Abstract: The effects of low black polyethylene tunnels on the performance of 35 strawberry cultivars were investigated at Shimla, India, during 1996-98. Covering beds with black polyethylene hastened flowering by approximately 1 month, prevented soil erosion, reduced weed growth and winter injury, and increased total yields by 20%. Weeding was not required in mulched beds. During summers, the replacement of plastic sheets with anti-hail or anti-bird nets increased the yields and improved fruit quality. Variation in cultivar performance was also observed. Under uncovered conditions, Shimla Delicious gave the highest number of fruits per plant (30) while Etna and Belrubi the highest yield per plant (243.80 and 213.20 q/ha).
Monga, P K; Josan, J S
Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar - 152 116, India.
Abstract: The effect of the foliar application of zinc, alone and in combination with Fe and Mn (as zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, and ferrous sulfate, respectively) on leaf composition, fruit yield, and quality of Kinnow mandarin was studied at Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar, Punjab, India. Micronutrient sprays increased the concentration of respective micronutrient without affecting the level of N, P, and K in the leaves. However, the increase in Zn content was more when spraying of Zn was conducted alone rather than in combination with Fe and Mn. Fruit yield, juice content, and total soluble solids were maximum under zinc sulfate (0.3%) treatment. Acidity decreased in all treatments compared to the control.
Singh, D B; Attri, B L
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.
Abstract: West Indian cherry (Malpighia galbra [M. glabra]), a rich source of vitamin C [ascorbic acid], has a problem in propagation through seeds. Indole butyric acid (IBA) at 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm was tried in hard and semi-hard wood cuttings for vegetative propagation. After 90 days, maximum survival (90%), number of leaves (25.0), number of primary branches (6.60), and number of secondary branches (6.60) were recorded in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. Similarly, the maximum number of primary roots (9.37), number of secondary roots (16.37), length of primary roots (22.04 cm), and length of secondary roots (15.10 cm) were observed in hard wood cuttings treated with IBA at 1500 ppm. The hard wood cuttings treated with 1500 ppm IBA were most successful for the vegetative propagation of West Indian cherry.
Leon, D M; Ortega, D A; Cabrera, H; Cruz, J de la; Parkin, K L; Garcia, H S
UNIDA, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Apdo. Postal 1420, Veracruz, Ver. 91860, Mexico.
Abstract: Manila mangoes were infested in the tree by allowing fertile Anastrepha obliqua female flies to oviposit on fruits contained inside cages. Infested mangoes were exposed to nine different controlled atmospheres (CA) containing combinations of 1, 3, or 5% O2 and 30, 50, or 70% CO2. Surviving larvae were enumerated after subjecting the mangoes to CA for 1 to 5 days. Selected compositional and physical parameters (weight loss, pH, titratable acidity, colour, soluble solids, reducing sugars, and texture) were analysed during post-treatment ripening. Fully ripened fruits were also subject to sensory evaluation using a non-structured hedonic scale and a trained panel. CA containing 1% O2 and either 30 or 50% CO2 effectively killed all larvae present in treated fruits. These treatments did not alter the composition or sensory characteristics of fully ripened mangoes. However, losses of 20 to 25% of fruits on the basis of sensory acceptability were attributed to the development of "spongy" tissue. CAs containing 70% C
Mohammed, M; Brathwaite, R A I
Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Abstract: Studies on the sensitivity to chilling injury (CI) of 8 processing and 8 non-processing tomato cultivars stored at the table-ripe stage were examined. Fruits were stored for 21 days at 7 degrees C and upon transfer to 20 degrees C for 1 or 3 days, respectively. The low correlation coefficient between pitting and decay suggested that these two early manifestations of CI are not significantly related. The least sensitive tomato cultivars to CI were Advantage, Dorado, and Rio Grande among the processing types and Star Pak and Walters of the non-processing types. The least tolerant to CI were processing cultivars Caraibe and Cascade and non-processing cultivars Early Set, Carnival, and Capitan. The observed tolerance of table-ripe tomatoes after 21 days at 7 degrees C plus 3 days at 20 degrees C compared to control fruit stored continuously at 20 degrees C for only 8-11 days indicates that a longer marketing period could be obtained at temperatures lower than those currently recommended.
Dris, R; Niskanen, R; El Assi, N
Department of Applied Biology, Horticulture, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, Finland.
Abstract: 'Lobo' apple fruits were subjected to preharvest CaCl2 spraying treatment, pre-storage heat treatment, and CaCl2+heat treatment and were held at 2 degrees C and 90-95% RH for six months. Respiration and ethylene production rates were monitored and soluble solids, juice pH, firmness, total dry matter and macronutrient (P, K, Ca, Mg, and N) contents were determined. Additionally, the incidence of physiological disorder and pathological disease were recorded. Respiration and ethylene production rates slightly decreased in heat-treated apples and increased in CaCl2-treated apples. CaCl2 treatment did not increase fruit firmness or Ca concentration. Combined CaCl2+heat treatment and heat treatment increased pH. At the beginning of storage, the firmness of heat- and CaCl2+heat-treated fruits was lower but greater than that of the control fruits at the end of the storage period. After 6 months of storage, the lowest incidence of disorder and disease symptoms was observed in the CaCl2+heat treatment.
Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S
Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.
Key words: 2,4,5 T, abscisic acid, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, pawpaws, somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryos, tissue culture
Abstract: A protocol for high frequency somatic embryogenesis in C. papaya was developed using immature zygotic embryo explant of cultivars Honey Dew and CO 2. Somatic embryos were induced in immature embryos, cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/litre of 2,4,5-T, and incubated in the dark for a period of 3-6 weeks. Loosely attached globular somatic embryos appeared from apical domes within 3-6 weeks of incubation. The development of somatic embryos was asynchronous, which passed through globular, heart, and torpedo shape stages. Embryos continued to proliferate with regular subculture and remained morphologically competent for up to one year. Maturation of the embryos was achieved in medium supplemented with ABA [abscisic acid] (0.1 mg/litre). The cotyledonary stage embryos germinated (71.33% in Honey Dew and 59.33% in CO 2) on phytohormone free MS basal medium. Regenerated plantlets were established in the greenhouse and hardened plants were transferred in soil.
Arava Bhagwan; Reddy, Y N; Rao, P V; Mohankumar, K C
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 003, India.
Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, and benzyladenine at two levels of concentration on the days to ripening, shelf life, and various physicochemical properties was studied. Benzyladenine at 50 ppm improved the shelf life to 42 days, followed by benzyladenine at 25 ppm (37 days) and sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm (35 days), compared to the control (26 days). Physiological weight loss increased throughout the storage period while sugars, total soluble solids (TSS), and acidity increased up to the 14th day and then declined in the control and treated fruits. Treatments that improved the shelf life maintained better fruit quality in terms of higher reducing sugars, TSS, and acidity. Peak ethylene production reached the 14th (7.43 nl g-1 h-1) day in benzyladenine at 50 ppm and on the 11th day (6.75 nl g-1 h-1) in sodium benzoate at 1000 ppm when compared to the 11th day (8.15 nl g-1 h-1) in the control. The reduced and delayed peak ethylene production in benzyladenine- and sodium
Neeru Sood; Ranjan Srivastava; Singh, O S; Gosal, S S
Biotechnology Center, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Abstract: The rate of strawberry propagation through conventional technique is quite low and it is difficult to maintain plant material during the summer months. In the present investigation, the protocol for tissue culture propagation has been further improved by using liquid medium with four layers of surgical bandage. Fifteen milliliters of liquid Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] and Kinetin was used for the study. The proliferating shoots were longer, thicker, and borne with broader leaves in liquid medium. Studies on the survival of such plants were also conducted. The survival rate on various substrates varied from 66.67% in soil to 76.67% in soilrite mix. Seventy percent of plantlets transferred on sand survived well.
Meghwal, P R; Sharma, H C; Singh, S K
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, IARI, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: A method was standardized for the quick establishment of aseptic cultures in guava from mature field-grown stock plants for micropropagation through enhanced axillary branching technique. The maximum number of aseptic explants with shoot proliferation was obtained by a combination of surface sterilizing agents involving hydrogen peroxide (10%), silver nitrate (0.25%), and mercuric chloride (0.05%) treatment of explants one by one for five, six, and three minutes, respectively. The problem of phenolic browning was also minimized to a great extent by leaching of phenolic compounds due to agitation in antioxidant solution as well as by proper drying of explant prior to inoculation.
Singh, I P; Parthasarathy, V A; Handique, P J
Biotechnology Laboratory, Division of Horticulture, ICAR Res. Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793 103, India.
Abstract: In vitro-grown microshoots of Assam lemon (C. limon) and Sweet lime "sour mutant" (C. limettioides) were pulsed for one minute with paclobutrazol solutions at 5 levels (0, 1000, 2500, 5000, and 7500 ppm) under laminar flow followed by inoculation in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) Medium. Observations on shoot length, root length, number of leaves, length of internode, root diameter, shoot weight, root weight, and plant weight were recorded after five weeks of culture initiation. Increased concentration of paclobutrazol suppressed the root length and increased the root diameter of both species. However, there was no response on shoot growth. Paclobutrazol-treated plants showed better survival at the nursery stage than control.
Vishal Nath; Bhargava, R
National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner 334 006 (Rajasthan), India.
Abstract: The flowering of Z. mauritiana cultivars (Gola, Kaithali, Banarsi Kadaka, Umran, Mundia, and Seb) at six locations in India (Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh; Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat; and Jobner, Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Hisar, Rajasthan) was studied. Irrespective of cultivar, flowering was completed by 5 September at Anantpur, while it continued up to 29 November at Hisar. In Rajasthan, flowering duration was, approximately, from 24 July to 10 November. The peak of flowering was observed between 17 June and 30 August in southern India and from 27 August to 22 October in northern India. Flowering was generally dependent on temperature and relative humidity, particularly on the variation between maximum and minimum temperature. A maximum temperature of 32.4-36.9 degrees C and a minimum temperature of 20.7-25.3 degrees C, along with a temperature difference of 8.6-13.3 degrees C and morning relative humidity of 70.6-82.5%, prevailing continuously for a minimum of 1 month induced profuse flowering in all cultivars acro
Joubert, F J; Plessis, M H du; Stassen, P J C
ARC, Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa.
Abstract: In this study different pruning methods were applied to higher density orange (cv. Navel), grapefruit (cv. Star Ruby) and orange (cv. Valencia) orchards (in South Africa, in 1996-99), which had become overcrowded five to six years after planting. A progressive decline in yield and fruit size was experienced with these orchards. Response to the different pruning actions, as well as yield variation and fruit size was assessed over three successive seasons. Corrective (severe) pruning and hedging resulted in a significant reduction in yield in the 1st year after pruning, but with an increase in fruit size. However, yield and fruit size improved substantially in the 2nd and 3rd year after the severe pruning. Light hedging as a maintenance pruning action was effective in restricting tree size without adversely affecting yield. Alternate bearing was substantially reduced by annual pruning. By creating a slanted, 20 degrees angle canopy with mechanical hedging and selective pruning, a greater portion of fruit is bor
Tovar, B; Ibarra, L I; Garcia, H S; Mata, M
Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, Apdo. Postal 634, Tepic, Nay. 63000, Mexico.
Abstract: Kent mango slices at two different stages of ripening: 4 days (S1) and 6 days (S2) after harvest were kept under aseptic conditions at 13 and 23 degrees C to determine if normal ripening could proceed after slicing. Whole mangoes stored at 23 degrees C and 65% RH were used as control. Soluble solids of slices from all treatments did not show the same trend as whole fruits and remained unchanged at their initial values. Titratable acidity increased and pH decreased in all the slices and were in turn, different from the control fruit. Colour parameters indicated loss of yellow pigments and browning. Decay occurred between days 5 and 7 of storage in slices that were stored at 23 degrees C. Slices from S1 mangoes kept at 13 degrees C suffered minimal changes due to cutting; however, the slices did not show the same compositional changes as the naturally-ripened whole fruit.
Allong, R; Wickham, L D; Majeed Mohammed
Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Key words: ascorbic acid, brix, carbon dioxide, crop quality, cultivars, ethylene, fruits, growth, hot water treatment, pawpaws, sensory evaluation, storage, storage decay, tastes, temperature
Abstract: The effects of hot water treatments and storage conditions on quality of fresh-cut papaya were investigated. A hot water treatment of 48-50 degrees C for 20 minutes was found to delay fungal storage rots in fruits of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars without negatively affecting sensory quality. Fresh-cut slices from fruit of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars were stored at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C and evaluated for changes in physical, chemical and microbial quality over eight days. There was a decline in sensory quality and acceptability of Red Lady papaya slices after four days at both temperatures, while fresh-cut Tainung #2 fruit held at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C was found to have high sensory quality and acceptability up to six days of storage. A storage temperature of 5 degrees C was more effective than 10 degrees C in reducing CO2 and ethylene accumulation, as well as suppressing microbial growth, while maintaining high sensory quality in fresh-cut papaya slices. Unacceptable microbial counts w