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Engyndenyz, S

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Key words: cost benefit analysis, crop production, cucumbers, economic viability, organic farming, production costs, production economics, protected cultivation, returns

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 113-116.

Abstract: The costs and returns of organic cucumber production in a 12x32 m greenhouse in Menderes, Turkey were determined, and a production budget was developed for growers. Total costs of organic, greenhouse cucumber production were determined to be 1334 dollars. Net return per square metre was 0.98 dollar and net return per kilogram was 0.07 dollar.
Sirohi, P S; Behera, T K

Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.

Key words: crop yield, dominance, fruits, genetic effects, heritability, heterosis, hybrids, inheritance, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 117-118.

Abstract: Twenty-eight C. moschata F1 hybrids involving 8 genotypes as parents (Pusa Vishwas, S-107-B, S-124-10, NDPK-24, S-15, S-12, S-20, and S-17) in half diallel fashion were evaluated to study the gene action of yield and its contributing characters. Dominant gene action was observed for all the characters, viz. vine length, fruit maturity, fruits per plant, fruit weight, and yield per plant. In all these characters, dominance component of variance was greater than the additive component of variance. The heritability in narrow sense was found to be less than 0.50 for the majority of characters. Low narrow sense of heritability coupled with higher degree of non-additive gene action (dominance variance) in yield and its components suggested that heterosis breeding might be advantageous for obtaining higher gains in pumpkin.
Fageria, M S; Dhaka, R S; Mahesh Agrawal

Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329 (Rajasthan), India.

Key words: acidity, crop quality, cultivars, dates, fruits, harvesting date, keeping quality, maturity, organoleptic traits, ripening stage, spoilage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 119-120.

Abstract: The effects of harvesting date (Gandora [green stage], Doka [early stage of fruit development], and Dang [late stage of fruit development]) on 8 P. dactylifera cultivars (Jagool, Khadrawi, Medjool, Shamran, Halawy, Barhee, Khunezi, and Khalsa) were investigated. The harvesting stage influenced fruit weight, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), organoleptic rating, and spoilage percentage. The weight of fruits in all eight cultivars increased up to Doka stage and then slightly decreased at Dang stage. The TSS in all cultivars increased from Gandora to Dang stage whereas acidity decreased. This study revealed that for raw consumption of dates as well as for its better keeping quality, fruits should be harvested at the Doka stage. As positive correlation was observed between TSS and organoleptic rating. It is suggested that TSS may be considered as an index of maturity of dates.
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C; Reena, N A

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore - 89, India.

Key words: brix, carotenoids, chemical composition, colour, crop quality, cultivars, fruit pulp, fruits, hybridization, hybrids, leaves, pawpaws, plant height, sugar content, sweetness, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 121-123.

Abstract: Nineteen pawpaw cultivars were evaluated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, for fruit quality. Pusa Nanha, a dwarf mutant, flowered at the 19th node; Thailand, Pusa Dwarf, and Tainung also bore fruits at a lower height. Fruit weight (2140 g), volume (1940 ml), and breadth (16 cm) were greatest in Pant Papaya 2. Red Indian (25.3 cm) and Thailand (24.2 cm) had the longest fruits. Tainung 1 and Red Indian produced sweet fruits with total soluble sugar (TSS) of 13.2 and 13.0 degrees Brix, respectively. The total carotenoids content was highest in Sunrise Solo (5031 I.U.%). Nigeria and Papaya Pant 2 had the thickest fruit pulp (3.0 cm). Fruit cavity index was lowest in Tainung 1 (13%). Mauritius, Pink Flesh Sweet, Red Indian, Sunrise Solo, Tainung 1, Tainung 2, and Thailand had pink pulp. Surya, produced from crossing Sunrise Solo with Pink Flesh Sweet, was evaluated, along with the parental cultivars, for plant and fruit quality. Surya had the lowest plant height at first flowering as well as the greatest girth and
Singh, N K; Saxena, R P; Jaiswal, R C; Pradeep Kumar

Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, India.

Key words: bitertanol, boric acid, carbendazim, carboxin, chemical control, crop yield, foliar spraying, fruits, fungal diseases, fungicides, mancozeb, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens, seed treatment, seeds, thiram, tom

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 124-126.

Abstract: The efficacy of fungicidal seed treatments (soaking seeds for 12 h in aqueous solution of 0.1% Bavistin [carbendazim], 0.2% Vitavax [carboxin], 0.2% Baycor [bitertanol], 0.2% thiram, 0.2% Dithane M-45 [mancozeb], and 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax) and foliar sprays (0.2% Dithane M-45, 0.2% Baycor, 0.3% Blitox-50, and 0.5% boric acid) on early blight (caused by Alternaria solani) incidence and tomato cv. Pusa Ruby yield was investigated in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Seeds treated with fungicides were sown in the nursery. Fungicide spraying was conducted thrice (i.e. at the time of disease appearance and twice thereafter at 15-day interval) under field conditions. The initial disease appearance in seed-treated plants was observed at 60-69 days after sowing (DAS). The lowest percent disease index and highest percent disease control (PDC) at 177 DAS were recorded for 0.1% Bavistin, 0.1% Bavistin+0.2% Vitavax, 0.2% thiram, and 0.2% Vitavax. The highest average fruit yield (357.46 q/ha) was obtained with 0.2% Bay
Singh, K P

Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: corms, diameter, flowering, flowers, growth, leaves, plant height, propagation materials, size, spikes, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 127-129.

Abstract: The influence of 9 grades of mother planting material on the vegetative growth, flowering, and multiplication of gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.) cv. 'Aarti' was studied. The largest size grade (>6.00 to <6.50 cm diameter) produced significantly higher number of leaves per plant, girth of scape, number of florets per spike, and weight and diameter of corm. The greater height of plant, length of spike and rachis, and number of flower spike per plant were produced by corm size of (>5.10 to <6.00 cm diameter). Number 1 (>3.80 to <5.10 cm diameter) corm grade produced maximum diameter of second floret and number of cormels per plant. Number 2 corm grade (>3.20 to <3.80 cm diameter) produced higher number of cormels per plant and their corresponding weight. One hundred percent of corms flowered up to No.3 grade; flowering percentage was reduced as corm size decreased. The highest percentage of propagation coefficient was obtained with No. 6 grade corm.
Pramanick, K K; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P

IARI Regional Station (Horticulture), Amartara Cottage, Shimla - 171 004, India.

Key words: crop quality, crop yield, cultivars, flowering, flowering date, fruits, polyethylene film, strawberries, tunnels, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 130-131.

Abstract: The effects of low black polyethylene tunnels on the performance of 35 strawberry cultivars were investigated at Shimla, India, during 1996-98. Covering beds with black polyethylene hastened flowering by approximately 1 month, prevented soil erosion, reduced weed growth and winter injury, and increased total yields by 20%. Weeding was not required in mulched beds. During summers, the replacement of plastic sheets with anti-hail or anti-bird nets increased the yields and improved fruit quality. Variation in cultivar performance was also observed. Under uncovered conditions, Shimla Delicious gave the highest number of fruits per plant (30) while Etna and Belrubi the highest yield per plant (243.80 and 213.20 q/ha).
Monga, P K; Josan, J S

Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar - 152 116, India.

Key words: acidity, chemical composition, crop quality, crop yield, ferrous sulfate, fruits, iron, iron fertilizers, leaves, mandarins, manganese, manganese fertilizers, manganous sulfate, nitrogen, nutrient content, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, p

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 132-133.

Abstract: The effect of the foliar application of zinc, alone and in combination with Fe and Mn (as zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, and ferrous sulfate, respectively) on leaf composition, fruit yield, and quality of Kinnow mandarin was studied at Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar, Punjab, India. Micronutrient sprays increased the concentration of respective micronutrient without affecting the level of N, P, and K in the leaves. However, the increase in Zn content was more when spraying of Zn was conducted alone rather than in combination with Fe and Mn. Fruit yield, juice content, and total soluble solids were maximum under zinc sulfate (0.3%) treatment. Acidity decreased in all treatments compared to the control.
Singh, D B; Attri, B L

Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.

Key words: application rates, branches, cuttings, IBA, leaves, plant growth regulators, rooting, roots, survival, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 134-135.

Abstract: West Indian cherry (Malpighia galbra [M. glabra]), a rich source of vitamin C [ascorbic acid], has a problem in propagation through seeds. Indole butyric acid (IBA) at 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm was tried in hard and semi-hard wood cuttings for vegetative propagation. After 90 days, maximum survival (90%), number of leaves (25.0), number of primary branches (6.60), and number of secondary branches (6.60) were recorded in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. Similarly, the maximum number of primary roots (9.37), number of secondary roots (16.37), length of primary roots (22.04 cm), and length of secondary roots (15.10 cm) were observed in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. The hard wood cuttings treated with 1500 ppm IBA were most successful for the vegetative propagation of West Indian cherry.
Leon, D M; Ortega, D A; Cabrera, H; Cruz, J de la; Parkin, K L; Garcia, H S

UNIDA, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Apdo. Postal 1420, Veracruz, Ver. 91860, Mexico.

Key words: carbon dioxide, chemical composition, colour, controlled atmosphere storage, crop quality, disinfestation, fruits, insect pests, larvae, mangoes, oxides, pest control, pH, postharvest treatment, reducing sugars, sensory evaluation, spongy tissue, storage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 71-75.

Abstract: Manila mangoes were infested in the tree by allowing fertile Anastrepha obliqua female flies to oviposit on fruits contained inside cages. Infested mangoes were exposed to nine different controlled atmospheres (CA) containing combinations of 1, 3, or 5% O2 and 30, 50, or 70% CO2. Surviving larvae were enumerated after subjecting the mangoes to CA for 1 to 5 days. Selected compositional and physical parameters (weight loss, pH, titratable acidity, colour, soluble solids, reducing sugars, and texture) were analysed during post-treatment ripening. Fully ripened fruits were also subject to sensory evaluation using a non-structured hedonic scale and a trained panel. CA containing 1% O2 and either 30 or 50% CO2 effectively killed all larvae present in treated fruits. These treatments did not alter the composition or sensory characteristics of fully ripened mangoes. However, losses of 20 to 25% of fruits on the basis of sensory acceptability were attributed to the development of "spongy" tissue. CAs containing 70% C
Mohammed, M; Brathwaite, R A I

Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Key words: chilling injury, cold resistance, cultivars, fruits, postharvest decay, ripening, storage decay, storage disorders, susceptibility, tomatoes, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 76-78.

Abstract: Studies on the sensitivity to chilling injury (CI) of 8 processing and 8 non-processing tomato cultivars stored at the table-ripe stage were examined. Fruits were stored for 21 days at 7 degrees C and upon transfer to 20 degrees C for 1 or 3 days, respectively. The low correlation coefficient between pitting and decay suggested that these two early manifestations of CI are not significantly related. The least sensitive tomato cultivars to CI were Advantage, Dorado, and Rio Grande among the processing types and Star Pak and Walters of the non-processing types. The least tolerant to CI were processing cultivars Caraibe and Cascade and non-processing cultivars Early Set, Carnival, and Capitan. The observed tolerance of table-ripe tomatoes after 21 days at 7 degrees C plus 3 days at 20 degrees C compared to control fruit stored continuously at 20 degrees C for only 8-11 days indicates that a longer marketing period could be obtained at temperatures lower than those currently recommended.
Dris, R; Niskanen, R; El Assi, N

Department of Applied Biology, Horticulture, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, Finland.

Key words: apples, calcium, calcium chloride, cold storage, crop quality, dry matter, endogenous growth regulators, ethylene production, firmness, fruits, heat treatment, magnesium, nitrogen, nutrient content, pH, phosphorus, plant growth regulators, postharvest dec

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 79-83.

Abstract: 'Lobo' apple fruits were subjected to preharvest CaCl2 spraying treatment, pre-storage heat treatment, and CaCl2+heat treatment and were held at 2 degrees C and 90-95% RH for six months. Respiration and ethylene production rates were monitored and soluble solids, juice pH, firmness, total dry matter and macronutrient (P, K, Ca, Mg, and N) contents were determined. Additionally, the incidence of physiological disorder and pathological disease were recorded. Respiration and ethylene production rates slightly decreased in heat-treated apples and increased in CaCl2-treated apples. CaCl2 treatment did not increase fruit firmness or Ca concentration. Combined CaCl2+heat treatment and heat treatment increased pH. At the beginning of storage, the firmness of heat- and CaCl2+heat-treated fruits was lower but greater than that of the control fruits at the end of the storage period. After 6 months of storage, the lowest incidence of disorder and disease symptoms was observed in the CaCl2+heat treatment.
Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S

Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.

Key words: 2,4,5 T, abscisic acid, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, pawpaws, somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryos, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 84-87.

Abstract: A protocol for high frequency somatic embryogenesis in C. papaya was developed using immature zygotic embryo explant of cultivars Honey Dew and CO 2. Somatic embryos were induced in immature embryos, cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/litre of 2,4,5-T, and incubated in the dark for a period of 3-6 weeks. Loosely attached globular somatic embryos appeared from apical domes within 3-6 weeks of incubation. The development of somatic embryos was asynchronous, which passed through globular, heart, and torpedo shape stages. Embryos continued to proliferate with regular subculture and remained morphologically competent for up to one year. Maturation of the embryos was achieved in medium supplemented with ABA [abscisic acid] (0.1 mg/litre). The cotyledonary stage embryos germinated (71.33% in Honey Dew and 59.33% in CO 2) on phytohormone free MS basal medium. Regenerated plantlets were established in the greenhouse and hardened plants were transferred in soil.
Arava Bhagwan; Reddy, Y N; Rao, P V; Mohankumar, K C

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 003, India.

Key words: acidity, ascorbic acid, benzyladenine, chemical composition, ethylene production, fruits, plant growth regulators, postharvest physiology, postharvest treatment, reducing sugars, sodium benzoate, storage life, sugar content, tomatoes, weight losses

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 88-91.

Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, and benzyladenine at two levels of concentration on the days to ripening, shelf life, and various physicochemical properties was studied. Benzyladenine at 50 ppm improved the shelf life to 42 days, followed by benzyladenine at 25 ppm (37 days) and sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm (35 days), compared to the control (26 days). Physiological weight loss increased throughout the storage period while sugars, total soluble solids (TSS), and acidity increased up to the 14th day and then declined in the control and treated fruits. Treatments that improved the shelf life maintained better fruit quality in terms of higher reducing sugars, TSS, and acidity. Peak ethylene production reached the 14th (7.43 nl g-1 h-1) day in benzyladenine at 50 ppm and on the 11th day (6.75 nl g-1 h-1) in sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm when compared to the 11th day (8.15 nl g-1 h-1) in the control. The reduced and delayed peak ethylene production in benzyladenine- and sodium
Neeru Sood; Ranjan Srivastava; Singh, O S; Gosal, S S

Biotechnology Center, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: bandages, benzyladenine, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, kinetin, leaves, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoots, strawberries, survival, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 92-93.

Abstract: The rate of strawberry propagation through conventional technique is quite low and it is difficult to maintain plant material during the summer months. In the present investigation, the protocol for tissue culture propagation has been further improved by using liquid medium with four layers of surgical bandage. Fifteen milliliters of liquid Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] and Kinetin was used for the study. The proliferating shoots were longer, thicker, and borne with broader leaves in liquid medium. Studies on the survival of such plants were also conducted. The survival rate on various substrates varied from 66.67% in soil to 76.67% in soilrite mix. Seventy percent of plantlets transferred on sand survived well.

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