Abstract: Bud take, growth and flowering were evaluated in Rosa indica [R. chinensis] cultivars Odorata and Briar, R. macrophylla and R. clinophylla budded with cultivars Super Star, Happiness, Eiffel Tower and Kiss of Fire. Bud take at 2 weeks after budding was greatest for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star (80%). R. macrophylla budded with Eiffel Tower recorded the lowest number of days to sprouting (21.33 days). R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Super Star produced the tallest plants (37.67 cm) at 6 months after budding. However, at 15 months after budding, the tallest plants were obtained with R. clinophylla budded with Kiss of Fire (119.67 cm) and R. indica cv. Briar budded with Kiss of Fire (119.33 cm). At 6 months after budding, the greatest plant spread was recorded for R. indica cv. Odorata budded with Happiness (55.63 cm) and R. indica budded with Happiness (54.67 cm). Super Star budded on R. indica cv. Odorata produced vigorous plants. At 15 months after budding, R. indica cv. Briar budded with Ha
Arora, N K; Channana, Y R; Raghbir Singh; Kaundal, G S
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Abstract: The effects thinning at different crop growth stages (at pink bud stage, at full bloom, at fruit set, and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of fruit set) on the fruit size, colour and yield of peach cv. Flordaprince were determined in a field experiment conducted in Ludhiana, Punjab, India during 1998-99. The fruit length, breadth and yield of peach were highest when thinning was carried out during the pink bud stage. Data are presented on the effects of thinning n the colour of the fruits.
Ram Kumar; Shailendra Rajan; Negi, S S; Yadava, L P
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, PO Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance for yield and yield components of 14 early maturing grape genotypes were studied. The differences among the genotypes were highly significant (p=0.05) for all the characters (except bunch length) studied. A wide range of variation was recorded for bunch width, number of berry per bunch, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight, juice content, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, organic acid content and berry yield. Based on the coefficient of variation, broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance, it can be concluded that berry yield, 100-berry weight, 100-seed weight and organic acid content provides a greater scope for selection of superior genotypes. Among the 14 genotypes, Flame seedless produced the highest (17.6 t/h) berry yield; Cardinal registered highest (275.6 g) 100-berry weight with high (6.5 g) 100-seed weight; and Pusa Navrang showed highest organic acid content and 100-seed weight (6.7 g). The
Karam, F; Mounzer, O; Sarkis, F; Lahoud, R
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Department of Irrigation and Agro-Meteorology, Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287 Zahle, Lebanon.
Key words: ammonium nitrate, crop yield, dry matter accumulation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, leaf area index, lettuces, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, use efficiency
Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine the effects of irrigation on the yield and nitrogen recovery of field grown lettuce in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon under non-limiting soil N conditions. Within the experimental plots, irrigation differentiation was made upon crop evapotranspiration (ETc) measured on a non-weighing lysimeter of 16 m2. The treatments included a control, I-100, irrigated at 100% of ETc, and two water deficit treatments, I-80 and I-60, irrigated at 80 and 60% of ETc, respectively. Prior to planting, all plots received fertilizers broadcast at a rate of 250 kg/ha of NPK-fertilizer (17%). At 6- and 12-leaf stages, ammonium nitrate (34.5%) was applied with irrigation water in two applications of 125 kg/ha each. Local groundwater containing 10 mg N-NO3/litre was used for irrigation. Yield was determined in a final destructive harvest. Crop evapotranspiration reached on the lysimeter a total of 433 mm for a total growing period of 70 days. Water stress caused by the deficit irrigations significantly
Mohsen Hanana; Moncef Harrabi; Mohamed Boussaid
Laboratoire de Genetique et Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis (INAT), 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.
Abstract: Within the framework of genetic improvement of Tunisian Snake-melon (Cucumis melo) cultivar by biotechnological methods, we have developed a method to regenerate whole plants by in vitro culture using cotyledon and hypocotyl as explants on MS medium with different combinations and concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Adventitious buds were initiated from hypocotyls grown on medium with 1.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 0.5 mg benzyladenine/litre. A maximum percentage of embryogenesis (20%) was obtained for cotyledons grown in MS medium containing 0.5 mg 2,4-D/litre and 1 mg kinetin/litre. For stimulating the development of adventitious buds and the embryo's germination and their conversion into plants, MS medium diluted twenty times and supplemented with 1.5% sucrose was used. Histological studies showed that adventitious buds were initiated from the peripheral zones of the organogenic calluses by aggregation of meristematic cell masses which organized into a typical shoot meristem. Embryoids resulted from the divisio
Yadav, V K; Singh, H K
Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj) - 224 229, Faizabad (UP), India.
Abstract: The effects of preharvest spraying of 1% calcium nitrate, 0.1% Topsin-M and 0.1% Bayleton, alone or in combination on aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA-6 were determined. The treatments were sprayed 10 and 20 days before harvest. Treatment with 1% calcium + 0.1% Bayleton resulted in increased total soluble solids (8.4%), total sugars (6.93%) and total phenol (13.3%), and reduced levels of losses in acidity (8.8%), ascorbic acid (22.32%) and reducing sugars (12.8%). The treatment also prolonged the shelf-life of fruits up to 20 days compared to 10 days in control. Thus, this treatment doubled the shelf-life of aonla fruit in storage at ambient temperatures.
Singh, K P; Ramchandran
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The effects of the number of days between flowering and corm harvesting on the performance of crops produced from harvested corms were studied in Hessaraghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Corms of gladiolus cv. Pink Friendship were harvested at 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 or 135 days after flowering (DAF). Plants grown from corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were the tallest (94.13 and 94.9 cm). Harvesting of corms at 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 DAF resulted in the greatest number of leaves per plant (8.78, 8,83, 8.65, 8.29 and 8.46) and leaf breadth (3.40, 3.63, 3.43, 3.33 and 3.48 cm). Scape width was greatest in plants produced from corms harvested at 45 (2.99 cm), 60 (3.08 cm) and 75 DAF (2.85 cm). Harvesting of corms at 60 DAF resulted in the greatest floret diameter (12.92 cm), spike length (86.26 cm), rachis length (45.99 cm), and number of florets per spike (13.87), and in the lowest incidence of corm rot (23.78%). Corms harvested at 45 and 60 DAF were superior in terms vegetative growth, flower productio
Joshi, N C; Srivastava, B K
Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: The performance of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia cv. Jaunpuri Local) grown by direct sowing or transplanting at 15 January, 29 January, 12 February, 26 February or 12 March was evaluated in Pantnagar, Uttaranchal, India during the spring-summer season of 2000. Seeds sown directly in the open field on 15 and 29 January failed to germinate. For the other dates, seed germination was observed at 15.0 to 19.3 days after sowing. Main shoot length, number of branches arising from the main shoot, and internode length increased with the delay in transplanting. Greater shoot length was obtained under transplanting. The diameter of the main shoot decreased with the delay in direct sowing or transplanting. Flower emergence was earliest with transplanting on 26 February. In general, pistillate flowers emerged at 5-15 days after the emergence of staminate flowers. The formation of flowers on the lower nodes was more pronounced under transplanting. The lowest male flower position was obtained with transplanting on 12 Ma
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Shailendra Rajan; Bhriguvanshi, S R
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The effects of foliar application of urea (10, 20, 25 and 30%) as the main source of N on the growth and leaf N composition of the guava cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were determined in a field experiment conducted in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Urea-N, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in the shoot and fruits were highest with the single application of 30% urea and double application of 20% urea in Allahabad Safeda and Sardar, respectively. Crop yield in both cultivars decreased with increasing urea concentration during the rainy season. Fruit weight, total soluble solids, and ascorbic acid and reducing sugar content were highest with foliar spraying of 25% urea on Allahabad Safeda and decreased with increasing urea concentration in Sardar.
Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S K; Suchitra
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: The effects of pulsing with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide and wet cool storage (4 degrees C) for 1-5 days on the postharvest life and quality of rose cultivars Noblesse and Mercedes were determined. The vase life of both rose cultivars subjected to pulsing and wet cool storage was higher compared to that of the control. In general, water uptake and flower diameter of the cut flowers subjected to pulsing and wet cool storage decreased with storage duration, but were higher compared to those of the control.
Dhiraj Vyas; Sharma, A D; Sharma, S K; Sharma, D R
Department of Biotechnology, University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni-Solan - 173 230, H.P., India.
Abstract: Leaf isoenzyme patterns were studied in Juglans nigra and 8 cultivars of J. regia (ACO, Blackmore, Gobind, Hartley, KX Giant, Lake English, Payne and Tutle) for their identification in the field. The results showed differences in specific relative mobility values for the various isoenzymes in walnut cultivars. Of the 6 enzyme systems that were localized on native gels, only esterase and malate dehydrogenase showed wide diversity in Rm values for the different isoenzymes. A total of 16 loci and 24 alleles were observed for 5 enzyme systems, out of which 10 loci were polymorphic. J. nigra was found to be more heterozygous and polymorphic than J. regia. PPO I, PRO I and EST III were found as reliable markers for distinguishing the two species of walnut. The values obtained for similarity coefficient were used to make the dendrogram. Among the cultivars of J. regia, the most diverse relationship was found between Tutle and Blackmore, whereas Blackmore and Payne were the most genetically related.
Manna, S; Mathew, B; Hasan, M A; Chattopadhyay, P K
Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal - 741 252, India.
Abstract: The performance of 15-year-old palms of 7 cultivars (Local Tall, Laccadive Micro, West Coast Tall, Straight Settlement Green, Philippines Ordinary, Andaman Ordinary and Laccadive Ordinary) and 3 hybrids (Malayan Dwarf Yellow x West Coast Tall, Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall, and West Coast Tall x Malayan Dwarf Orange) of coconut grown in West Bengal, India was evaluated. Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall, West Coast Tall x Malayan Dwarf Orange, and West Coast Tall recorded high annual nut yields. Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast Tall had the highest number of spadix per plant (9.2), number of female flowers per spadix (102.0), and annual nut yield (161.9 nuts per plant). Principal component analysis revealed 3 sets of characters influencing yield: number of spikelets with female flowers, number of spikelets per spadix, and number of nuts per spadix (for which Local Tall was superior); number of female flowers per spadix and number of female flowers per spikelet (Malayan Dwarf Orange x West Coast
Joubert, F J; Plessis, M H du; Steenkamp, E D; Stassen, P J C
ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa.
Key words: branches, canopy, crop density, grapefruits, high density planting, lemons, mandarins, oranges, plant training, pruning
Abstract: Results of a study on the response of Valencia orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit cultivar/rootstock combinations to training systems (central leader system for high-density planting and multiple leader system for low-density planting), pruning methods (trees cut back to 50 cm height after planting and trained with new growth; trees shaped after planting without cutting back; trees shaped after 1 year of growth), and planting densities (3.0x1.0, 4.0x1.25, 4.0x1.5, 5.0x2.0 and 5.0x3.0 m, corresponding to 2222, 2000, 1667, 1000 or 667 trees/ha) are presented. The experiment was conducted in Nelspruit (Valencia orange and lemon), Lydenburg (mandarin) and Malelane (grapefruit), South Africa during 1996 and 1997. Pruning back a newly established tree to 50 cm height after planting had negative effects on tree volume and development compared to the other pruning methods. Lemon trees were trained more successfully under the central leader system. Higher levels of manipulation and pruning were necessary when lemo
Nagar, B L; Dashora, L K; Yadava, L P
Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India.
Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet radiation (for 0, 5 or 10 minutes), benzylaminopurine [benzyladenine] (BAP; 0, 50 or 100 ppm), and vapour gard (antitranspirant concentrate; 0 or 4%), singly or in combination, on the quality of C. aurantiifolia fruits stored at room temperature (20.0-28.5 degrees C) were studied. Fruit quality parameters were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 days after treatment. All the treatments resulted in lower physiological weight loss and decay, and greater diameter and juice content during storage compared with the control. The lowest reduction in physiological weight (5.32%) was obtained with ultraviolet radiation for 5 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard. Fruits treated with ultraviolet radiation for 5 or 10 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard did not exhibit rotting during storage. This treatment also recorded the lowest reduction in fruit diameter (4.67%). Treatment with ultraviolet radiation for 10 minutes + 100 ppm BAP + 4% vapour gard also gave the lowest reduction in juice
Vastrad, N V; Sulikeri, G S; Hegde, R V
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India.
Abstract: The yield and yield components of ginger cv. Bidar local under normal (open) and reduced (shaded) light conditions, and 5 fertilizer treatments (recommended fertilizer rate (RFR) of 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha; 75% RFR + 25% vermicompost; 50% RFR + 50% vermicompost; 25% RFR + 75% vermicompost; and 100% vermicompost at 8 t/ha) were studied in Dharwad, Karnataka, India during 1998/99. Reduced light condition (by 40-50%) was obtained by growing dwarf castor bean cv. Aruna as an intercrop at a spacing of 90x30 cm. The average fresh rhizome yield (11.54 t/ha) and cured rhizome yield (3.64 t/ha) were higher under normal light conditions than under reduced light conditions (6.40 and 1.58 t/ha, respectively). Among the fertilizer treatments, 100% RFR recorded the highest average fresh rhizome yield (10.21 t/ha). The application of 75% RFR + 25% vermicompost resulted in an average fresh rhizome yield (9.16 t/ha) which was almost as high. The effect of the interaction between light intensity and vermicompost on fresh rhizome y