Abstract: The effects of pruning date on the fruit quality of 16-year-old trees of guava cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were studied in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. In 1991-93, pruning was conducted on the first week of February, March, April, May, or June. Sardar and Allahabad Safeda recorded the highest fruit weight (266.66 and 201.10 g), fruit length (7.81 and 6.89 cm), and fruit diameter (7.40 and 7.17 cm) when pruning was conducted in May. The highest total soluble solid (TSS) content was observed when Sardar trees were pruned in June (11.73 degrees Brix), and when Allahabad Safeda trees were pruned in May and June (12.16 and 12.43 degrees Brix, respectively). Pruning in May and June gave the highest ascorbic acid content in Sardar (334.54 and 354.79 mg/100 g, respectively) and Allahabad Safeda (237.28 and 258.98 mg/100 g, respectively). In 1994-95, pruning on the 15th and 30th of April, May, or June were evaluated. The highest ascorbic acid content was recorded for Sardar pruned on 30 May (308.64 mg/100
Maneesh Mishra; Pathak, R K
N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (UP) - 224 221, India.
Key words: callus, explants, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, shoots, tissue culture
Abstract: Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica] nodal shoots excised from the top or middle portion of the canopy (1st to 10th, 10th to 15th, 15th to 20th, 20th to 25th, or 25th to 30th node) from April to July, August or November, or December to March were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 0.8% agar, 3% sucrose, 0.4 mg kinetin/litre, and 0.4 mg gibberellic acid/litre at 25+or-2 degrees C and 50-55% relative humidity. Nodal shoots excised from the 10th to the 15th node exhibited the greatest bud induction and produced the longest indeterminate shoots (0.83 cm). The shoots excised from the 1st to the 10th node did not survive due to the inability of the shoots to withstand the toxic effect of sterilants an antioxidants. The shoots collected from the 20th to the 30th node showed low bud induction, probably due to tissue maturity. Bud induction and growth of indeterminate shoots were most pronounced in explants collected during August-November. Bud break was not observed in explants collected during
Bikash Das; Pandey, S N; Jindal, P C; Sureja, A K
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
Abstract: The effects of Dormex (40% aqueous hydrogen cyanamide), CPPU [forchlorfenuron], and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the fruit growth and ripening of grape cv. Pusa Seedless were studied in New Delhi, India, in 1998. The treatments consisted of spraying plants with 1.5% Dormex solution immediately after pruning (T1); T1 + dipping of bunches in 0.15% CPPU solution after fruit set (T2); and T2 + dipping of bunches in 45 ppm GA3 at the full bloom stage. Fruits were sampled at weekly intervals from two weeks after flowering until harvest. Plants treated with Dormex exhibited earlier bud break (by 30 days), flowering (by 12 days), and ripening (by 7 days) than the control. Unlike in the control and Dormex-treated plants, fruit fresh weight in plants under T2 and T3 increased continuously until harvest. Ripening date did not significantly vary between the control plants and plants under T2 and T3; however, fruit growth period was longer in plants under T2 and T3 than in the control. Treated plants had higher fruit fresh w
Singh, M P; Dimri, D C; Nautiyal, M C
Department of Horticulture, College of Forestry & Hill Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri - 249 199, Distt. Tehri Garhwal, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: The fruit quality of apricot cv. New Castle at 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 68, , and 73 days after full bloom (DAFB) was studied in Ranichauri, Uttaranchal, India, from February to June 1999. Fruit length and weight significantly increased whereas chlorophyll content substantially decreased up to 60 DAFB, then remained stable until the harvesting period (73 DAFB). Fruit weight, volume, and specific gravity; pulp weight; and total soluble solid, total sugar, and nonreducing sugar contents increased until harvest. The opposite trend was recorded for stone weight, firmness, titratable acidity (in terms of malic acid content), and starch and ascorbic acid contents. Fruits most appropriate for transport were harvested at 71 DAFB, whereas those intended for local consumption were harvested at 73 DAFB.
Nigam, J K; Ganesh Kumar
Department of Horticulture, G.B.P.U.A.&T., Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: L. chinensis (cv. Rose Scented) fruits harvested from 16-year-old trees grown in Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India, on 3 and 6 June [year not given] were subjected to various postharvest treatments (dipping of fruits in 200 ppm gibberellic acid or in 16.6, 20.0, and 25.0% wax emulsion for 2 minutes) and stored under ambient (21.8-29.0 degrees C and 41.0-98.0% relative humidity) or cold (5 degrees C and 85% relative humidity) storage conditions for 8 days. Physiological weight loss (PLW) and spoilage increased, whereas titratable acidity decreased with the increase in storage duration. Total soluble solid content increased up to 5 days of storage, then decreased thereafter. Fruits harvested on 3 and 6 June had lower PLW when treated with 25% wax emulsion (3.94 and 4.76%, respectively) and stored under cold conditions (4.32 and 4.43%, respectively). Fruits harvested on 3 June exhibited lower spoilage incidence when stored under ambient temperature (25.64%) than under cold conditions (26.33%). For fruits harvested
Kishore, D K; Pramanick, K K; Sharma, Y P
IARI Regional Station (Horticulture), Amartara Cottage, Cart Road, Shimla - 171 004 (H.P.), India.
Abstract: Hardwood cuttings (20-30 cm long) from kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa [A. deliciosa]) cultivars Hayward, Monty, Toumuri, Abbot, Bruno, and Allison were immersed in IBA at 0, 2500, 3000, 3500, and 4000 ppm for 15 seconds and transferred to rooting beds containing either sand or sawdust. Significant variations were recorded among IBA treatments and cultivars, and between rooting media. Among the cultivars, Abbot recorded the highest rooting percentage (59.38%). Among the IBA rates, 3000 ppm resulted in the highest rooting percentage with both sand (59.55%) and sawdust (77.53%) rooting media. Higher rooting percentage was obtained with sawdust (45.64%) than with sand (37.09%) as the rooting medium. Cuttings rooted on sand exhibited greater number of fibrous (19.75) and secondary (18.48) roots, as well as new shoot growth (12.47 cm), than the cuttings rooted on sawdust (4.27, 3.20, and 4.73 cm, respectively). The results indicate that sawdust is more suitable for root initiation, whereas sand is mo
Turk, M A; Tawaha, A M
Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan.
Abstract: The effects of P rate (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg/ha as superphosphates) and application method (band and broadcast) on the yield and quality of garlic were studied in Jordan during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. P at 75 kg/ha resulted in the greatest plant height at 120 days after planting (66.0 cm), bulb length (3.45 cm), bulb diameter (3.55 cm), clove breadth (3.30 cm), clove length (3.55 cm), number of cloves per bulb (13.5), and dry weight (740.5 g/m-2). Plants treated with 0 and 25 kg P/ha exhibited P deficiency symptoms such as dwarfing and purpling of leaves. Broadcasting gave greater plant height (61.3 cm), bulb length (3.42 cm), bulb diameter (3.35 cm), clove breadth (3.15 cm), number of cloves per bulb (13.25), and dry weight (661.3 g/m-2) than band placement.
Srinivas, T R
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Hyderabad - 500 030, India.
Key words: fruit cracking, fruit puffing, germplasm, plant disorders, tomatoes
Abstract: Some 180 tomato accessions grown in Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during 1997/98 were evaluated for various fruit physiological disorders. Approximately 34.4 and 25.56% of the accessions exhibited radial (cracks across the stem scar) and concentric (cracks around the stem scar) cracks, respectively. Both radial and concentric cracks were recorded for 13.33% of the accessions. Approximately 3.33% of the accessions had green back (presence of green parts in mature and ripening fruits), whereas 6.66% of the accessions showed fruit fasciation (adherence of two fruits to each other). Puffiness (partially filled fruits) was observed only in EC 163594 (0.56%).
Gupta, V P; Vishnu Kumar
Department of Botany, C.C.S. University, Meerut - 250 004, India.
Abstract: The effects of casing soil composition on mushroom productivity were studied. The casing soil consisted of: 50% garden loam soil + two-year-old farmyard manure or FYM (control, set 1); spent biogas plant silage + 0.5% diammonium phosphate (DAP)+ 0.5% superphosphate (set 2); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 50% FYM (set 3); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 25% FYM + 25% two-year-old spent compost + 1% DAP + 1% superphosphate (set 4); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 50% spent compost + 0.5% DAP + 0.5% superphosphate (set 5); and 50% spent biogas plant silage + 25% FYM + 25% garden loam soil (set 6). Bags containing the casing soil and a straw-based compost with 1.5-inch thick spawn layer were transferred to growth chambers at 24+or-1 degrees C. The mycelium impregnated the casing soil in 8-10 days. When the casing soil was fully impregnated with mycelia, the temperature of the chamber was lowered to 18+or- degrees C. The mushrooms were harvested after 11-12 days. Except for set 2, which recorded 21% lower crop yi
Yadava, L P
Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad, U.P. - 211 007, India.
Abstract: The effects of paclobutrazol (12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 ppm) and ethephon (100, 200, 400, and 800 ppm) on the growth and yield of P. peruviana were studied in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. The growth retardants were sprayed to seedlings at 21 days after transplanting. Paclobutrazol at 50 ppm and ethephon at 400 ppm increased plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, fruit set, fruit size, fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, and yield per hectare, but reduced leaf area. Both chemicals at higher rates reduced yield and plant height.
Wilson, S B; Rajapakse, N C
Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA.
Key words: far red light, flowers, growth, internodes, leaf area, leaves, light relations, plant height, plastic film, red light, solar radiation, stems
Abstract: Plant response to a photoselective plastic film with a red (R)- or far-red- (FR)-absorbing property was tested using the three perennial salvias: Indigo Spires sage (Salvia longispicata x Salvia farinacea), wine sage (Salvia splendens 'Van Houttei'), and Mexican sage (Salvia leucantha). Films were designated AFR (FR-light-absorbing film), AR (R-light-absorbing film), and control (clear plastic film). Solar light transmitted through the AFR film reduced plant height by 17-36%, depending on the species. This correlated with a reduction in internode length and stem dry weight. Light transmitted through the AR film did not significantly affect plant height, regardless of species. Leaf area was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the control film, regardless of species. Leaf dry weight under AFR was reduced in Indigo Spires sage and Mexican sage, but not in wine sage. Flower development (days to flower and flower number) was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the
Orta, A H; Ener, M
Department of Farm Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Tekirdag Agriculture, University of Trakya, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.
Abstract: The response of onion (Allium cepa) to different irrigation schedules was studied in Trakya, Turkey, during 1997 and 1998. Onion crop was subjected to four irrigation treatments according to available soil water depletion fractions (0.30, 0.50, 0.70, and no irrigation). Irrigation thresholds (amount of soil water at 0.40 m depth) were used as criteria to initiate drip irrigations. For each differential water treatment, the parameters of bulb morphology (diameter and height), solids soluble in bulbs, bulb weight, and total yield were analysed. Yield and yield components except solids soluble in bulbs were affected by irrigation and soil water depletion fractions. The highest yield was obtained from the plots to which irrigation water was applied at a soil water fraction level of 0.30. The maintenance of soil moisture depletion level at 0.30 required 339.4 mm (in 14 applications) and 227.2 mm (in 13 applications) of irrigation water in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The seasonal evapotranspiration of onion was 42
Reddy, Y T N; Kurian, R M; Sujatha, N T; Srinivas, M
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: Twenty-five mango orchards in Nuzuvid (Andhra Pradesh), Srinivaspur (Karnataka), and Krishnagiri (Tamil Nadu), India, were evaluated for leaf and soil nutrient status from 1994 to 1997. Banganapally was grown in 5 orchards, Alphonso in 5 orchards, and Totapuri in 15 orchards. The trees in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were 30- to 40-year-old, whereas those in Tamil Nadu were 20-year-old. The high-yielding trees had higher leaf N content than the low-yielding trees. The orchards in Andhra Pradesh had the highest leaf and soil nutrient (N, P, and K) levels. The available soil N significantly varied between high-yielding and low-yielding trees only before the flowering stage. The available soil P and K did not significantly vary with the growth stage. The high-yielding orchards recorded higher soil N and P, and lower soil K than the low-yielding orchards. Fruit yield was positively correlated with leaf N before and during flowering, with leaf P after harvest, and with leaf K before flowering. Fruit yield was posi
Krishnamurthy, K B; Mythili, J B; Meenakshi Srinivas
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560 065, India.
Key words: benzyladenine, carbendazim, chlorothalonil, cultivars, disinfectants, explants, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, ornamental plants, plant growth regulators, rooting, roots, shoots, tissue culture, tissue cultures, varietal r
Abstract: Terminal or axillary stem scale sections from P. tuberosa cultivars Shringar (single type) and Suvasini (double type) were disinfected with 1000 ppm Bavistin [carbendazim], 1000 ppm Kavach [chlorothalonil], and 500 ppm Cetrimide, singly or in combination, before sterilization with 0.1% HgCl2 for 10-15 minutes. The explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.25% phytagel, and autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 15 minutes. The shoot tips from sprouted explants were transferred into a medium containing 2 or 4 mg BAP [benzyladenine]/litre singly or in combination with 0.1 mg IAA/litre. The regenerated shoots were transferred into 1/2 MS medium containing 0.5 or 1.0 mg IBA, 0.5 mg IAA, or 0.25 mg IAA + 0.25 mg IBA/litre. Treatment with Bavistin + Kavach + Cetrimide overnight followed by treatment with HgCl2 for 15 minutes resulted in the highest percentage of axenic cultures using axillary (23.3-26.6%) and terminal (30.0%) scale sections. Cytokinin induced multiple shoot fo
Preety Singh; Misra, A; Srivastava, N K; Sharma, S
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO: CIMAP, Lucknow - 226 015, India.
Abstract: Suckers from M. spicata cultivars MSS 5, Arka, and Neera were grown in Hoagland's solution supplemented with 0.00, 0.056, 2.80, and 5.60 mg Fe/litre. Plants grown at 0.00 and 0.056 mg Fe/litre did not survive after 10 days of treatment. Fe deficiency symptoms, such as chlorosis and necrosis particularly in young leaves, were more pronounced in Arka and Neera than in MSS 5. The latter cultivar also recorded the greatest plant height, number of branches, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, oil content, and carvone content under Fe deficiency. These parameters decreased with the reduction in Fe supply. The positive correlation between fresh weight and dry matter, dry matter yield and oil content, and oil percentage and carvone content was observed in all cultivars. Fresh herb yield and dry matter was positively correlated with oil percentage and carvone content in MSS 5 only.