Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural
Abstract: Tomato (L. esculentum Mill), a popular vegetable in tropics is an excellent source for vitamin A, C, carotenoids and other health related components. It tops the list of industrial crops because of its outstanding processing qualities. It is valued for both its fresh and processed forms. Biochemical analysis in different wild species, varieties and hybrids of tomato showed the wild species, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA 1593 to be a rich source for lycopene specific genes. Partial cDNA of lycopene specific Phytoene desaturase gene TNAU P was isolated from L. pimpinellifolium LA 1593 by RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis of the partial cDNA showed 99.6% similarity with already available Phytoene desaturase gene from L. esculentum. Also, the sequence showed considerable homology with Phytoene dehydrogenase, Zeta carotene desaturase and Phytoene desaturase genes from Gentian, Oryza, Momardica, citrus and pea. The high intensity of the amplified product in L. pimpinellifolium coupled with 99.6 % homology to L. esculentum inferred that the level of expression of Phytoene desaturase is more in L. pimpinellifolium. Isolation of Phytoene desaturase genes can be further exploited to produce transgenic plants with increased content of lycopene by transferring the genes from wild species to cultivars.
Sanjeev Sharma; Dohroo, N P
Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.) - 173 230, India.
Abstract: Seven species of VAM fungi were found associated with ginger rhizosphere in Himachal Pradesh, India. They included Glomus mosseae, G. caledonium, G. pulvinatum, Acaulospora laevis, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora albida and Scutellospora minuta. Among the different VAM fungi species, frequency of Glomus species was maximum. The morphological characters of these VAM fungi are described.
Dinesh, M R
Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to determine the presence of reciprocal effects and to assess the parents best suited for the transfer of desirable characters in commercial cultivars of mango. The cultivars Alphonso, Banganapalli, Neelum, Kalapadi and Janardhan Pasand were utilized for crossing, including reciprocals. The F1 intervarietal progenies of the combinations Alphonso x Banganapalli, Alphonso x Neelum, Alphonso x Kalapadi and Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand were evaluated for different characters, i.e. fruit weight, fruit volume, total soluble solids (TSS), skin weight, stone weight and pulp percentage. The study showed that non-additive variance controls the characters. Heritability was low and the chances of hybrid vigour manifesting for the characters in the F1 generation were high. Selection of progenies can be made based on fruit size, i.e. medium-sized fruits will have good TSS and big-sized fruits will decrease this character. For the characters studied, the phenotypic coeffic
Vandna Pandey; Ahmed, Z; Narendra Kumar
Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India.
Abstract: Eight inbred lines of cabbage, namely Sel-2, Sel-3, Sel-4, Sel-1, Sel-36 Sector, Sel-6, Sel-5 and Sel-7, were crossed in all possible combinations (excluding reciprocals), and the 28 F1s along with their parents were planted in September 2001 in Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India. Sel-1 x Sel-36 Sector was identified as the best among all combinations, having significant hybrid vigour (heterosis) for biological yield, head weight, net weight of head and head size index.
L' ubomir, H
Slovak Water Management Enterprise, S.P., Irrigation and Drainage Branch Office, Vrakunska 29, 82563, Bratislava 211, Slovakia.
Abstract: Experiments were conducted during 1999 and 2000 in Bratislava, Slovak Republic to evaluate the effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on the quality of apple cultivars Gala, Jonagold and Idared. The treatments were: (A) liquid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (B) liquid fertilizer (120 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (C) solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) with irrigation; and (K) control, solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) without irrigation (atmospheric precipitation only). An increased rate of N (120 kg/ha) resulted in bigger shares of Selective and Class I grade fruits. A similar effect was produced by drip irrigation and typical response of individual cultivars was confirmed. In 1999, the share of Selective grade fruits by Gala was 93.3% in the non-irrigated treatment, which declined to 39.59% in the following year. An increased rate of N and
Takayuki Inokuma, Tomoyuki Kinouchi and Shigeru Satoh
Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan. Present address: GraduateSchool of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.
Abstract: 'Lillipot' carnation, which is usually cultivated as a potted ornamental, was transformed with a cDNA for carnation 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Two lines, which harbor an sACO transgene, had a vase life of cut flowers more than twice longer than that of the non-transformed (NT) control. Flowers of the long vase life lines senesced with discoloring and browning in petal margins, which is typical to ethylene-independent senescence in carnation flowers. They produced negligible amount of ethylene for the first 8 day, whereas flowers of the NT control showed a climacteric ethylene production with a maximum on day 3. Transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 were absent in petals of the long vase life flowers undergoing senescence. The present study revealed that transformation with sACO transgene may be useful to generate potted carnation plants with a long display time.
Tetsuro Nishimura, Naoka Hashimoto, Sayed M. A. Zobayed and Eiji Goto
Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, Japan.
Abstract: Hypericin and pseudohypericin are the major bioactive constituents of floral parts of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. The principle objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of blue, blue and red mixed, and red light on flowering time and concentration of hypericin, pseudohypericin and hyperforin in the floral tissues of H. perforatum plants. The results revealed that red light promoted flowering and production of the three major medicinal components, indicating the influence of spectral characteristics of light on flowering of H. perforatum plants. Spectral quality of light was found to be an important factor in controlling the flowering of H. perforatum plants.
Fageria, M S; Preeti Khandelwal; Dhaka, R S
Post-harvest Technology Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329, India.
Key words: ascorbic acid, blanching, carbohydrates, chemical composition, crop quality, fruits, maturity stage, organoleptic traits, plant composition, protein content, sulfitation
Abstract: Fruits of lehsua (Cordia myxa) were harvested at 3 different maturity stages (25, 35 and 45 days after fruit set) from plants grown in Jobner, Rajasthan, India, during 2000/01 and 2001/02. Blanching and sulfitation treatments of the fruits indicated that the drying ratio, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were higher in mature fruits, while rehydration ratio was higher in immature fruits. Ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were significantly higher when fruits were blanched for 3 minutes with 0.3% KMS. In general, harvesting at 45 days after fruit set and blanching for 3 min with 0.3% KMS resulted in better quality of sun dried fruits of lehsua.
Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L. Thomas and Melissa B. Riley
Department of Horticulture, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0375 USA; Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, SC 29414-5332 USA; Department of Packaging Sciences, Clemson University. Clemson, USA; Department of Plant Pathology and Physiol
Key words: Asteraceae, feverfew, Tanacetum parthenium, time of harvest, water stress, parthenolide, phenolics
Abstract: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip., Asteraceae) products have shown high variability in the market. The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental factors affect the composition of key phytochemicals in feverfew. Plants of feverfew were exposed to water stress in greenhouse and commercial field conditions. The highest yield of parthenolide (PRT) was found in plants that received reduced-water regimes. Phenolics concentration was higher in plants grown under adequate-water conditions. The effect of time of harvest on PRT concentration and phenolics content was also investigated. Increased PRT was found during afternoon hours whereas total phenolic compounds decreased during the photoperiod and increased at night. When plants were exposed to artificial light during night hours, the phenolics content remained low. Our results revealed that manipulating the environment to favour increased accumulation of PRT resulted in a decline of phenolics content in feverfew. These findings have implications on standardization of herbal products.
Gawankar, M S; Devmore, J P; Jamadagni, B M; Sagvekar, V V; Khan, H H
Agricultural Research Station, Mulde. Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharastra - 416 520, India.
Key words: crop yield, growth, inflorescences, leaves, oil palms, plant water relations, stems, water stress
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted from 1993/94 to 1998/99 in Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India to evaluate the effect of water stress on the growth and yield of Tenera oil palm [Elaeis guineensis]. Intermittent water stress (rainfed) reduced fresh fruit bunches yield by 88.46% compared with the non-stressed treatment (irrigated). Leaf production was reduced by 30% in the early growth phase and by 12.5% in the later growth phase due to water stress. Stem growth was reduced by 49.1% due to water stress. Production of male inflorescences was least affected, but female inflorescences were reduced by 86% under intermittent water stress. This resulted in more than 91% reduction in the number of fresh fruit bunches and ultimately caused 88.46% reduction in fresh fruit bunches yield.
Muthusamy Manoharan, Sharmin Khan and James O. Garner
Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, AR 71601, USA.
Abstract: Cowpea is a highly recalcitrant nutrient-rich leguminous vegetable crop. Efforts to genetically transform cowpea with insect-resistant genes remains a challenging task due to lack of an efficient regeneration system. We have established an efficient regeneration system in cowpea through shoot meristem. Shoot meristems were isolated from embryos that were precultured for 3-5 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 8.9 uM benzylaminopurine (BA). The isolated shoot meristems were cultured on MS medium containing 0.89 uM BA. After 3-4 weeks, multiple shoots were separated from the explant and cultured on half-strength MS medium for elongation and rooting. More than 90% of the regenerants formed roots. The rooted plantlets were transferred first to peat pellets and subsequently to the greenhouse. The plants were allowed to flower and set seed. The efficiency of regeneration in all four cultivars ranged from 76-87%, demonstrating a significant improvement over the published protocols (1-32%). At least six to seven plantlets were obtained from each meristem. The protocol using shoot meristems is simple, efficient, rapid and genotype-independent and may be amenable for transformation through particle bombardment.
Pareek, S; Dhaka, R S
Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Jobner - 303 329, India.
Abstract: Ten-year-old plants of 8 commercial cultivars of Ziziphus mauritiana (Gola, Seb, Umran, Mundia, Illaichi, Tikadi, Jogiya and Bagwadi) and 3 local selections of Z. rotundifolia [Z. nummularia] (Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) were evaluated in Jobner, Rajasthan, India. Correlation and path coefficients were assessed for 13 yield attributes, i.e. duration of flowering, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone weight, stone length, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity, fruit yield and harvest duration. Fruit set, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity and harvest duration had significant positive correlation with fruit yield. Fruit length had the highest direct positive effect on fruit yield, followed by fruit weight and fruit breadth.
Pradeep Kumar; Singh, H K; Saxena, R P
Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India.
Key words: carbendazim, chemical control, copper oxychloride, disease resistance, fungal diseases, fungicides, germplasm, mancozeb, neem extracts, non wood forest products, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens
Abstract: Forty ber (Zizyphus mauritiana [Ziziphus mauritiana]) accessions, grown in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, were screened against black leaf spot disease (caused by Isariopsis indica var. ziziphi) during 1997-98 to 1999-2000 to determine the resistant source(s) for crop improvement. Tikri during 1997-98 and 1999-2000; Seedless during 1998-99; and ZG-3 during 1999-2000 were found immune. Guli, Seedless and Ber selection-5 during 1997-98; Guli, Darackhi-2, Ber selection-2, 3, 4 and 5 during 1998-99; and Jalandher, Kali, Bagwadi, Banarasi Peondi, Illaichi, Villaiti, Sanour-3, Chhohara, Katha, Seedless, Darakhi-2 and Ber selection-5 during 1999-2000 were found resistant. Other accessions showed moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against the disease. An experiment on the management of the disease was conducted with ber cv. Gola (a susceptible cultivar). Single spraying of fungicides (0.1% carbendazim, 0.2% mancozeb and 0.2% copper oxychloride) and 3.0% neem [Azadirachta indica] powder (Nimuri) at 10 lit
A. Nookaraju, S.M Barreto and D.C. Agrawal
Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India
Abstract: Grapevine genotypes differ in tissue culture requirements and thus require optimized culture conditions for in vitro propagation. Single node segments of Crimson Seedless cultured on six different basal media i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS), Eriksson (ER), Gamborg (B5), Nitsch and Nitsch (NN), Woody plant medium (WPM) and Chee and Pool (C2d) showed different percentage of shoot initiation and morphogenetic responses. The maximum shoot initiation (90.0%) was observed in MS medium. Except ER, all other media induced rooting at the base of nodal segments in varying percentages though number and quality of roots and their establishment on transfer to pots varied greatly. WPM induced the maximum rooting in nodal segments (69.1%) with establishment rate of 100.0%. Induction of multiple shoots in nodal segments was achieved on inclusion of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (8.87 uM) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (1.48 uM) in the MS medium. In second sub-culture i.e., at 90 days, shoot bud proliferation could be increased many fold on transfer of these initial shoot clumps to glass bottles instead of culture tubes. The maximum average number of primary shoots (19.5 per explant) was achieved on MS with BA (8.87 uM) and IBA (1.48 uM). Elongation of shoots was achieved on MS with BA (2.22 uM) + a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.54 uM). Induction of ex vitro rooting and establishment of rooted shoots after transfer to pots was achieved in different efficiencies when shoots were given pulse treatment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or IBA or NAA at 57.08, 49.0 and 53.71 uM, respectively, for 5 or 10 min. Survival of in vitro and ex vitro-rooted shoots on potting was 90.0 and 100.0%, respectively.
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Katiyar, R S; Deepak Ohri
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: Eight exotic genotypes of Chenopodium quinoa were sown on normal and sodic soils in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2000-01 to compare the grain yield potential, variability and genetic association among the different component traits (plant height, stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, inflorescence length and dry weight of plant) and their direct and indirect effects on yield. High heritability and moderate genetic advance was observed for inflorescence length and grain yield on sodic soil and for stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, dry weight of plant and inflorescence length on normal soil. Stem diameter and number of inflorescence per plant exhibited high direct path (0.837 and 0.761, respectively) and significant positive association (0.979 and 0.967, respectively) with grain yield on sodic soil, while dry weight of plant showed high correlation (0.889) and direct path (0.972) with grain yield on normal soil. The bre