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Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour, Fahimeh Jamie and Seyed Ali Elahinia

Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran; Center of Natural Resources research, Alborz- Karaj, Iran.

Key words: Stone fruit trees, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, canker, Iran

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 142-145.

Abstract: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes canker, leafspots and necrosis of the bark of cherry, plum, and peach fruit trees. Symptoms caused by this pathogen on leaves, blossoms, and fruit, reported as common else where, are rare in Guilan cherry orchards. In this research, during survey from cherry, plum, and peach orchards in different areas of Guilan province (Talesh, Hashtpar, Astaneh-Ashrafieh and Lahijan), samples were taken from infected tissues of disease trees. For isolation of bacteria causing disease, infected tissue were crushed in bacteriological saline (0.85% w/v NaCl) and 100uL of juice was cultured on nutrient agar (NA) and King's B medium. Strains of bacteria rod-shaped, gram negative and aerobic bacterium were isolated. The strains produced Levan on media including sucrose. All strains made Hypersensitive Reaction (HR) on tobacco and geranium leaves. All of the isolated bacteria were oxidase, nitrate, tween 80 hydrolysis, indole and starch hydrolysis negative and could not rot potato tuber slices, produced H2S, and grew at 36?C. The isolates could use citrate and urease. The isolates produced acid from sorbitol, galactose, myo-inositol, manitol, xylose, maltose and sucrose. Their gelatin test were positive. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, pathogenicity properties and total cellular protein profiles (SDS-PAGE), the predominate pathogenic type was identified as P. s. pv. syringae. This is the first report of the existence of P. s. pv. syringae on stone fruit trees in Iran.
Jorge D. Mantec?n

F.C.A (UNMDP)-E.E.A.INTA, Balcarce, Agronomy Department, c.c.276,7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires province, Argen?tina

Key words: Potato, black scurf, control, Argentina, fluazinam, pencycuron

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 146-148.

Abstract: In the 2004 and 2005 seasons, experiments were carried out at INTA Balcarce, Argentina on potato cultivars Kennebec, Innovator and Shepody, with different susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. A randomized block design with four replications was created. Visual observations during the crop cycle were carried out in order to record the number of healthy and infected plants, with symptomatology of stem canker produced by R. solani. After harvest, the potatoes in each block were washed and weighted, the total yield recorded and the marketable and "seed" potatoes were classified into healthy, cracked or malformed tubers. The best results on the reduction of infected plants were obtained with the highest dose of fluazinam (as Frowncide 50SC) and pencycuron (as Monceren 25SC). Commercial and "seed" tuber yields in the Spunta cultivar showed no significant differences among treatments, but with the Shepody cultivar, when the severity of the disease was high (2004) both fungicide treatments surpassed the untreated check. When the severity of the disease was low (2005), all chemical treatments registered higher commercial and "seed" tubers yields than the untreated check. In Kennebec and Spunta cultivars, all the treatments - except the lowest dose of fluazinam - accomplished a higher quantity of healthy tubers and surpassed the untreated check; although only the highest doses showed the highest yield of healthy tubers, showing a positive relationship with respect to the applied dose. Only the highest doses of fluazinam considerably reduced diseased tuber incidence in comparison to the untreated check.
A.B.M. Sharif Hossain and Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce

Plant Physiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Key words: Bougainvillea flower, vase life, senescence, ethanol

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 149-153.

Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol (ET) at different concentrations on longevity and senescence delay in bougainvillea flowers. The treatments were water (control), 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. Positive response was found in case of 4, 8 and 10% of ET after a certain period of treatment application. Dry weight was higher in lower concentrations of ethanol and lower in higher concentrations. Flower longevity was 2 days longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations of ethanol. Petal wilting and abscission occurred 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. Perianth abscission also appeared 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. However, petal discoloration (color change) was later in control, 2, 4, 8 and 10% than in 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. The results showed that flower vase life was significantly affected by ethanol concentrations as well as longevity was longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations.
Mohammad Reza Zokaee Khosroshahi, Mahmood EsnaAshari and Mohammad Fattahi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Key words: Sweet cherry, P. avium, Surati-e-Hamedan, putrescine, postharvest life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 154-157.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous putrescine on postharvest life and quality of sweet cherry fruit, cultivar "Surati-e Hamedan" at 2?C. Fruits were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM putrescine as well as distilled water (Control) for 10 minutes, then transferred into the fridge (2?C). The rate of ethylene production, weight loss, tissue firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and pH of fruits were determined 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 d after the beginning of storage. Parameters associated with ripening processes, including softening and loss of titratable acidity, significantly decreased by application of putrescine. Soluble solids content of cherries also increased by the putrescine treatment. In addition, cherries treated with higher concentrations of putrescine showed lower rate of ethylene production. Weight loss of the fruits was affected by putrescine in a concentration dependent manner, while putrescine did not affect pH of fruit juice.
Som Dev Sharma and Pramod Kumar

Scientist, Department of Pomology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP-173 230 India; Research Officer(R & D Agriculture), Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Lmited (GOI), Chembur, Mumbai-74, India.

Key words: AM fungi, Azotobacter, root colonization, correlation, mango

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 158-163.

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to find out the nutritional status of mango orchards cv. Dashehari located in north- western Himalayan region of India and to establish the relationship of soil microflora especially, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Azotobacter with growth, fruit yield, and soil and leaf nutrient contents. The study revealed that the correlation between AM spore population and shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, available Cu and Zn content and leaf N, P, Cu, Zn and Mn contents was found to be positive and significant, whereas, the relationship with soil as well as leaf K content was negative but significant. Azotobacter count was positively and significantly correlated with fruit yield, soil organic carbon (OC) and leaf Fe content, while, it was negative and significant with leaf K content. The relationship of per cent root colonization with soil OC and available N content of orchard soil was found to be positive and significant, and with shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, electrical conductivity, available P, K, Cu, Zn and Mn content and P, K and Cu contents of leaf, it was negative but non-significant.
Balcha Abera, Legesse Negash and Jochen Kumlehn

Department ofBiology, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Leibniz Insti?tute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Plant Reproductive Biology, Correnstrasse 3, D-06466 Gatersleben, Germany

Key words: Echinops kebericho, Kebericho (globe thistle), rootstock, seed-based propagation, Asteraceae

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 164-168.

Abstract: Effects of seed sterilization, storage time, and temperature as well as extent of seeding survival and establishment under glasshouse versus nursery conditions were studied for E. kebericho. Seeds sterilized for 9 and 5 minutes in 70 % ethanol and in 10% sodium hypochlorite, respectively, germinated best (95.2 ? 1.2%) on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 10 g L-1 phytoagar. Further increases or decreases in sterilization time decreased germination percentage and increased contamination, respectively. Unsterilized seeds (control) were completely contaminated before the emergence of radicle as a result of fungal growth. Seed germination percentage declined with increasing storage time and dropped from 94.6 ? 0.4 % to 32.2 ? 1.2% in 15 months. 25 oC was an optimal temperature for best germination (94.6 ? 2.4%) of seeds. Seeds sown in pots containing a mixture of sand, nursery soil, and animal manure in a ratio of 0.5: 2.5: 0.5 respectively, germinated significantly (P< 0.05) compared to other soil ratios. Increase in sand or animal manure ratios decreased germination, while increase in nursery soil increased percentage and rate of germination. High percentage (96.0 ? 0.5%) germination was obtained with the seeds sown in nursery soil-surface mixed additives compared with the control. Seedlings of nursery bed origin survived best compared to those in vitro or pot origin seedlings. Ultimately, seedlings growth with vigorous and orthotropic developmental pattern was obtained under nursery conditions, compared to those in the glasshouse, which showed stunted and plagiotropic developmental pattern. The study found that seeds stored for less than 5 months, and at 25 oC, were the most suitable for in vitro and ex vitro propagation of E. kebericho.
Ang BoonHaw; Chan LaiKeng

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Key words: benzyladenine, culture media, IBA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoots, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 65-68.

Abstract: S. acmella [Blainvillea acmella] was successfully micropropagated using axillary buds as explants. The aseptic axillary buds formed multiple shoots within 5 weeks when cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg benzyladenine (BA)/l. The addition of IBA as low as 2 mg/l into the MS medium containing BA had no significant effect on the multiple shoot formation. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg BA/l was sufficient for the proliferation of rooted multiple shoots. First subculturing of the in vitro individual shoots in the same proliferation medium could double the formation of multiple shoots.
Yeshitela, T; Robbertse, P J; Stassen, P J C

Department of Plant Sciences, Alemaya University, P.O. Box 165 Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, flowering, fruiting, fruits, growth, mangoes, pruning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 69-75.

Abstract: In a study conducted at Bavaria Estate, Hoedspruit, the northern province of South Africa, the mango cultivars Keitt and Tommy Atkins were subjected to the following treatments over 2 seasons: (1) inflorescence removal at the point of apical bud attachment during full bloom; (2) inflorescence removal together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence (about 5 cm from the tip) during full bloom; (3) removal of 50% of the total inflorescences (every alternate shoot of the tagged branches) together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence during full bloom; (4) renewal pruning where 20-30% of termination shoots with weak, misshaped and small fruits were cut back to a suitable node in October; (5) postharvest pruning where termination shoots that had been bearing fruits the previous season were cut back to a suitable node; (6) removal of terminal buds just before bud break; and (7) no pruning treatments (control). Pruning at the point of apical bud attachment induced re-flowering, m
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Mahendran, P P; Ragunath, K P

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, databases, grapes, iron, magnesium, manganese, mineral content, nitrogen, nutrient content, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, potassium, sodium, sulfur, zinc

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 76-80.

Abstract: The Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) nutrient index ranges were derived from a Muscat grape database to relate nutrient concentration and indexes with berry yield. A Muscat grape database of 188 observations on commercial yields and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were taken. The proportion of low-yield specimens in the survey population was computed at inflection point of variance ratio function and was associated with a Cate and Nelson statistical value (r2) of 4.7 that was confirmed in the validation subpopulation. Critical CND nutrient indexes were found to be symmetrical about zero as follows: -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/N, -0.39 to +0.39 for CND/P, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/K, -0.93 to +0.93 for CND/Na, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/Ca, -0.33 to +0.33 for CND/Mg, -0.60 to +0.60 for CND/S, -1.02 to +1.02 for CND/B, -0.58 to +0.58 for CND/Zn, -0.78 to +0.78 for CND/Cu, -0.55 to +0.55 for CND/Fe, -0.16 to +0.16 for CND/Mn and -0.49 to +0.49 for
Saravanan, T; Muthusamy, M; Marimuthu, T

Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilpatti - 628 501, India.

Key words: clones, culture filtrates, culture media, disease resistance, enzyme activity, enzymes, fungal diseases, gamma radiation, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, irradiation, micropropagation, peroxidase, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pat

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 81-84.

Abstract: A study was conducted to develop gamma radiation-induced resistant clones of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Rasthali against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense race-1. Shoot buds of Rasthali irradiated with 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy by using Co60 in a gamma chamber were used for in vitro culture establishment and to develop resistant clones. Shoot buds irradiated with 40 Gy had the maximum shoots per culture and percentage of culture establishment. Other doses of gamma radiation inhibited the culture establishment when compared to the untreated control. The shoots irradiated with 40 Gy were used to develop resistant clones against toxins of race 1. To standardize the concentration of the culture filtrate of the pathogen for the tolerant clone selection, the multiple bud clumps were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2-15% crude culture filtrates. The growth of multiple bud clumps was completely inhibited on the medium containing 10% culture filtrate. In the successive selection, the rate of survival of the plantlets incr
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Deepak Ohri

Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.

Key words: artificial selection, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, chemical composition, chlorophyll, crop quality, crop yield, fibre content, foliage, heritability, indirect selection, moisture content, plant composition, protein content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 85-86.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2002/03 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India to test the suitability of direct and indirect selection for high foliage yield and quality in Chenopodium album over successive cuttings. Thirteen germplasm lines were evaluated for moisture, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, fibre, protein and ascorbic acid contents and foliage yield. High heritability and moderate to high genetic advance were observed for all characters, except for moisture content, in all cuttings. Chlorophyll a exhibited the highest correlated response for the first and third cuttings, while fibre content exhibited the highest correlated response for the second cutting. A multiple selection index is suggested to enhance foliage yield. The estimates of correlated response and relative selection efficiencies were in proportion with each other although values for the latter were less than one.
Mar?a del R. Moreiraab, Alejandra G. Ponceb, Carlos E. del Vallea, L. Pereyraa and S.I. Rourab

Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Argentina, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET). Argentina.

Key words: Cut-lettuce, heat shock treatments, ascorbic acid, total microbial counts, sensory attributes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 87-92.

Abstract: Changes in ascorbic acid contents, microbial population and sensory attributes of cut Romaine lettuce subjected to thermal shocks were investigated. Immersion of cut lettuce in the thermal baths produced reduction in the ascorbic acid contents between 190 and 300 g kg-1, with the greater losses corresponding to the higher bath temperatures. However, the rate of ascorbic acid degradation during refrigerated storage was independent of the thermal treatment and all samples presented a sharp decrease during the first day of storage and a gradual decrease thereafter. Thermal shocks did not reduce the initial microbial population. During storage, an increment in microbial counts was observed, being more notorious in samples that had been exposed to the highest shock temperature (50 ?C). The thermal treatment at 50 ?C was the only one to delay the onset of midrib and edge browning up to four days of refrigerated storage. This midrib and edge browning was considered to the most relevant to the overall visual quality of the product.
Himanish Das; Jayaraman, S; Mahadeva Naika

Food Contaminants Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore - 570 011, India.

Key words: apples, ascorbic acid, bananas, carbendazim, carrots, crop quality, fungicide residues, fungicides, grapes, lycopene, moisture content, okras, oranges, sapodillas, spoilage, storage dips, storage life, storage losses, titratable acidity, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 91-95.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the uptake of carbendazim by 8 fruits and vegetables, i.e. tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), orange (Citrus sinensis), grape (Vitis vinifera), sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) and banana (Musa paradisiaca), dipped in aqueous carbendazim suspension under laboratory conditions. The effect of carbendazim dips on the storage life of apple and tomato was also investigated. The uptake of carbendazim varied significantly, ranging from 68.97+or-2.89 to 813.64+or- 11.46 micro g (mean 342.13 micro g), among the fruits and vegetables. The lowest uptake was recorded in apple, followed by banana, orange, tomato, okra, grape, sapota and carrot. Dip treatments more effectively extended the storage life of tomato than apple and at ambient (32+or-2 degrees C) than at low temperature (7+or-2 degrees C). Dip treatments also decreased the cumulative physiological loss in weight and spoilage of tomato and apple,
L. Andreini and S. Bartolini

Scuola Superiore S. Anna di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento, Piazza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56100 Pisa, Italia.

Key words: Chemical thinning, flower bud differentiation, gibberellins, meristematic apex morphology, nectarine

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 93-99.

Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the morphological and histochemical evolution of the bud meristems of 'Lavinia' nectarine cultivar. Moreover, the effectiveness of Release LC (a gibberellin chemical compound) in controlling the rate of flower bud differentiation was also evaluated. During a two-year period, the Release LC was applied in postharvest to avoid problems of possible chemical residues on marketable fruits. To determine the effect of treatment, several biological parameters such as initial flower and vegetative bud number, flower bud drop, evolution of the flower bud phenological stages, rate of bloom and fruit set were recorded. To establish the floral differentiation stage, the meristematic apices were collected before and after treatment and microscopically observed. The thin sections were analysed using histological (apex size, developmental stages of meristematic apex, co-axial stage), and histochemical (RNA fluorescent staining) techniques. In 'Lavinia' cv., the critical phase of the meristematic apex evolution occurred from May to June (60 and 90 days after full bloom): the presence of triple apices increased rapidly, the co-axial phase was achieved, the width and height of the meristematic dome increased markedly and the RNA appeared by a weak staining. As regards the flower bud differentiation control by exogenous treatments with Release LC, the different results obtained in our experiments indicate that the efficacy of treatment strictly depends on the growth stage of a meristematic apex.
Suleiman, M K; Bhat, N R; Bellen, R R

Aridland Agriculture and Greenery Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.

Key words: canopy, drought, growth, irrigation, ornamental plants, plant height, plant water relations, rosemary, water stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 96-99.

Abstract: To promote efficient use of expensive water resource as well as to maintain soil productivity and health in Kuwait, it is important to ascertain plant performance with regard to different irrigation regimes. A study was conducted to determine the effects of induced water stress on the growth and greenery impact of four ornamental plants, namely Vitex agnus-castus, Caesalpinia mexicana, Myoporum parvifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis, grown under the harsh arid climate of Kuwait. Acclimatized plants of these species were planted in Salmiya in July 2002. Plants were subjected to water stress by irrigating them at the rate of 25, 50 or 100% of the daily evapotranspiration rates during that month (3.75, 7.5 or 15.0 mm/d). The irrigation was adjusted according to average monthly ET rates. Growth and visual greenery impact data were recorded at weekly intervals during the first 87 days after planting and then at monthly intervals. Soil moisture was determined at weekly intervals using field tensiometers and oven-dr

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