Abstract: The flowers of 188 exotic tomato germplasms were characterized and evaluated in Andhra Pradesh, India, during 1997-98. Of the accessions, most were of the same level as stamen type of flowers (SLASF; 40.34%), followed by the inserted (INSF; 24.36%), the slightly exerted (SEF; 22.69%) and the highly exerted type of flowers (HEF; 12.61%). Majority of the accessions (96.64%) had simple style shape and style hairiness. Among the flower types, the average corolla and stamen length were highest in HEF (9.96 and 7.59 mm, respectively). Calyx length was highest and lowest in the INSF (7.80 mm) and HEF (5.69 mm), respectively. The variability in corolla length was highest in INSF, while variability in calyx and stamen lengths was highest in HEF. The average number of days to flower was highest in SEF (64.6), followed by INSF (64.4), HEF (63.2) and SLASF (61.8). The variability for days to 50% flowering was highest in SLASF. The average flower number per inflorescence and the average fruit number per cluster was highes
Reddy, Y T N; Khan, M M
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of paclobutrazol, Cycocel [chlormequat] and Chamatkar [mepiquat chloride] on the water relations and fruit yield of sapota (A. sapota [Manilkara zapota]) cv. Kalipatti at the Horticultural Research Station of the University of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Treatments comprised 250, 500 and 750 ppm Cycocel; 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm Chamatkar; 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 g paclobutrazol; and control (water spray or no spray). Paclobutrazol, Cycocel and Chamatkar were effective in improving water relations and fruit yield of sapota. Paclobutrazol at 5 g was the most effective. All growth regulators increased the relative water content and decreased the transpiration, but the most pronounced effect was with 5 g paclobutrazol. None of the growth regulators affected the stomatal resistance. The growth regulator treatments affected the second year fruit yield, unlike the first year fruit yield. The highest fruit yield on the second year (56.3 kg/plant) was obtained with 5 g paclob
Pan, R S; Prasad, V S R K; Mathura Rai
ICAR Research Complex for Northern Region, HAFRP, Ranchi - 834 010, India.
Abstract: The phenotypic stability of pea cultivars DRP-3, VL-3, JP-83, KS-226, KS-225, Bonneville and HC-30+36 was evaluated in a field experiment conducted in Ranchi, Bihar, India during 1994-98 to identify stable and high-yielding cultivars suitable for late sowing. Significant differences among the cultivars tested in terms of crop yield, number of days to flowering, pod length and breadth, seed number per pod, 100-green seed weight and shelling percentage were observed. KS-225 was stable for green pod yield under late-sown, favourable conditions, and for pod length and breadth under unfavourable environments. DRP-3 was stable for early flowering under favourable environments. KS-226 was stable for pod breadth and number of seeds per pod under unfavourable environments. VL-3 and JP-83 were stable for number of seeds per pod under unfavourable environments.
Singh, D B; Attri, B L; Sharma, T V R S; Sreekumar, P V
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101 (Andamans), India.
Abstract: Pulps of 28 wild fruits from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for their total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The data showed that Diospyros pyrrhocarpa (22.0%), Artocarpus integrifolia (21.0%) and Annona reticulata (21.0%) had high TSS. The fruits showed a wide range of acidity and a low value (0.06%) was recorded in Gnetum gnemon and Muntingia calabura (0.16%). The highest total sugars were recorded in Annona reticulata (18.18%), D. pyrrhocarpa (18.18%) and M. calabura (14.28%). Majority of these fruits were rich in ascorbic acid and the highest value was recorded in Artocarpus integrifolia (176.00 mg/100 g). Among the fruits studied, quite a good number were found exceptionally rich in carotenoids and the highest value (1485.00 mg/100 g) was observed in Artocarpus integrifolia, followed by Artocarpus lakoocha [Artocarpus lacucha] (501.41 mg/100 g). The study revealed that these wild fruits are rich in vitamins and essential nutrients and thus, their pro
Misra, A K
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: Powdery mildew caused by Oidium mangiferae, is the most important disease of mango. It is reported from 35 countries in the world and reported to cause up to 90% loss in India. Besides inflorescence infection, it causes different types of symptoms on leaves and fruits. Based on epidemiological studies and control measures conducted for the last 15 years at CISH, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, India), a disease cycle and an integrated disease management practice is proposed. Disease can easily be controlled by adopting suitable cultural practices and timely application of spray schedule. As the disease is weather-sensitive, need-based control measures are suggested based on the prevailing environmental conditions.
Subhadrabandhu, S; Yapwattanaphun, C
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
Abstract: The methods of off-season longan production in Thailand are presented: (1) application of potassium chlorate (as soil drench, foliar spray, and trunk or stem injection) and sodium chlorate to regulate flowering, and (2) cultivation of non-seasonal flowering cultivars. The physiological responses of longan to potassium chlorate and orchard management practices are briefly discussed.
Reddy, Y T N; Kurian, R M
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore 560 089, India.
Abstract: The leaf nutrient status of twelve ungrafted polyembryonic mango cultivars (Bappakai, Chandrakaran, Kensington, Muvandan, Mylepelian, Nekkare, EC 95862, Olour, Kitchner, Kurukan, Vellaikulumban, and Starch), and that of cv. 'Alphonso' grafted onto seven of the aforementioned cultivars, was determined to generate preliminary information on the role of rootstocks in mango nutrition. All seedlings and grafted plants were thirteen years old, growing in a compact block with uniform cultural practices. Differences among polyembryonic seedlings were highly significant for N, P, K, Ca, and Mn, and significant for Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe. 'Alphonso' scion growing on the polyembryonic rootstocks revealed highly significant differences for N, significant differences for Ca and Fe, and non-significant differences for P, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents in leaves. Vigorous rootstocks, viz., Muvandan, Bappakai, and Olour, resulted in higher leaf nitrogen concentration of 'Alphonso' scion while the least vigorous rootstock viz., V
Orta, A H; Akcay, M E; Erdem, T
Department of Farm Structure and Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Tekirda Agriculture, University of Trakya, 59030 - Tekirda, Turkey.
Abstract: This study was conducted in Turkey in 1997 and 1999 to investigate the effects of different irrigation methods and regimes on the vegetative growth of "Starking Delicious" apple trees under Thrace conditions. Drip and surface (ponding) irrigation methods were the basic treatments while the allowable depletion levels of soil moisture (40% and 70% of available water holding capacity) in 120 cm soil depth were sub treatments. Seasonal evapotranspiration and total amount of irrigation water in drip irrigation plots were lower than those of surface irrigation plots (62.7% and 72.5%, respectively). However, the effect of irrigation regimes on vegetative growth parameters was nonsignificant. Drip irrigation gave better results than surface irrigation when irrigation water requirements, evapotranspiration, and vegetative growth parameters were evaluated together. In conclusion, it can be suggested that drip irrigation should be preferred for apple trees under Thrace conditions and irrigation water should be applied w
Pradeep Kumar; Singh, H K
Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229 (U.P.), India.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98 at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, with aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cultivars NA-7 and Kanchan to determine the effective fungicides against aonla rust (caused by Ravenelia emblicae). Pooled data revealed that all tested fungicides, except tridemorph, reduced the rust percent disease index (PDI; 0.69-16.83 and 1.17-14.04) over the control (25.45 and 17.65) in NA-7 and Kanchan, respectively. Indofil M-45 (mancozeb; 0.3%) applied thrice during September-October was most effective (0.69 and 1.17 PDI; 97.37 and 93.22 percent disease control or PDC), followed by Baycor (bitertanol; 3.22 and 6.34 PDI; 84.79 and 67.46 PDC) and Blitox-50 (copper oxychloride; 3.55 and 7.13 PDI; 84.69 and 62.22 PDC). Improvement in fruit size was also recorded for these fungicides. Tridemorph showed toxic effects by causing heavy premature fruit drop. NA-7 was most sensitive as there were less healthy fruits left for recording the yield.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: cost benefit analysis, crop production, cucumbers, economic viability, organic farming, production costs, production economics, protected cultivation, returns
Abstract: The costs and returns of organic cucumber production in a 12x32 m greenhouse in Menderes, Turkey were determined, and a production budget was developed for growers. Total costs of organic, greenhouse cucumber production were determined to be 1334 dollars. Net return per square metre was 0.98 dollar and net return per kilogram was 0.07 dollar.
Sirohi, P S; Behera, T K
Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: Twenty-eight C. moschata F1 hybrids involving 8 genotypes as parents (Pusa Vishwas, S-107-B, S-124-10, NDPK-24, S-15, S-12, S-20, and S-17) in half diallel fashion were evaluated to study the gene action of yield and its contributing characters. Dominant gene action was observed for all the characters, viz. vine length, fruit maturity, fruits per plant, fruit weight, and yield per plant. In all these characters, dominance component of variance was greater than the additive component of variance. The heritability in narrow sense was found to be less than 0.50 for the majority of characters. Low narrow sense of heritability coupled with higher degree of non-additive gene action (dominance variance) in yield and its components suggested that heterosis breeding might be advantageous for obtaining higher gains in pumpkin.
Fageria, M S; Dhaka, R S; Mahesh Agrawal
Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329 (Rajasthan), India.
Abstract: The effects of harvesting date (Gandora [green stage], Doka [early stage of fruit development], and Dang [late stage of fruit development]) on 8 P. dactylifera cultivars (Jagool, Khadrawi, Medjool, Shamran, Halawy, Barhee, Khunezi, and Khalsa) were investigated. The harvesting stage influenced fruit weight, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), organoleptic rating, and spoilage percentage. The weight of fruits in all eight cultivars increased up to Doka stage and then slightly decreased at Dang stage. The TSS in all cultivars increased from Gandora to Dang stage whereas acidity decreased. This study revealed that for raw consumption of dates as well as for its better keeping quality, fruits should be harvested at the Doka stage. As positive correlation was observed between TSS and organoleptic rating. It is suggested that TSS may be considered as an index of maturity of dates.
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C; Reena, N A
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore - 89, India.
Abstract: Nineteen pawpaw cultivars were evaluated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, for fruit quality. Pusa Nanha, a dwarf mutant, flowered at the 19th node; Thailand, Pusa Dwarf, and Tainung also bore fruits at a lower height. Fruit weight (2140 g), volume (1940 ml), and breadth (16 cm) were greatest in Pant Papaya 2. Red Indian (25.3 cm) and Thailand (24.2 cm) had the longest fruits. Tainung 1 and Red Indian produced sweet fruits with total soluble sugar (TSS) of 13.2 and 13.0 degrees Brix, respectively. The total carotenoids content was highest in Sunrise Solo (5031 I.U.%). Nigeria and Papaya Pant 2 had the thickest fruit pulp (3.0 cm). Fruit cavity index was lowest in Tainung 1 (13%). Mauritius, Pink Flesh Sweet, Red Indian, Sunrise Solo, Tainung 1, Tainung 2, and Thailand had pink pulp. Surya, produced from crossing Sunrise Solo with Pink Flesh Sweet, was evaluated, along with the parental cultivars, for plant and fruit quality. Surya had the lowest plant height at first flowering as well as the greatest girth and
Singh, N K; Saxena, R P; Jaiswal, R C; Pradeep Kumar
Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, India.
Abstract: The efficacy of fungicidal seed treatments (soaking seeds for 12 h in aqueous solution of 0.1% Bavistin [carbendazim], 0.2% Vitavax [carboxin], 0.2% Baycor [bitertanol], 0.2% thiram, 0.2% Dithane M-45 [mancozeb], and 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax) and foliar sprays (0.2% Dithane M-45, 0.2% Baycor, 0.3% Blitox-50, and 0.5% boric acid) on early blight (caused by Alternaria solani) incidence and tomato cv. Pusa Ruby yield was investigated in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Seeds treated with fungicides were sown in the nursery. Fungicide spraying was conducted thrice (i.e. at the time of disease appearance and twice thereafter at 15-day interval) under field conditions. The initial disease appearance in seed-treated plants was observed at 60-69 days after sowing (DAS). The lowest percent disease index and highest percent disease control (PDC) at 177 DAS were recorded for 0.1% Bavistin, 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax, 0.2% thiram, and 0.2% Vitavax. The highest average fruit yield (357.46 q/ha) was obtained with 0.2% Bay
Singh, K P
Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The influence of 9 grades of mother planting material on the vegetative growth, flowering, and multiplication of gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.) cv. 'Aarti' was studied. The largest size grade (>6.00 to <6.50 cm diameter) produced significantly higher number of leaves per plant, girth of scape, number of florets per spike, and weight and diameter of corm. The greater height of plant, length of spike and rachis, and number of flower spike per plant were produced by corm size of (>5.10 to <6.00 cm diameter). Number 1 (>3.80 to <5.10 cm diameter) corm grade produced maximum diameter of second floret and number of cormels per plant. Number 2 corm grade (>3.20 to <3.80 cm diameter) produced higher number of cormels per plant and their corresponding weight. One hundred percent of corms flowered up to No.3 grade; flowering percentage was reduced as corm size decreased. The highest percentage of propagation coefficient was obtained with No. 6 grade corm.