Abstract: The period of fruit bud differentiation (FBD) in mango cultivars AU-Rumani, Neeleshan, Neeluddin, Baneshan, Bangalora and Neelam grown in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India was studied during 1998 and 1999. In general, FBD commenced on the 3rd week of September and was completed on the 3rd week of November. However, the onset of FBD and peaks of differentiation varied among the cultivars. The first sign of FBD (stage II) was observed in AU-Rumani on the 3rd week of September, and 100% differentiation was observed towards the end of October. In Neeleshan and Baneshan, stage II was observed on the 4th week of September, and 100% differentiation was evident towards the 2nd week of November. In Neeluddin, Bangalora and Neelum, stage II occurred during the 1st week of October, and 100% differentiation was evident on the 2nd and 3rd weeks of November. In general, the total carbohydrate fraction and C/N ratio were greatest at 100% FBD, whereas the total N fraction was lowest during FBD. At FBD, the total carbohydrate f
Tiznado Hernandez, M E; Ojeda Contreras, A J; Sanchez Estrada, A; Moreno Velazquez, D; Mercado Ruiz, J N
Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos de Origen Vegetal, Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, Apartado Postal 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
Abstract: A model for the prediction of fruit development stage in Stenocereus thurberi [Lemaireocereus thurberi] was developed. Fruits were sampled from a field in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, in June and July 1999 and 2000, at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 40 days after anthesis (DAA). A Minolta chromameter CR-300 set was used to quantify fruit skin and pulp colour. A multiple linear model was developed using the stepwise procedure in forward selection. F statistics, mean square error, coefficient of determination, Mallows coefficient, and distribution of residuals around zero were used as indicators of the efficiency of model prediction. The results indicated the possibility of predicting the fruiting stage in S. thurberi in terms of DAA based on fruit pulp and skin characters.
Hazarika, B N; Parthasarathy, V A
Biotechnology Laboratory, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam - 793 103, Meghalaya, India.
Key words: 8 hydroxyquinoline, acclimatization, antitranspirants, chemical composition, daminozide, humidity, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, mandarins, micropropagation, plant composition, roots, shoots, silica gel, survival, tissue culture, water content
Abstract: Microshoots approximately 2.0-2.5 cm long obtained from in vitro cultures of C. reticulata, C. nobilis x C. deliciosa, C. volkameriana and C. reshni were subjected to reduced humidity treatment with silica gel (8 mg), alar [daminozide] (1 or 2 mg/litre) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (1 or 2 mg/litre). After 4 weeks, the plants were transferred to polyethylene bags containing soil and farmyard manure at 1:1. Plant survival was evaluated after 1 week. The application of silica gel adversely affected ex vitro survival. The values of shoot and root growth parameters were lowest under silica gel treatment and highest under the control. Alar and 8-hydroxyquinoline enhanced most of the root and shoot growth parameters. Plant weight was greatest in C. nobilis x C. deliciosa (293.53 mg) and lowest in C. reshni (280.45 mg). Shoot length ranged from 2.8 cm in C. reshni to 3.2 cm in C. reticulata and C. volkameriana. Leaf weight was greatest (30.46 mg) in C. volkameriana. The application of 2 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline/litre was eff
Mini, C; Vahab, M A
College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Trissure, Kerala - 680 654, India.
Abstract: Correlation and path analyses for oleoresin yield and yield components were conducted for C. annuum (CA 653, Arka Lohit, Ujwala and KTPL-19), C. chinense (CA 640 and CA 645), C. frutescens (CA 671 and CA 648) and C. baccatum (CA 670) cultivars grown in Kerala, India during the summer (January-March), rainy (May-July) and winter (September-November) seasons [year not given]. Genetic correlation analysis revealed that oleoresin yield was positively correlated with number of fruits per plant, and negatively associated with number of days to fruit set, flowering and harvesting. The number of days to flowering was positively associated with number of days to first fruit set and first harvest, and fruit yield per plant. The number of days to fruit set had a significant and positive association with number of days to first harvest and negative association with number of fruits per plant. The number of days to harvesting was negatively associated with number of fruits and fruit yield per plant. Path analysis indicate
Naresh Babu; Anamika Sharma
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani - 797 106, India.
Abstract: Plant height and fruit characteristics were evaluated during 1998/99 and 1999/2000 in 12 pawpaw cultivars (Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Delicious, Pusa Giant, Pusa Majesty, Coorg Honey Dew and Honey Dew) grown in Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. Plant height (243.300 cm), and fruit length (38.840 cm), width (43.800 cm) and weight (2445.780 g) were greatest in Pusa Giant. Pusa Delicious recorded the greatest fruit set (55.400%), number of fruits per plant (31.100), and fruit pulp/peel ratio (11.100) and total soluble solids content (14.08%). Peel percentage was lowest in Co-4 (6.560%). Pusa Majesty fruits had the highest seed percentage (0.970%). Fruit yield was highest in Coorg Honey Dew (41.070 kg per plant). Fruit total carotenoids content was highest in Pusa Dwarf (7.730 mg/100 g). Honey Dew fruits were characterized by the greatest total sugar (12.450%), reducing sugar (11.570%) and nonreducing sugar (0.880%) contents, acidity (0.100%), and sugar/acid ratio (124.500). Co-5 fruits had t
Porwal, R; Nagda, C L; Pundir, J P S
Datepalm Research Centre, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract: The effects of pruning height (10, 20 or 30 cm) and growth retardants (cycocel [chlormequat] and maleic hydrazide at 2000, 4000 or 8000 ppm) on the performance of R. damascena were studied in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India during 1993/94. The growth retardants were sprayed after sprouting (when 4-5 leaves were fully developed on shoots) and at 15 days thereafter. Plant height, plant spread, and number of shoots per plant decreased with the increase in growth retardant concentration and decrease in pruning height (i.e. increase in pruning intensity). The effect of the interaction between pruning and growth retardant on vegetative parameters was not significant except on plant spread, which was greatest (1.15 m2) with a pruning height of 30 cm and 2000 ppm cycocel. Flower yield per plant and per hectare, and oil content were also significantly affected by pruning and growth retardant. The interaction between pruning and growth retardant was also significant except on oil content. The greatest flower yield per plant
Dipendra Gogoi; Gautam, B P
Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India.
Abstract: Fifty-two chilli (C. annuum and C. frutescens) genotypes (cultivars and advanced breeding lines) grown in Jorhat, Assam, India were evaluated for fruit yield and component characters from February to October 1999. The genotypes significantly varied for all the parameters evaluated. Plant height was greatest in Asamia Jalakia (71.21 cm). The number of primary branches was highest in Nadharia (7.83) and Kala J. Long (7.83). Balijuri (190.67), Nadharia (202.83) and Kala J. Long (198.50) had the highest number of leaves per plant. Specific leaf weight was highest in Balijuri (6.62 mg/cm2). The number of days to first flowering was lowest in Soalkuchi (51.83). Khoti Jalakia had the highest number of flowers (662.67) and fruits (278.17) per plant, and fruiting percentage (42.00%). Fruit drop incidence was lowest in Singhasan (0.90%). Jayanti recorded the greatest fruit length (9.71 cm). Fruit diameter was greatest in Tupura Jalakia (1.83 cm), Thupuka Jalakia (1.81 cm) and Bogori Jalakia (1.64 cm). The greatest fres
Chandel, J S; Ananda, S A
Department of Pomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, HP, India.
Abstract: The effects of budding method (annular, chip, Forkert or patch budding) and date (15th or 30th day of May, June, July or August) on bud take success in pecan cv. Mahan were studied in Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India during 1995/96. Bud take success was evaluated at 3 months after budding, whereas linear and radial growth were evaluated during the dormant season (at 1 1/2 years after budding). The highest mean percentage of bud take was obtained with annular budding (47.39%) and 30 June (55.92%), and their interaction (82.54%). Patch budding performed on 30 June (73.78%) and 15 July (70.61%) also resulted in high bud take success. The greatest mean linear and radial growth were obtained with annular (124.6 and 7.88 cm) and patch (121.1 7.74 cm) budding, and budding on 15 May (135.3 and 8.47 cm), 30 May (131.3 and 8.16 cm) and 30 June (131.5 and 8.18 cm). In terms of interaction effect, annular budding on 30 June recorded the greatest linear (145.8 cm) and radial (9.04 cm) growth.
Mahajan, B V C; Dhillon, B S
Punjab Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur - 143 521, Punjab, India.
Key words: chemical composition, fruit pulp, fruit set, fruiting, fruits, maturity, plant composition, seed weight, seeds, titratable acidity
Abstract: Fruit development was studied in 25-year-old litchi (Litchi chinensis cv. Calcuttia) trees grown in Gurdaspur, Punjab, India. Observations on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits were recorded from 20 to 60 days after fruit set (DAFS). Fruit size (length and diameter) increased until harvesting. The greatest fruit length (3.9 cm) and diameter (2.9 cm) were recorded at 55 DAFS. Fruit weight rapidly increased up to 40 DAFS, after which fruit weight gradually increased until harvesting. Pulp and seed weight significantly increased up to 55 DAFS. Pulp weight increased slowly up to 30 DAFS, increased at a faster pace at the second phase, then increased very slowly towards the end of sampling. On the other hand, seed weight increased dramatically at the first phase (35 DAFS), then gradually increased thereafter. The content of total soluble solids (TSS) increased until harvest, with the increase being much faster up to 40 DAFS. TSS ranged from 9.0 to 18.3 degrees Brix. A gradual decline in titratable a
Ghosh, S N; Mathew, B
Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Abstract: The response of Z. mauritiana cultivars Baranasi Karaka, Chhuhara, Dandan, Gola, Ilayachi, Jogia, Kaithali, Katha Phal and Umran to topworking was studied. Scion buds collected from Jhargram, West Bengal, India were topworked on 5-year-old trees of Z. rotundifolia. At 2 months after budding, budding success was 100% in Baranasi Karaka and Kaithali, and 80% in Dandan, Jogia, Katha Phal and Umran. Gola had the highest number of leaves (116). Scion height (155 cm) and girth (10.0 cm) were greatest in Umran. Jogia recorded the highest fruit yield per plant at 7 months after budding (62.1 kg), as well as the highest number of fruits per plant (1600). Fruit weight was highest in Umran (39.2 g). Fruit length and weight were more pronounced in Baranasi Karaka (5.4 and 3.4 cm), Dandan (5.1 and 3.0 cm), Jogia (4.9 and 3.8 cm) and Umran (4.8 and 3.8 cm). Seed weight was lowest (0.6 g) in Ilayachi and highest (1.9 g) in Jogia. Ilayachi fruits registered the greatest total soluble solids (21.8 degrees Brix), total sugar (
Tiwari, A K; Ranvir Singh
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: The effects of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (HQC), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), CoSO4 and Al2(SO4)3 at 200 ppm each, incorporated into the vase solution containing 4% sugar and 200 ppm citric acid, on the vase life of rose cv. Superstar were studied. Weight gain was greatest on the 3rd day in HQC (3.75 g) and CoSO4 (3.70 g) solutions, and lowest in distilled water (2.00 g). Weight loss at senescence was greatest in flowers kept in distilled water (1.99 g), HQ (1.85 g) and HQC (1.75 g) solutions, and lowest in flowers maintained in Al2(SO4)3 solution (1.50 g). The antimicrobial agents were equally effective in enhancing flower diameter. The greatest uptake of solution was observed in flowers kept in HQC (24.0 ml) and CoSO4 (23.0 ml) solutions, whereas the lowest was observed in flowers maintained in distilled water (14.00 ml). Flowers in HQC and CoSO4 solutions had the longest vase lives (15.20 and 14.56 days, respectively). Flowers kept in distilled water had the shortest vase life (10.00 days). HQ and Al2(SO4)3 ha
Rajesh Kumar; Ananda, S A
Department of Pomology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.), India.
Abstract: The effects of propagation method (tongue grafting, chip budding, shield budding and annular budding) and grafting height (15, 20 or 25 cm from the collar region) on the performance of apple cultivars Wellspur and Redspur as scions and crab apple as rootstock were studied. Tongue grafting and chip budding were conducted in March, whereas shield and annular budding were conducted in summer. Tongue grafting resulted in the greatest linear and radial growth of scion and rootstock. The linear growth of scion was significantly affected by the grafting height in Redspur, while the radial growth of scion and rootstock was significantly affected by grafting height in both cultivars. In Redspur, the linear and radial growth of the scion was greatest with 15 and 25 cm grafting height, respectively. In Wellspur, the linear and radial growth of the scion and rootstock was greatest with a grafting height of 15 cm. The method of propagation significantly affected the number of feathers in both cultivars. The distance betwe
Singh, K P; Mandhar, S C
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The performance of 9 exotic cultivars of gerbera (G. jamesonii) (Diablo, Lyonella, Ornella, Sunset, Tara, Thalassa and Tiramisu, Twiggy and Whitsun) was studied under fan and pad cooled greenhouse environments at the Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India from July 1998 to June 1999. The greatest plant height (48.83 cm), and number of suckers (5.16) and leaves (46.27) per plant were obtained with Tiramisu, Lyonella and Ornella, respectively, while the lowest values of the aforementioned parameters were recorded for Whitsun (47.88 cm), Sunset (3.82) and Tiramisu (26.74), respectively. Flowering was earliest (47.88 and 57.47 days for 50 and 100% flowering, respectively) in Whitsun and latest (83.10 and 88.30 days) in Tiramisu. The greatest diameter of flower (10.70 cm) and length of flower stalk (58.27 cm) were recorded for Tiramisu and Lyonella, respectively. The thickest (0.70 cm diameter) and heaviest (22.20 g) flower stalks were observed in Twiggy, whereas the thinnest (0.60
Ram Kumar; Shailendra Rajan; Negi, S S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, P.O. Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: The yield and quality of 14 early-ripening grape cultivars, planted during 1995 in Rehmankhera, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, were evaluated during 1997-2000 to identify the most suitable cultivars for North Indian plains, where pre-monsoon showers is a limiting factor for grape cultivation. The period of bud sprouting and ripening varied with the year and cultivar. Bud sprouting (20 February-5 March) and fruit ripening (16 May-5 June) were earliest in Beauty Seedless. BA x Per-75-32, Gold, Delight and Kishmish Beli exhibited late fruit ripening. Flame Seedless and Pusa Navrang were high-yielding, and the mean annual yield of these cultivars was approximately 20 kg per vine. Both cultivars, which were resilient to damage by heavy rains, exhibited phenotypic yield stability even under unfavourable conditions. Cardinal (5.40-8.61 kg per vine), Kishmish Charani (4.69-12.66 kg per vine), Beauty Seedless (1.13-22.63 kg per vine), Pusa Seedless (5.02-7.13 kg per vine), Gold (1.36-8.88 kg per vine) and New Perlette
Yercan, M; Engindeniz, S
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: crop yield, dried fruit, figs, fruit growing, production costs, production economics, profitability, profits
Abstract: The economics of dried fig production in selected villages of Izmir province, Turkey, was analysed based on data from 52 producers. Dried fig yield was calculated at 186 kg per decar (1 decar=1000m2). Production cost was found to be 80.3 million TL/decar, while the net profit was 36.9 million TL/decar.