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Meghwal, P R; Sharma, H C; Singh, S K

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, IARI, New Delhi - 110 012, India.

Key words: browning, disinfectants, guavas, hydrogen peroxide, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, mercuric chloride, micropropagation, phenolic compounds, shoots, silver nitrate, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 94-95.

Abstract: A method was standardized for the quick establishment of aseptic cultures in guava from mature field-grown stock plants for micropropagation through enhanced axillary branching technique. The maximum number of aseptic explants with shoot proliferation was obtained by a combination of surface sterilizing agents involving hydrogen peroxide (10%), silver nitrate (0.25%), and mercuric chloride (0.05%) treatment of explants one by one for five, six, and three minutes, respectively. The problem of phenolic browning was also minimized to a great extent by leaching of phenolic compounds due to agitation in antioxidant solution as well as by proper drying of explant prior to inoculation.
Singh, I P; Parthasarathy, V A; Handique, P J

Biotechnology Laboratory, Division of Horticulture, ICAR Res. Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793 103, India.

Key words: application rates, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, internodes, leaves, lemons, paclobutrazol, plant growth regulators, roots, shoots, survival, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 96-97.

Abstract: In vitro-grown microshoots of Assam lemon (C. limon) and Sweet lime "sour mutant" (C. limettioides) were pulsed for one minute with paclobutrazol solutions at 5 levels (0, 1000, 2500, 5000, and 7500 ppm) under laminar flow followed by inoculation in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) Medium. Observations on shoot length, root length, number of leaves, length of internode, root diameter, shoot weight, root weight, and plant weight were recorded after five weeks of culture initiation. Increased concentration of paclobutrazol suppressed the root length and increased the root diameter of both species. However, there was no response on shoot growth. Paclobutrazol-treated plants showed better survival at the nursery stage than control.
Vishal Nath; Bhargava, R

National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner 334 006 (Rajasthan), India.

Key words: air temperature, cultivars, flowering, phenology, relative humidity, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 2, pages 98-101.

Abstract: The flowering of Z. mauritiana cultivars (Gola, Kaithali, Banarsi Kadaka, Umran, Mundia, and Seb) at six locations in India (Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh; Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat; and Jobner, Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Hisar, Rajasthan) was studied. Irrespective of cultivar, flowering was completed by 5 September at Anantpur, while it continued up to 29 November at Hisar. In Rajasthan, flowering duration was, approximately, from 24 July to 10 November. The peak of flowering was observed between 17 June and 30 August in southern India and from 27 August to 22 October in northern India. Flowering was generally dependent on temperature and relative humidity, particularly on the variation between maximum and minimum temperature. A maximum temperature of 32.4-36.9 degrees C and a minimum temperature of 20.7-25.3 degrees C, along with a temperature difference of 8.6-13.3 degrees C and morning relative humidity of 70.6-82.5%, prevailing continuously for a minimum of 1 month induced profuse flowering in all cultivars acro
Joubert, F J; Plessis, M H du; Stassen, P J C

ARC, Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa.

Key words: crop quality, crop yield, fruits, grapefruits, light penetration, oranges, overcrowding, pruning, regrowth

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 1-5.

Abstract: In this study different pruning methods were applied to higher density orange (cv. Navel), grapefruit (cv. Star Ruby) and orange (cv. Valencia) orchards (in South Africa, in 1996-99), which had become overcrowded five to six years after planting. A progressive decline in yield and fruit size was experienced with these orchards. Response to the different pruning actions, as well as yield variation and fruit size was assessed over three successive seasons. Corrective (severe) pruning and hedging resulted in a significant reduction in yield in the 1st year after pruning, but with an increase in fruit size. However, yield and fruit size improved substantially in the 2nd and 3rd year after the severe pruning. Light hedging as a maintenance pruning action was effective in restricting tree size without adversely affecting yield. Alternate bearing was substantially reduced by annual pruning. By creating a slanted, 20 degrees angle canopy with mechanical hedging and selective pruning, a greater portion of fruit is bor
Tovar, B; Ibarra, L I; Garcia, H S; Mata, M

Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, Apdo. Postal 634, Tepic, Nay. 63000, Mexico.

Key words: browning, chemical composition, colour, cutting, fruits, mangoes, pH, plant composition, plant pigments, ripening, storage, storage decay, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 10-14.

Abstract: Kent mango slices at two different stages of ripening: 4 days (S1) and 6 days (S2) after harvest were kept under aseptic conditions at 13 and 23 degrees C to determine if normal ripening could proceed after slicing. Whole mangoes stored at 23 degrees C and 65% RH were used as control. Soluble solids of slices from all treatments did not show the same trend as whole fruits and remained unchanged at their initial values. Titratable acidity increased and pH decreased in all the slices and were in turn, different from the control fruit. Colour parameters indicated loss of yellow pigments and browning. Decay occurred between days 5 and 7 of storage in slices that were stored at 23 degrees C. Slices from S1 mangoes kept at 13 degrees C suffered minimal changes due to cutting; however, the slices did not show the same compositional changes as the naturally-ripened whole fruit.
Allong, R; Wickham, L D; Majeed Mohammed

Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Key words: ascorbic acid, brix, carbon dioxide, crop quality, cultivars, ethylene, fruits, growth, hot water treatment, pawpaws, sensory evaluation, storage, storage decay, tastes, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 15-18.

Abstract: The effects of hot water treatments and storage conditions on quality of fresh-cut papaya were investigated. A hot water treatment of 48-50 degrees C for 20 minutes was found to delay fungal storage rots in fruits of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars without negatively affecting sensory quality. Fresh-cut slices from fruit of Tainung #2 and Red Lady cultivars were stored at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C and evaluated for changes in physical, chemical and microbial quality over eight days. There was a decline in sensory quality and acceptability of Red Lady papaya slices after four days at both temperatures, while fresh-cut Tainung #2 fruit held at 5 degrees C and 10 degrees C was found to have high sensory quality and acceptability up to six days of storage. A storage temperature of 5 degrees C was more effective than 10 degrees C in reducing CO2 and ethylene accumulation, as well as suppressing microbial growth, while maintaining high sensory quality in fresh-cut papaya slices. Unacceptable microbial counts w
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.

Key words: crop quality, cultivars, fruits, length, sapodillas, weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 19-20.

Abstract: An attempt was made to evaluate sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars based on their fruit characteristics. Twenty-two cultivars, viz. Badam, Badami, Bombay, Calcutta Round, CO1, CO2, Cricket Ball, Dwarapudi, Guruvayya, Gavaraiah, Pilipatti, Gutti, Hybrid, Jhumakiya, Kirtibarti (big), Kirtibarti (long), Krishna Rao, Mohangooti, Oval, Pakala Oval, Seedless and Vavilvalasa, were studied under Bangalore (Karnataka, India) conditions. Fruit weight was maximum in Krishna Rao and least in Pilipatti. The length of the fruit was maximum in CO1. Fruit breadth was maximum in Cricket Ball. Total soluble solid was highest in Kirtibarti (big) and Pakala Oval. The average number of seeds per fruit was least in Guruvayya, Gavaraiah and Pakala Oval. The study indicates that considerable variability exists in the cultivars and there is good scope for breeding varieties for dwarfness or reduced vigour.
Saroj, P L; Tomar, D S; Arora, Y K

Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun (UP) - 248 195, India.

Key words: agroforestry systems, crop yield, income, juvenility, multipurpose trees, peaches, soil depth, survival, toria, trees, trickle irrigation, vigour

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 21-24.

Abstract: The investigation revealed that peach orchard can be raised successfully even on degraded land by adopting site specific agrotechnique. The porous profile with only 60 cm top soil depth (T3) favoured better vegetative vigour of peach plants as compared to those sites having soil only throughout the profile (T4 and T5). The drip system of irrigation had good response on plant survival but overall plant vigour was not influenced much in juvenile peach plants compared to rain fed control under humid subtropical climate. Introduction of urd (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. T-9) in kharif and toria (Brassica campestris [B. campestris var. toria] cv. Pant-303) in rabi season was a compatible combination with peach plantation but growing of annual crops particularly rabi season crop was uneconomical on highly gravely sites (80% gravels distributed throughout profiles-T2). The yield of groundstorey crops were affected by rainfall distribution pattern during crop growing period coupled with canopy cover of the overstorey compo
Asamenew, M T; Narayanaswamy, P

Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Key words: adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, callus, culture media, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, kinetin, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 25-27.

Abstract: Callus cultures were initiated from the shoot tip explants of aseptically grown C. forskohlii. A rapid initiation and proliferation of callus was obtained in MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 1.5 BAP [benzyladenine] mg/l. Adventitious shoots (17.33) were obtained from compact greenish callus on passage to MS basal medium containing various concentrations and combination of IAA and kinetin. But, the best response was in the medium containing 1.0 mg IAA/l and 2.0 mg kinetin/l. On further subculturing of individual shoots onto hormone-free MS medium, shoots developed into normal plantlets.
Srivastava, R K; Sandhu, A S; Neeru Sood

Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: benzyladenine, callus, culture media, cytokinins, epicotyls, explants, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, limes, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoot tip culture, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 28-30.

Abstract: Callus was induced from different explants of in vitro raised seedlings of C. aurantifolia to study the response of explants and medium composition on frequency of callusing and to develop reliable protocol for high frequency of plant regeneration from callus cultures. Shoot tip, epicotyl and hypocotyl were found superior explants for callusing in terms of amount of callusing, days to callus and callus induction frequency. Addition of cytokinin was found indispensable for regeneration and MS medium enriched with BAP [benzyladenine] (5 mg/l) resulted in highest per cent of callus regeneration. Regenerants were rooted in vitro and hardened in plastic pots containing autoclaved soil.
Singh, D B; Suryanarayana, M A; Attri, B L

Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, India.

Key words: ascorbic acid, chemical composition, cultivars, plant composition, postharvest physiology, reducing sugars, ripening, sapodillas, storage, storage life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 31-33.

Abstract: Various chemical changes were studied during ripening of four sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) cultivars, viz. Cricket Ball, Ever Bearer, Bangalore Giant and Calcutta Round, at ambient temperature (25-30 degrees C) and relative humidity of 70-90%. Significant changes during storage were recorded in physico-chemical constituents of all the cultivars studied. The ripening process started first in Ever Bearer and its total soluble solid contents, total sugars, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid accumulation declined after 4 days. All the cultivars had a storage life of 6 days whereas Ever Bearer could only be stored for 2 days at ambient temperature.
Darshana Nand

C-67, Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar, Allahabad - 211 016, India.

Key words: anthers, dehiscence, flowering, flowers, fruit set, fruiting, fruits, hermaphroditism, inflorescences, panicles, pollen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 34-36.

Abstract: Studies were undertaken on the flowering biology and bearing behaviour of hog-plum (Spondais pinnata [Spondias pinnata]). Well-established trees of hog-plum varieties 'oval' and 'round', growing within the premises of Government Gardens, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, were used. The studies were conducted with special reference to the variety 'oval'. The trees bore pure panicles at the terminal end of last years growth. The flowering took place on naked shoots with the advent of the spring season. Flowers opened during odd hours and anthers dehisced with the opening of flowers. The structure and shape of the inflorescence were similar to mango. Flowers were observed as hermaphrodites numbering 1829.4 per panicle. Pollen grains were dusty. The initial percentage set under natural open pollination was very good (71.29%) compared to very nominal set in mango. Thirty-five fruits per panicle reached final maturity.
Shukla, A K; Pathak, R K; Tiwari, R P; Vishal Nath

N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) 224 229, India.

Key words: calcium, canopy, chemical composition, farmyard manure, growth, leaves, magnesium, mineral content, mulches, mulching, nitrogen, nutrient content, phosphorus, plant composition, plant height, polyethylene, potassium, rice, rice straw, straw, trickle irrig

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 37-38.

Abstract: In a field experiment conducted in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-96, the effect of irrigation and mulching on growth of aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cv. NA 7 was investigated. The treatment comprised 3 irrigations (daily drip irrigation, alternate day drip irrigation and conventional surface irrigation by basin method) and different types of mulching materials, i.e. 200 guage black polyethylene, 8-cm thick farmyard manure (FYM), paddy straw, grass, and unmulched control. Plant height, canopy spread and stock girth were significantly better under alternate day drip irrigation over conventional method. Among mulching treatments, black polyethylene was the most effective mulch material however, among organic mulches paddy straw was the best for the same parameters. Leaf nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) was maximum in alternate day drip irrigation and minimum under conventional method. Among mulching treatments, the maximum P, K, Ca and Mg values were found in FYM whereas,
Dag, A; Gazit, S

The Kennedy-Leigh Centre for Horticultural Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Key words: crop yield, honey bees, mangoes, open pollination, pollination, pollinators

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 39-43.

Abstract: Effective insect pollination is essential for good fruit set and yield in mango (Mangifera indica). Insects visiting mango bloom were collected for 3 years (1994-96) in 10 commercial orchards located in all major mango-growing areas in Israel. Forty-six distinct species or types (not identified to the species level) were found; most belonged to the orders Diptera (26), Hymenoptera (12) and Coleoptera (6). The following species played a significant role in mango pollination in most orchards: two blow flies (Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata); the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the housefly (Musca domestica). Found in only one or two orchards, in medium to large numbers, were: the hover fly Episyrphus balfeatus, the wasp Bembecinus tridens, and two beetles, Cantharis atropoveolatus and Omophlus syriacus. The effectiveness of 12 pollinators was assessed in one orchard. Blow flies were found to be as effective as the honeybee, whereas the housefly was less so. Yield of small caged 'Keitt' mango trees was min
Kishun, R; Rajan, S

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: antibiotics, cluster analysis, detection, genotypes, geographical distribution, growth, mangoes, pathogenicity, plant pathogenic bacteria, plant pathogens, strains

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 44-46.

Abstract: Nineteen X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae strains collected from different ecogeographical areas/mango genotypes of India were studied to confirm the existence of variability in the strains on the basis of their pathogenicity on genotypes (9), reaction towards antibiotics (9) and growth on culture media (5). Study revealed the existence of variability in Xcmi strains as exhibited by their differential reaction. The similarity in Xcmi strains was observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Clustering pattern on these three detection methods indicated that the grouping of strains is not entirely based on their geographical distribution as the strains from northern and southern parts of India falls in a single cluster. However, the strains collected from Bihar exhibited more similarity with each other and clustered in one or nearby cluster in all the detection methods used.

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