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Suleiman, M K; Bhat, N R; Bellen, R R

Aridland Agriculture and Greenery Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.

Key words: canopy, drought, growth, irrigation, ornamental plants, plant height, plant water relations, rosemary, water stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 96-99.

Abstract: To promote efficient use of expensive water resource as well as to maintain soil productivity and health in Kuwait, it is important to ascertain plant performance with regard to different irrigation regimes. A study was conducted to determine the effects of induced water stress on the growth and greenery impact of four ornamental plants, namely Vitex agnus-castus, Caesalpinia mexicana, Myoporum parvifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis, grown under the harsh arid climate of Kuwait. Acclimatized plants of these species were planted in Salmiya in July 2002. Plants were subjected to water stress by irrigating them at the rate of 25, 50 or 100% of the daily evapotranspiration rates during that month (3.75, 7.5 or 15.0 mm/d). The irrigation was adjusted according to average monthly ET rates. Growth and visual greenery impact data were recorded at weekly intervals during the first 87 days after planting and then at monthly intervals. Soil moisture was determined at weekly intervals using field tensiometers and oven-dr
Pardo, A; Juan, J A de; Pardo, J E

Centro de Investigacion, Experimentacion y Servicios del Champinon (CIES), C/ Penicas s/n, Apartado 8, E-16220 Quintanar del Rey, Cuenca, Spain.

Key words: casing, composts, crop yield, earliness, edible fungi, fructification, mushrooms, peat, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 11-15.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of composted vine shoots (as alternative to peat) as casing material in the cultivation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The effect of scratching on the suitability of the casing materials based on peat and vine shoots was also examined. The treatments consisted of scratched and non-scratched soil + sphagnum peat (S+SP, 4:1 v/v), soil + black peat (S+BP, 4:1 v/v) and soil + composted vine shoots (S+CV, 4:1 v/v). Based on the main production parameters measured (number of mushrooms produced, unitary weight, yield and earliness), composted vine shoots performed similarly to peat-based casing materials. However, the possibilities of using composted vine shoots are limited due to the appearance of spots caused by Trichoderma spp. on the fruit bodies. Scratching created an open structure in the casing layer to enable uniform and abundant fructification. In general, for the different casing types, scratching had a positive effect on fructification. This practice ind
A. Tazuke, P. Boonkorkaew, S. Hikosaka and N. Sugiyama

College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami, Ibaraki, 300-0393, Japan, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.

Key words: Cucumber, gynoecious cultivar, fruit growth, fruit abortion, pollination, relative growth rate

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 15-19.

Abstract: Fruit growth of the gynoecious cucumber 'NK x AN8' was measured non-destructively to clarify whether the presence of fruit at lower nodes caused the abortion of fruit at upper nodes. When only one fruit per plant was allowed to grow, fruit growth could be divided into two phases: slow exponential and fast exponential. Phase change from slow to fast occurred when cumulative temperatures (CTs) after anthesis reached 38 and 54?C d for pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit, respectively. The CT was calculated as the sum of the differences between daily temperatures and 5?C. When fruit at nodes 4 and above were allowed to grow, the first growth phase was prolonged. Furthermore, parthenocarpic fruit aborted frequently when the sum of the relative growth rate (RGR) with respect to the CT (the sum of RGRs) for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. Pollination with pollen of the monoecious cucumber '028' strongly suppressed fruit abortion; a large number of fruits could develop to a commercial size even when the sum of RGRs for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. These results suggested that fruit abortion is more related to the existence of actively growing fruit than to the absolute amount of dry mass accumulation in the fruit.
Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S K; Suchitra ; Singh, K P

Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.

Key words: 8 hydroxyquinoline citrate, aluminium sulfate, cold storage, crop quality, cut flower preservatives, cut flowers, fragrance, silver thiosulfate, storage life, storage quality, sucrose, vase life, water uptake

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 16-20.

Abstract: The effects of different pulsing treatments, i.e. 10% sucrose + 250 ppm aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) for 12 h, 10% sucrose + 0.5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 12 h and 8% sucrose + 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) for 12 h, and durations of cold storage, i.e. 4 and 5 days, on the cut spikes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double were studied. Pulsing and cold storage improved the postharvest life and quality of tuberose cut flowers. Pulsing with 10% sucrose + 250 ppm Al2(SO4)3for 12 h and cold storage of cut spikes for 4 days was the best treatment combination for rachis length, delay in wilting of first, third and last opened floret pair, extension of useful life, retention of fragrance, water uptake, opening of florets, increase in diameter and length of first, third and last opened floret pair, and vase life. This treatment also recorded the maximum vase life of 8.90 days.
R.N. Kulkarni, K. Baskaran and Y Sreevalli

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Resource Centre, Allalasandra, Bangalore 560 065, India.

Key words: Catharanthus roseus, ornamental plant, medicinal plant, corolla colour, inheritance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 20-23.

Abstract: In periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), pink, white and red-eyed (white corolla with red centre) are three common corolla colours, which are due to epistatic interaction between two genes R and W. Violet corolla, which is not found commonly in natural populations, is reported to be due to another gene B which blues the pigment in pink genotypes (R- W-). Recently, another gene O and its allele Om have been reported to determine two uncommon corolla colours, orange-red and magenta corolla, respectively. Since, the relationship between genes determining violet, orange-red and magenta corolla was not known, a strain possessing violet corolla and white eye (VI) was crossed with strains possessing orange-red corolla and white eye (OR) and magenta corolla and white eye (MJ-1) to study: (i) the relationship between genes involved in the production of violet, orange-red and magenta corolla, (ii) to study the possibility of producing novel corolla colours and (iii) to determine the validity of the gene interaction models proposed earlier. The F1 plants of both crosses, VI x OR and VI x MJ-1, had violet corolla. The F2 generation of the cross VI x OR segregated into plants with (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) orange-red corolla, and (iv) white corolla in the ratio of 45:12:3:4, while the progeny of the backcross F1 x OR segregated into three types of plants, (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, and (iii) orange-red corolla in the ratio of 2:1:1. The F2 generation of the cross VI x MJ-1 segregated into five kinds of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) magenta corolla, (iv) rose corolla, and (v) white corolla in the ratio of 144:48:12:36:16, while the progeny of the backcross, F1 x MJ-1 segregated into four types of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) magenta corolla, (iii) rose corolla and (iv) pink corolla in the ratio of 1:1:1:1. The results suggested that genes involved B, R, W, O/Om and J were inherited independently and that the gene B blued the corolla pigment in B-RRwwO- genotypes but not in B-RRwwOm-jj and B-RRwwOm-JJ genotypes. No new corolla colours were observed in the studied crosses due to the interaction between genes governing violet, orange-red and magenta corolla. The observed segregation for different corolla colours in the studied crosses was same as that expected from independent segregation and known interactions between the genes involved, validating the earlier proposed models.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Key words: boron, chemical composition, iron, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, plant composition, plant nutrition, rhizomes, turmeric, zinc

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 21-24.

Abstract: The optimum levels for nutrients in the rhizomes of turmeric were generated by Critical Value Approach (CVA), Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutritional Diagnosis (CND). Approximately 500 soil and rhizome samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS for rhizomes, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 17% of the turmeric growing area was limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 23% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS.
E. Hemaprabha and R. Balasaraswathi

Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural

Key words: Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, Phytoene desaturase, RT-PCR, lycopene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 24-29.

Abstract: Tomato (L. esculentum Mill), a popular vegetable in tropics is an excellent source for vitamin A, C, carotenoids and other health related components. It tops the list of industrial crops because of its outstanding processing qualities. It is valued for both its fresh and processed forms. Biochemical analysis in different wild species, varieties and hybrids of tomato showed the wild species, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA 1593 to be a rich source for lycopene specific genes. Partial cDNA of lycopene specific Phytoene desaturase gene TNAU P was isolated from L. pimpinellifolium LA 1593 by RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis of the partial cDNA showed 99.6% similarity with already available Phytoene desaturase gene from L. esculentum. Also, the sequence showed considerable homology with Phytoene dehydrogenase, Zeta carotene desaturase and Phytoene desaturase genes from Gentian, Oryza, Momardica, citrus and pea. The high intensity of the amplified product in L. pimpinellifolium coupled with 99.6 % homology to L. esculentum inferred that the level of expression of Phytoene desaturase is more in L. pimpinellifolium. Isolation of Phytoene desaturase genes can be further exploited to produce transgenic plants with increased content of lycopene by transferring the genes from wild species to cultivars.
Sanjeev Sharma; Dohroo, N P

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.) - 173 230, India.

Key words: endomycorrhizas, fungal morphology, ginger, mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizas, rhizosphere, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 25-26.

Abstract: Seven species of VAM fungi were found associated with ginger rhizosphere in Himachal Pradesh, India. They included Glomus mosseae, G. caledonium, G. pulvinatum, Acaulospora laevis, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora albida and Scutellospora minuta. Among the different VAM fungi species, frequency of Glomus species was maximum. The morphological characters of these VAM fungi are described.
Dinesh, M R

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: crop quality, crosses, cultivars, fruits, genetic variance, genetic variation, heritability, heterosis, mangoes, phenotypic variation, reciprocal effects

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 27-28.

Abstract: A study was conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to determine the presence of reciprocal effects and to assess the parents best suited for the transfer of desirable characters in commercial cultivars of mango. The cultivars Alphonso, Banganapalli, Neelum, Kalapadi and Janardhan Pasand were utilized for crossing, including reciprocals. The F1 intervarietal progenies of the combinations Alphonso x Banganapalli, Alphonso x Neelum, Alphonso x Kalapadi and Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand were evaluated for different characters, i.e. fruit weight, fruit volume, total soluble solids (TSS), skin weight, stone weight and pulp percentage. The study showed that non-additive variance controls the characters. Heritability was low and the chances of hybrid vigour manifesting for the characters in the F1 generation were high. Selection of progenies can be made based on fruit size, i.e. medium-sized fruits will have good TSS and big-sized fruits will decrease this character. For the characters studied, the phenotypic coeffic
Vandna Pandey; Ahmed, Z; Narendra Kumar

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: cabbages, crop yield, crosses, heterosis, inbred lines, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 29-31.

Abstract: Eight inbred lines of cabbage, namely Sel-2, Sel-3, Sel-4, Sel-1, Sel-36 Sector, Sel-6, Sel-5 and Sel-7, were crossed in all possible combinations (excluding reciprocals), and the 28 F1s along with their parents were planted in September 2001 in Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal, India. Sel-1 x Sel-36 Sector was identified as the best among all combinations, having significant hybrid vigour (heterosis) for biological yield, head weight, net weight of head and head size index.
L' ubomir, H

Slovak Water Management Enterprise, S.P., Irrigation and Drainage Branch Office, Vrakunska 29, 82563, Bratislava 211, Slovakia.

Key words: apples, application rates, buds, chemical properties, crop quality, crop yield, cultivars, fertigation, fruits, nitrogen fertilizers, NPK fertilizers, physical properties, sensory evaluation, trickle irrigation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 3-6.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted during 1999 and 2000 in Bratislava, Slovak Republic to evaluate the effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on the quality of apple cultivars Gala, Jonagold and Idared. The treatments were: (A) liquid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (B) liquid fertilizer (120 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) combined with irrigation (fertigation); (C) solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) with irrigation; and (K) control, solid fertilizer (80 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 125 kg K2O/ha) without irrigation (atmospheric precipitation only). An increased rate of N (120 kg/ha) resulted in bigger shares of Selective and Class I grade fruits. A similar effect was produced by drip irrigation and typical response of individual cultivars was confirmed. In 1999, the share of Selective grade fruits by Gala was 93.3% in the non-irrigated treatment, which declined to 39.59% in the following year. An increased rate of N and
Takayuki Inokuma, Tomoyuki Kinouchi and Shigeru Satoh

Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan. Present address: GraduateSchool of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

Key words: ACC oxidase gene (DC-ACO1), Dianthus caryophyllus, ethylene biosynthesis, flower senescence, potted carnation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: 'Lillipot' carnation, which is usually cultivated as a potted ornamental, was transformed with a cDNA for carnation 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Two lines, which harbor an sACO transgene, had a vase life of cut flowers more than twice longer than that of the non-transformed (NT) control. Flowers of the long vase life lines senesced with discoloring and browning in petal margins, which is typical to ethylene-independent senescence in carnation flowers. They produced negligible amount of ethylene for the first 8 day, whereas flowers of the NT control showed a climacteric ethylene production with a maximum on day 3. Transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 were absent in petals of the long vase life flowers undergoing senescence. The present study revealed that transformation with sACO transgene may be useful to generate potted carnation plants with a long display time.
Tetsuro Nishimura, Naoka Hashimoto, Sayed M. A. Zobayed and Eiji Goto

Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, Japan.

Key words: perforatum L., artificial light, controlled environment, hyperforin, hypericin, long-day plant, St. John's wort

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 30-35.

Abstract: Hypericin and pseudohypericin are the major bioactive constituents of floral parts of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. The principle objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of blue, blue and red mixed, and red light on flowering time and concentration of hypericin, pseudohypericin and hyperforin in the floral tissues of H. perforatum plants. The results revealed that red light promoted flowering and production of the three major medicinal components, indicating the influence of spectral characteristics of light on flowering of H. perforatum plants. Spectral quality of light was found to be an important factor in controlling the flowering of H. perforatum plants.
Fageria, M S; Preeti Khandelwal; Dhaka, R S

Post-harvest Technology Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329, India.

Key words: ascorbic acid, blanching, carbohydrates, chemical composition, crop quality, fruits, maturity stage, organoleptic traits, plant composition, protein content, sulfitation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 32-38.

Abstract: Fruits of lehsua (Cordia myxa) were harvested at 3 different maturity stages (25, 35 and 45 days after fruit set) from plants grown in Jobner, Rajasthan, India, during 2000/01 and 2001/02. Blanching and sulfitation treatments of the fruits indicated that the drying ratio, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were higher in mature fruits, while rehydration ratio was higher in immature fruits. Ascorbic acid, protein and carbohydrate contents, and organoleptic score were significantly higher when fruits were blanched for 3 minutes with 0.3% KMS. In general, harvesting at 45 days after fruit set and blanching for 3 min with 0.3% KMS resulted in better quality of sun dried fruits of lehsua.
Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L. Thomas and Melissa B. Riley

Department of Horticulture, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0375 USA; Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, SC 29414-5332 USA; Department of Packaging Sciences, Clemson University. Clemson, USA; Department of Plant Pathology and Physiol

Key words: Asteraceae, feverfew, Tanacetum parthenium, time of harvest, water stress, parthenolide, phenolics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 36-39.

Abstract: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip., Asteraceae) products have shown high variability in the market. The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental factors affect the composition of key phytochemicals in feverfew. Plants of feverfew were exposed to water stress in greenhouse and commercial field conditions. The highest yield of parthenolide (PRT) was found in plants that received reduced-water regimes. Phenolics concentration was higher in plants grown under adequate-water conditions. The effect of time of harvest on PRT concentration and phenolics content was also investigated. Increased PRT was found during afternoon hours whereas total phenolic compounds decreased during the photoperiod and increased at night. When plants were exposed to artificial light during night hours, the phenolics content remained low. Our results revealed that manipulating the environment to favour increased accumulation of PRT resulted in a decline of phenolics content in feverfew. These findings have implications on standardization of herbal products.

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