentage. Shoot multiplication increased upon subculture on freshly prepared MS medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA). The best multiplication medium was an MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg BA/litre, 2 mg NAA and IBA/litre and 10% coconut water. In vitro grown shootlets were successfully rooted in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg NAA and IBA/litre. The highest number of buds produced in 6 months was obtained from shaken liquid medium. Pulsing of explants enhanced the culture response as indicated by higher shoot multiplication rate in all types of explants.
Santosh Kumar; Ranjan Srivastava

Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: budding, cultivars, flowering, flowers, growth, rootstock scion relationships, rootstocks, roses, scions, sprouting, vigour

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 113-115.

Abstract: Bud take, growth and flowering were evaluated in Rosa indica [R. chinensis] cultivars Odorata and Briar, R. macrophylla and R. clinophylla budded with cultivars Super Star, Happiness, Eiffel Tower and Kiss of Fire. Bud take at 2 weeks after budding was greatest for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star (80%). R. macrophylla budded with Eiffel Tower recorded the lowest number of days to sprouting (21.33 days). R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star produced the tallest plants (37.67 cm) at 6 months after budding. However, at 15 months after budding, the tallest plants were obtained with R. clinophylla budded with Kiss of Fire (119.67 cm) and R. indica cv. Briar budded with Kiss of Fire (119.33 cm). At 6 months after budding, the greatest plant spread was recorded for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Happiness (55.63 cm) and R. indica budded with Happiness (54.67 cm). Super Star budded on R. indica cv. Odorata produced vigorous plants. At 15 months after budding, R. indica cv. Briar budded with Ha
Arora, N K; Channana, Y R; Raghbir Singh; Kaundal, G S

Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: colour, crop quality, crop yield, fruits, thinning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 116-117.

Abstract: The effects thinning at different crop growth stages (at pink bud stage, at full bloom, at fruit set, and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of fruit set) on the fruit size, colour and yield of peach cv. Flordaprince were determined in a field experiment conducted in Ludhiana, Punjab, India during 1998-99. The fruit length, breadth and yield of peach were highest when thinning was carried out during the pink bud stage. Data are presented on the effects of thinning n the colour of the fruits.
Ram Kumar; Shailendra Rajan; Negi, S S; Yadava, L P

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, PO Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: crop yield, fruits, genetic effects, genetic variation, genotypes, grapes, heritability, organic acids, phenotypic variation, reducing sugars, seed weight, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 118-120.

Abstract: The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance for yield and yield components of 14 early maturing grape genotypes were studied. The differences among the genotypes were highly significant (p=0.05) for all the characters (except bunch length) studied. A wide range of variation was recorded for bunch width, number of berry per bunch, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight, juice content, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, organic acid content and berry yield. Based on the coefficient of variation, broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance, it can be concluded that berry yield, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight and organic acid content provides a greater scope for selection of superior genotypes. Among the 14 genotypes, Flame seedless produced the highest (17.6 t/h) berry yield; Cardinal registered highest (275.6 g) 100-berry weight with high (6.5 g) 100-seed weight; and Pusa Navrang showed highest organic acid content and 100-seed weight (6.7 g). The
Karam, F; Mounzer, O; Sarkis, F; Lahoud, R

Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Department of Irrigation and Agro-Meteorology, Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287 Zahle, Lebanon.

Key words: ammonium nitrate, crop yield, dry matter accumulation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, leaf area index, lettuces, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 70-76.

Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine the effects of irrigation on the yield and nitrogen recovery of field grown lettuce in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon under non-limiting soil N conditions. Within the experimental plots, irrigation differentiation was made upon crop evapotranspiration (ETc) measured on a non-weighing lysimeter of 16 m2. The treatments included a control, I-100, irrigated at 100% of ETc, and two water deficit treatments, I-80 and I-60, irrigated at 80 and 60% of ETc, respectively. Prior to planting, all plots received fertilizers broadcast at a rate of 250 kg/ha of NPK-fertilizer (17%). At 6- and 12-leaf stages, ammonium nitrate (34.5%) was applied with irrigation water in two applications of 125 kg/ha each. Local groundwater containing 10 mg N-NO3/litre was used for irrigation. Yield was determined in a final destructive harvest. Crop evapotranspiration reached on the lysimeter a total of 433 mm for a total growing period of 70 days. Water stress caused by the deficit irrigations significantly
Mohsen Hanana; Moncef Harrabi; Mohamed Boussaid

Laboratoire de Genetique et Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis (INAT), 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.

Key words: 2,4 D, auxins, benzyladenine, callus, cotyledons, cucumbers, culture media, cytokinins, embryogenesis, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, melons, methodology, plant growth regulators, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 77-82.

Abstract: Within the framework of genetic improvement of Tunisian Snake-melon (Cucumis melo) cultivar by biotechnological methods, we have developed a method to regenerate whole plants by in vitro culture using cotyledon and hypocotyl as explants on MS medium with different combinations and concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Adventitious buds were initiated from hypocotyls grown on medium with 1.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 0.5 mg benzyladenine/litre. A maximum percentage of embryogenesis (20%) was obtained for cotyledons grown in MS medium containing 0.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 1 mg kinetin/litre. For stimulating the development of adventitious buds and the embryo's germination and their conversion into plants, MS medium diluted twenty times and supplemented with 1.5% sucrose was used. Histological studies showed that adventitious buds were initiated from the peripheral zones of the organogenic calluses by aggregation of meristematic cell masses which organized into a typical shoot meristem. Embryoids resulted from the divisio
Yadav, V K; Singh, H K

Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj) - 224 229, Faizabad (UP), India.

Key words: acidity, ascorbic acid, calcium nitrate, crop quality, fruits, phenols, reducing sugars

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 83-86.

Abstract: The effects of preharvest spraying of 1% calcium nitrate, 0.1% Topsin-M and 0.1% Bayleton, alone or in combination on aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA-6 were determined. The treatments were sprayed 10 and 20 days before harvest. Treatment with 1% calcium + 0.1% Bayleton resulted in increased total soluble solids (8.4%), total sugars (6.93%) and total phenol (13.3%), and reduced levels of losses in acidity (8.8%), ascorbic acid (22.32%) and reducing sugars (12.8%). The treatment also prolonged the shelf-life of fruits up to 20 days compared to 10 days in control. Thus, this treatment doubled the shelf-life of aonla fruit in storage at ambient temperatures.
Singh, K P; Ramchandran

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: corms, crop quality, crop yield, flowering, harvesting date, leaf area, leaves, plant height, postharvest decay, spikes, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 87-89.

Abstract: The effects of the number of days between flowering and corm harvesting on the performance of crops produced from harvested corms were studied in Hessaraghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Corms of gladiolus cv. Pink Friendship were harvested at 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 or 135 days after flowering (DAF). Plants grown from corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were the tallest (94.13 and 94.9 cm). Harvesting of corms at 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 DAF resulted in the greatest number of leaves per plant (8.78, 8,83, 8.65, 8.29 and 8.46) and leaf breadth (3.40, 3.63, 3.43, 3.33 and 3.48 cm). Scape width was greatest in plants produced from corms harvested at 45 (2.99 cm), 60 (3.08 cm) and 75 DAF (2.85 cm). Harvesting of corms at 60 DAF resulted in the greatest floret diameter (12.92 cm), spike length (86.26 cm), rachis length (45.99 cm), and number of florets per spike (13.87), and in the lowest incidence of corm rot (23.78%). Corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were superior in terms vegetative growth, flower productio
Joshi, N C; Srivastava, B K

Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: branches, crop yield, direct sowing, earliness, emergence, flowering, flowering date, flowers, fruits, harvesting date, internodes, planting date, seed germination, seeds, shoots, transplanting, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 90-92.

Abstract: The performance of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia cv. Jaunpuri Local) grown by direct sowing or transplanting at 15 January, 29 January, 12 February, 26 February or 12 March was evaluated in Pantnagar, Uttaranchal, India during the spring-summer season of 2000. Seeds sown directly in the open field on 15 and 29 January failed to germinate. For the other dates, seed germination was observed at 15.0 to 19.3 days after sowing. Main shoot length, number of branches arising from the main shoot, and internode length increased with the delay in transplanting. Greater shoot length was obtained under transplanting. The diameter of the main shoot decreased with the delay in direct sowing or transplanting. Flower emergence was earliest with transplanting on 26 February. In general, pistillate flowers emerged at 5-15 days after the emergence of staminate flowers. The formation of flowers on the lower nodes was more pronounced under transplanting. The lowest male flower position was obtained with transplanting on 12 Ma
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Shailendra Rajan; Bhriguvanshi, S R

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: application rates, ascorbic acid, chemical composition, crop quality, crop yield, cultivars, foliar spraying, fruits, guavas, leaves, plant composition, reducing sugars, shoots, urea

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2002, volume 4, issue 2, pages 93-98.

Abstract: The effects of foliar application of urea (10, 20, 25 and 30%) as the main source of N on the growth and leaf N composition of the guava cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were determined in a field experiment conducted in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Urea-N, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in the shoot and fruits were highest with the single application of 30% urea and double application of 20% urea in Allahabad Safeda and Sardar, respectively. Crop yield in both cultivars decreased with increasing urea concentration during the rainy season. Fruit weight, total soluble solids, and ascorbic acid and reducing sugar content were highest with foliar spraying of 25% urea on Allahabad Safeda and decreased with increasing urea concentration in Sardar.

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