Abstract: An attempt was made to evaluate sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars based on their fruit characteristics. Twenty-two cultivars, viz. Badam, Badami, Bombay, Calcutta Round, CO1, CO2, Cricket Ball, Dwarapudi, Guruvayya, Gavaraiah, Pilipatti, Gutti, Hybrid, Jhumakiya, Kirtibarti (big), Kirtibarti (long), Krishna Rao, Mohangooti, Oval, Pakala Oval, Seedless and Vavilvalasa, were studied under Bangalore (Karnataka, India) conditions. Fruit weight was maximum in Krishna Rao and least in Pilipatti. The length of the fruit was maximum in CO1. Fruit breadth was maximum in Cricket Ball. Total soluble solid was highest in Kirtibarti (big) and Pakala Oval. The average number of seeds per fruit was least in Guruvayya, Gavaraiah and Pakala Oval. The study indicates that considerable variability exists in the cultivars and there is good scope for breeding varieties for dwarfness or reduced vigour.
Saroj, P L; Tomar, D S; Arora, Y K
Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun (UP) - 248 195, India.
Abstract: The investigation revealed that peach orchard can be raised successfully even on degraded land by adopting site specific agrotechnique. The porous profile with only 60 cm top soil depth (T3) favoured better vegetative vigour of peach plants as compared to those sites having soil only throughout the profile (T4 and T5). The drip system of irrigation had good response on plant survival but overall plant vigour was not influenced much in juvenile peach plants compared to rain fed control under humid subtropical climate. Introduction of urd (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. T-9) in kharif and toria (Brassica campestris [B. campestris var. toria] cv. Pant-303) in rabi season was a compatible combination with peach plantation but growing of annual crops particularly rabi season crop was uneconomical on highly gravely sites (80% gravels distributed throughout profiles-T2). The yield of groundstorey crops were affected by rainfall distribution pattern during crop growing period coupled with canopy cover of the overstorey compo
Asamenew, M T; Narayanaswamy, P
Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Key words: adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, callus, culture media, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, kinetin, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture
Abstract: Callus cultures were initiated from the shoot tip explants of aseptically grown C. forskohlii. A rapid initiation and proliferation of callus was obtained in MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 1.5 BAP [benzyladenine] mg/l. Adventitious shoots (17.33) were obtained from compact greenish callus on passage to MS basal medium containing various concentrations and combination of IAA and kinetin. But, the best response was in the medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 2.0 mg kinetin/l. On further subculturing of individual shoots onto hormone-free MS medium, shoots developed into normal plantlets.
Srivastava, R K; Sandhu, A S; Neeru Sood
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.
Key words: benzyladenine, callus, culture media, cytokinins, epicotyls, explants, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, limes, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture
Abstract: Callus was induced from different explants of in vitro raised seedlings of C. aurantifolia to study the response of explants and medium composition on frequency of callusing and to develop reliable protocol for high frequency of plant regeneration from callus cultures. Shoot tip, epicotyl and hypocotyl were found superior explants for callusing in terms of amount of callusing, days to callus and callus induction frequency. Addition of cytokinin was found indispensable for regeneration and MS medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] (5 mg/l) resulted in highest per cent of callus regeneration. Regenerants were rooted in vitro and hardened in plastic pots containing autoclaved soil.
Singh, D B; Suryanarayana, M A; Attri, B L
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.
Key words: ascorbic acid, chemical composition, cultivars, plant composition, postharvest physiology, reducing sugars, ripening, sapodillas, storage, storage life
Abstract: Various chemical changes were studied during ripening of four sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars, viz. Cricket Ball, Ever Bearer, Bangalore Giant and Calcutta Round, at ambient temperature (25-30 degrees C) and relative humidity of 70-90%. Significant changes during storage were recorded in physico-chemical constituents of all the cultivars studied. The ripening process started first in Ever Bearer and its total soluble solid contents, total sugars, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid accumulation declined after 4 days. All the cultivars had a storage life of 6 days whereas Ever Bearer could only be stored for 2 days at ambient temperature.
C-67, Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar, Allahabad - 211 016, India.
Abstract: Studies were undertaken on the flowering biology and bearing behaviour of hog-plum (Spondais pinnata [Spondias pinnata]). Well-established trees of hog-plum varieties 'oval' and 'round', growing within the premises of Government Gardens, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, were used. The studies were conducted with special reference to the variety 'oval'. The trees bore pure panicles at the terminal end of last years growth. The flowering took place on naked shoots with the advent of the spring season. Flowers opened during odd hours and anthers dehisced with the opening of flowers. The structure and shape of the inflorescence were similar to mango. Flowers were observed as hermaphrodites numbering 1829.4 per panicle. Pollen grains were dusty. The initial percentage set under natural open pollination was very good (71.29%) compared to very nominal set in mango. Thirty-five fruits per panicle reached final maturity.
Shukla, A K; Pathak, R K; Tiwari, R P; Vishal Nath
N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) 224 229, India.
Abstract: In a field experiment conducted in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-96, the effect of irrigation and mulching on growth of aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA 7 was investigated. The treatment comprised 3 irrigations (daily drip irrigation, alternate day drip irrigation and conventional surface irrigation by basin method) and different types of mulching materials, i.e. 200 guage black polyethylene, 8-cm thick farmyard manure (FYM), paddy straw, grass, and unmulched control. Plant height, canopy spread and stock girth were significantly better under alternate day drip irrigation over conventional method. Among mulching treatments, black polyethylene was the most effective mulch material however, among organic mulches paddy straw was the best for the same parameters. Leaf nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) was maximum in alternate day drip irrigation and minimum under conventional method. Among mulching treatments, the maximum P, K, Ca and Mg values were found in FYM whereas,
Dag, A; Gazit, S
The Kennedy-Leigh Centre for Horticultural Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
Abstract: Effective insect pollination is essential for good fruit set and yield in mango (Mangifera indica). Insects visiting mango bloom were collected for 3 years (1994-96) in 10 commercial orchards located in all major mango-growing areas in Israel. Forty-six distinct species or types (not identified to the species level) were found; most belonged to the orders Diptera (26), Hymenoptera (12) and Coleoptera (6). The following species played a significant role in mango pollination in most orchards: two blow flies (Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata); the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the housefly (Musca domestica). Found in only one or two orchards, in medium to large numbers, were: the hover fly Episyrphus balfeatus, the wasp Bembecinus tridens, and two beetles, Cantharis atropoveolatus and Omophlus syriacus. The effectiveness of 12 pollinators was assessed in one orchard. Blow flies were found to be as effective as the honeybee, whereas the housefly was less so. Yield of small caged 'Keitt' mango trees was min
Kishun, R; Rajan, S
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.
Abstract: Nineteen X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae strains collected from different ecogeographical areas/mango genotypes of India were studied to confirm the existence of variability in the strains on the basis of their pathogenicity on genotypes (9), reaction towards antibiotics (9) and growth on culture media (5). Study revealed the existence of variability in Xcmi strains as exhibited by their differential reaction. The similarity in Xcmi strains was observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Clustering pattern on these three detection methods indicated that the grouping of strains is not entirely based on their geographical distribution as the strains from northern and southern parts of India falls in a single cluster. However, the strains collected from Bihar exhibited more similarity with each other and clustered in one or nearby cluster in all the detection methods used.
Divender Gupta; Ranjeet Bhatia
Regional Horticultural Research Station, Jachh (Nurpur) - 176 201, India.
Abstract: The fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata) population was monitored with the help of bottle traps containing 100 ml aqueous solution of 0.1% methyl eugenol and 0.25% malathion per trap, in mango and guava orchards of submountainous region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The maximum catch of 98.6 and 62.6 males/trap for mixed population was recorded during 30th and 27th standard weeks in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in mango orchard. The corresponding catch in guava orchard was 427.2 and 517.0 during the 37th and 39th standard weeks. There was a significant positive correlation between the trap catch and maximum and minimum temperatures during both the years for both the hosts. The maximum catch coincided with the ripening period of fruits.
Arora, P K; Sharma, J N; Thind, S K; Monga, P K
Regional Fruit Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Abohar - 152 116, India.
Abstract: Some 8, 18, 3, 9, 5, 7, 3 and 7 cultivars of sweet oranges, mandarins, limes, lemons, grapefruits, trifoliates [Poncirus trifoliata], tangelos and other related species (such as C. taiwanica) were evaluated for resistance to citrus leafminer (P. citrella) under field conditions at Abohar, Punjab, India, during 1995-97. None of the citrus species was found to be free from leafminer infestation. Two cultivars of sweet orange (Campbell Valencia and Heavy Sweet), 1 of mandarin (Kara), 1 of lime (Sweet lime), 1 of lemon (Galgal), 4 of grapefruits (Davis, Marsh Prolific, Redblush and Star Ruby), 6 of trifoliates (Carrizo, Citrumelo, Pomeroy, Rubidoux, Sacaton Citrumelo and Savage) and 1 of related species (Sadaphal) were found to be least susceptible to leafminer, while 3 cultivars of mandarin (Italian mandarin, Kondanarum and Willow Leaf), 1 of lime (Kagzi lime), 1 of lemon (Jullundhiri Khatti) and 2 of related species (Box orange and Karna Khatta) were found highly susceptible.
Pankaj Srivastava; Srivastava, B K; Singh, M P
Department of Vegetable Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, India.
Abstract: Four planting methods, i.e. flat planting, flat planting-earthing up, ridge planting and raised bed double row planting, were tested to study the performance of early cauliflower cv. Pant Gobhi-2 grown during rainy season under Tarai conditions of Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. The cauliflower seedling of 40 days age were planted at 60x45 cm spacing. Earthing up operation was done after one month of transplanting (27 July 1995). The results indicated that the mortality of seedling was significantly lesser in ridge planting compared to flat planting at all the stages of plant growth. The ridge planting resulted in healthy and early plant growth compared to other methods and also showed earliness in curd maturity besides giving higher net curd yield.
Singh, K P; Sangama
Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: The effect of seven plant spacing, viz. 30x30, 30x20, 30x10, 20x20, 20x12.5, 20x10 and 20x8.5 cm, on vegetative growth, flowering and postharvest quality of cut spikes in tuberose cv. 'Single' was investigated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, during 1997-98. Wider spacing resulted in longer rachis and heavier individual florets. Closer spacing produced higher yield of cut flower and loose flower per plot basis. Wider and closer spacing have vice versa effect on above floral parameters. Rest of the studied parameters namely, plant height, number of leaves per clump, spike length, diameter of second floret, flowering duration under field condition and number of florets per spike and their corresponding weight and postharvest quality of cut flower were not influenced significantly by the plant densities.
Janakiram, T; Rao, T M; Bhatt, R M
Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: Plant growth, dry matter accumulation and its partitioning to different plant parts were studied in two cultivars of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) and three cultivars of French marigold (Tagetes patula). The cultivars of both African and French types differed significantly in dry matter production. In the African type, Golden Age recorded higher dry matter, while in the French type the maximum dry matter was accumulated by the Harvest Moon cultivar. The difference in the total yield is attributed to the variation in the growth components.
Dahiya, P S; Saraswat, S P
Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla - 171 001, H.P., India.
Abstract: Analysis of the marketing of apples in Himachal Pradesh, India, shows that despite the price support for apples announced since 1981, the marketing system is riddled with myriad problems. Farmers had marketing margins of 41% in 1984-85 and 42% in 1995-96. It is suggested that multipronged strategies should be explored for the future development of horticultural crops in the state in order to achieve better returns for the growers.