Abstract: Effects of seed sterilization, storage time, and temperature as well as extent of seeding survival and establishment under glasshouse versus nursery conditions were studied for E. kebericho. Seeds sterilized for 9 and 5 minutes in 70 % ethanol and in 10% sodium hypochlorite, respectively, germinated best (95.2 ? 1.2%) on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 10 g L-1 phytoagar. Further increases or decreases in sterilization time decreased germination percentage and increased contamination, respectively. Unsterilized seeds (control) were completely contaminated before the emergence of radicle as a result of fungal growth. Seed germination percentage declined with increasing storage time and dropped from 94.6 ? 0.4 % to 32.2 ? 1.2% in 15 months. 25 oC was an optimal temperature for best germination (94.6 ? 2.4%) of seeds. Seeds sown in pots containing a mixture of sand, nursery soil, and animal manure in a ratio of 0.5: 2.5: 0.5 respectively, germinated significantly (P< 0.05) compared to other soil ratios. Increase in sand or animal manure ratios decreased germination, while increase in nursery soil increased percentage and rate of germination. High percentage (96.0 ? 0.5%) germination was obtained with the seeds sown in nursery soil-surface mixed additives compared with the control. Seedlings of nursery bed origin survived best compared to those in vitro or pot origin seedlings. Ultimately, seedlings growth with vigorous and orthotropic developmental pattern was obtained under nursery conditions, compared to those in the glasshouse, which showed stunted and plagiotropic developmental pattern. The study found that seeds stored for less than 5 months, and at 25 oC, were the most suitable for in vitro and ex vitro propagation of E. kebericho.
Ang BoonHaw; Chan LaiKeng
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
Key words: benzyladenine, culture media, IBA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, shoots, tissue culture
Abstract: S. acmella [Blainvillea acmella] was successfully micropropagated using axillary buds as explants. The aseptic axillary buds formed multiple shoots within 5 weeks when cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg benzyladenine (BA)/l. The addition of IBA as low as 2 mg/l into the MS medium containing BA had no significant effect on the multiple shoot formation. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg BA/l was sufficient for the proliferation of rooted multiple shoots. First subculturing of the in vitro individual shoots in the same proliferation medium could double the formation of multiple shoots.
Yeshitela, T; Robbertse, P J; Stassen, P J C
Department of Plant Sciences, Alemaya University, P.O. Box 165 Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
Abstract: In a study conducted at Bavaria Estate, Hoedspruit, the northern province of South Africa, the mango cultivars Keitt and Tommy Atkins were subjected to the following treatments over 2 seasons: (1) inflorescence removal at the point of apical bud attachment during full bloom; (2) inflorescence removal together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence (about 5 cm from the tip) during full bloom; (3) removal of 50% of the total inflorescences (every alternate shoot of the tagged branches) together with apical whorl of leaves subtending the inflorescence during full bloom; (4) renewal pruning where 20-30% of termination shoots with weak, misshaped and small fruits were cut back to a suitable node in October; (5) postharvest pruning where termination shoots that had been bearing fruits the previous season were cut back to a suitable node; (6) removal of terminal buds just before bud break; and (7) no pruning treatments (control). Pruning at the point of apical bud attachment induced re-flowering, m
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Mahendran, P P; Ragunath, K P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Abstract: The Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) nutrient index ranges were derived from a Muscat grape database to relate nutrient concentration and indexes with berry yield. A Muscat grape database of 188 observations on commercial yields and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were taken. The proportion of low-yield specimens in the survey population was computed at inflection point of variance ratio function and was associated with a Cate and Nelson statistical value (r2) of 4.7 that was confirmed in the validation subpopulation. Critical CND nutrient indexes were found to be symmetrical about zero as follows: -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/N, -0.39 to +0.39 for CND/P, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/K, -0.93 to +0.93 for CND/Na, -0.45 to +0.45 for CND/Ca, -0.33 to +0.33 for CND/Mg, -0.60 to +0.60 for CND/S, -1.02 to +1.02 for CND/B, -0.58 to +0.58 for CND/Zn, -0.78 to +0.78 for CND/Cu, -0.55 to +0.55 for CND/Fe, -0.16 to +0.16 for CND/Mn and -0.49 to +0.49 for
Saravanan, T; Muthusamy, M; Marimuthu, T
Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilpatti - 628 501, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to develop gamma radiation-induced resistant clones of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Rasthali against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense race-1. Shoot buds of Rasthali irradiated with 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy by using Co60 in a gamma chamber were used for in vitro culture establishment and to develop resistant clones. Shoot buds irradiated with 40 Gy had the maximum shoots per culture and percentage of culture establishment. Other doses of gamma radiation inhibited the culture establishment when compared to the untreated control. The shoots irradiated with 40 Gy were used to develop resistant clones against toxins of race 1. To standardize the concentration of the culture filtrate of the pathogen for the tolerant clone selection, the multiple bud clumps were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2-15% crude culture filtrates. The growth of multiple bud clumps was completely inhibited on the medium containing 10% culture filtrate. In the successive selection, the rate of survival of the plantlets incr
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Deepak Ohri
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2002/03 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India to test the suitability of direct and indirect selection for high foliage yield and quality in Chenopodium album over successive cuttings. Thirteen germplasm lines were evaluated for moisture, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, fibre, protein and ascorbic acid contents and foliage yield. High heritability and moderate to high genetic advance were observed for all characters, except for moisture content, in all cuttings. Chlorophyll a exhibited the highest correlated response for the first and third cuttings, while fibre content exhibited the highest correlated response for the second cutting. A multiple selection index is suggested to enhance foliage yield. The estimates of correlated response and relative selection efficiencies were in proportion with each other although values for the latter were less than one.
Mar?a del R. Moreiraab, Alejandra G. Ponceb, Carlos E. del Vallea, L. Pereyraa and S.I. Rourab
Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Argentina, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET). Argentina.
Abstract: Changes in ascorbic acid contents, microbial population and sensory attributes of cut Romaine lettuce subjected to thermal shocks were investigated. Immersion of cut lettuce in the thermal baths produced reduction in the ascorbic acid contents between 190 and 300 g kg-1, with the greater losses corresponding to the higher bath temperatures. However, the rate of ascorbic acid degradation during refrigerated storage was independent of the thermal treatment and all samples presented a sharp decrease during the first day of storage and a gradual decrease thereafter. Thermal shocks did not reduce the initial microbial population. During storage, an increment in microbial counts was observed, being more notorious in samples that had been exposed to the highest shock temperature (50 ?C). The thermal treatment at 50 ?C was the only one to delay the onset of midrib and edge browning up to four days of refrigerated storage. This midrib and edge browning was considered to the most relevant to the overall visual quality of the product.
Himanish Das; Jayaraman, S; Mahadeva Naika
Food Contaminants Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore - 570 011, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the uptake of carbendazim by 8 fruits and vegetables, i.e. tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), orange (Citrus sinensis), grape (Vitis vinifera), sapota (Achras zapota [Manilkara zapota]) and banana (Musa paradisiaca), dipped in aqueous carbendazim suspension under laboratory conditions. The effect of carbendazim dips on the storage life of apple and tomato was also investigated. The uptake of carbendazim varied significantly, ranging from 68.97+or-2.89 to 813.64+or- 11.46 micro g (mean 342.13 micro g), among the fruits and vegetables. The lowest uptake was recorded in apple, followed by banana, orange, tomato, okra, grape, sapota and carrot. Dip treatments more effectively extended the storage life of tomato than apple and at ambient (32+or-2 degrees C) than at low temperature (7+or-2 degrees C). Dip treatments also decreased the cumulative physiological loss in weight and spoilage of tomato and apple,
L. Andreini and S. Bartolini
Scuola Superiore S. Anna di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento, Piazza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56100 Pisa, Italia.
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the morphological and histochemical evolution of the bud meristems of 'Lavinia' nectarine cultivar. Moreover, the effectiveness of Release LC (a gibberellin chemical compound) in controlling the rate of flower bud differentiation was also evaluated. During a two-year period, the Release LC was applied in postharvest to avoid problems of possible chemical residues on marketable fruits. To determine the effect of treatment, several biological parameters such as initial flower and vegetative bud number, flower bud drop, evolution of the flower bud phenological stages, rate of bloom and fruit set were recorded. To establish the floral differentiation stage, the meristematic apices were collected before and after treatment and microscopically observed. The thin sections were analysed using histological (apex size, developmental stages of meristematic apex, co-axial stage), and histochemical (RNA fluorescent staining) techniques. In 'Lavinia' cv., the critical phase of the meristematic apex evolution occurred from May to June (60 and 90 days after full bloom): the presence of triple apices increased rapidly, the co-axial phase was achieved, the width and height of the meristematic dome increased markedly and the RNA appeared by a weak staining. As regards the flower bud differentiation control by exogenous treatments with Release LC, the different results obtained in our experiments indicate that the efficacy of treatment strictly depends on the growth stage of a meristematic apex.
Suleiman, M K; Bhat, N R; Bellen, R R
Aridland Agriculture and Greenery Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.
Key words: canopy, drought, growth, irrigation, ornamental plants, plant height, plant water relations, rosemary, water stress
Abstract: To promote efficient use of expensive water resource as well as to maintain soil productivity and health in Kuwait, it is important to ascertain plant performance with regard to different irrigation regimes. A study was conducted to determine the effects of induced water stress on the growth and greenery impact of four ornamental plants, namely Vitex agnus-castus, Caesalpinia mexicana, Myoporum parvifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis, grown under the harsh arid climate of Kuwait. Acclimatized plants of these species were planted in Salmiya in July 2002. Plants were subjected to water stress by irrigating them at the rate of 25, 50 or 100% of the daily evapotranspiration rates during that month (3.75, 7.5 or 15.0 mm/d). The irrigation was adjusted according to average monthly ET rates. Growth and visual greenery impact data were recorded at weekly intervals during the first 87 days after planting and then at monthly intervals. Soil moisture was determined at weekly intervals using field tensiometers and oven-dr
Pardo, A; Juan, J A de; Pardo, J E
Centro de Investigacion, Experimentacion y Servicios del Champinon (CIES), C/ Penicas s/n, Apartado 8, E-16220 Quintanar del Rey, Cuenca, Spain.
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of composted vine shoots (as alternative to peat) as casing material in the cultivation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The effect of scratching on the suitability of the casing materials based on peat and vine shoots was also examined. The treatments consisted of scratched and non-scratched soil + sphagnum peat (S+SP, 4:1 v/v), soil + black peat (S+BP, 4:1 v/v) and soil + composted vine shoots (S+CV, 4:1 v/v). Based on the main production parameters measured (number of mushrooms produced, unitary weight, yield and earliness), composted vine shoots performed similarly to peat-based casing materials. However, the possibilities of using composted vine shoots are limited due to the appearance of spots caused by Trichoderma spp. on the fruit bodies. Scratching created an open structure in the casing layer to enable uniform and abundant fructification. In general, for the different casing types, scratching had a positive effect on fructification. This practice ind
A. Tazuke, P. Boonkorkaew, S. Hikosaka and N. Sugiyama
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami, Ibaraki, 300-0393, Japan, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.
Key words: Cucumber, gynoecious cultivar, fruit growth, fruit abortion, pollination, relative growth rate
Abstract: Fruit growth of the gynoecious cucumber 'NK x AN8' was measured non-destructively to clarify whether the presence of fruit at lower nodes caused the abortion of fruit at upper nodes. When only one fruit per plant was allowed to grow, fruit growth could be divided into two phases: slow exponential and fast exponential. Phase change from slow to fast occurred when cumulative temperatures (CTs) after anthesis reached 38 and 54?C d for pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit, respectively. The CT was calculated as the sum of the differences between daily temperatures and 5?C. When fruit at nodes 4 and above were allowed to grow, the first growth phase was prolonged. Furthermore, parthenocarpic fruit aborted frequently when the sum of the relative growth rate (RGR) with respect to the CT (the sum of RGRs) for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. Pollination with pollen of the monoecious cucumber '028' strongly suppressed fruit abortion; a large number of fruits could develop to a commercial size even when the sum of RGRs for fruit at lower nodes exceeded 0.1 g g-1 (?C d)-1. These results suggested that fruit abortion is more related to the existence of actively growing fruit than to the absolute amount of dry mass accumulation in the fruit.
Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S K; Suchitra ; Singh, K P
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: The effects of different pulsing treatments, i.e. 10% sucrose + 250 ppm aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) for 12 h, 10% sucrose + 0.5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 12 h and 8% sucrose + 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) for 12 h, and durations of cold storage, i.e. 4 and 5 days, on the cut spikes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double were studied. Pulsing and cold storage improved the postharvest life and quality of tuberose cut flowers. Pulsing with 10% sucrose + 250 ppm Al2(SO4)3for 12 h and cold storage of cut spikes for 4 days was the best treatment combination for rachis length, delay in wilting of first, third and last opened floret pair, extension of useful life, retention of fragrance, water uptake, opening of florets, increase in diameter and length of first, third and last opened floret pair, and vase life. This treatment also recorded the maximum vase life of 8.90 days.
R.N. Kulkarni, K. Baskaran and Y Sreevalli
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Resource Centre, Allalasandra, Bangalore 560 065, India.
Abstract: In periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), pink, white and red-eyed (white corolla with red centre) are three common corolla colours, which are due to epistatic interaction between two genes R and W. Violet corolla, which is not found commonly in natural populations, is reported to be due to another gene B which blues the pigment in pink genotypes (R- W-). Recently, another gene O and its allele Om have been reported to determine two uncommon corolla colours, orange-red and magenta corolla, respectively. Since, the relationship between genes determining violet, orange-red and magenta corolla was not known, a strain possessing violet corolla and white eye (VI) was crossed with strains possessing orange-red corolla and white eye (OR) and magenta corolla and white eye (MJ-1) to study: (i) the relationship between genes involved in the production of violet, orange-red and magenta corolla, (ii) to study the possibility of producing novel corolla colours and (iii) to determine the validity of the gene interaction models proposed earlier. The F1 plants of both crosses, VI x OR and VI x MJ-1, had violet corolla. The F2 generation of the cross VI x OR segregated into plants with (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) orange-red corolla, and (iv) white corolla in the ratio of 45:12:3:4, while the progeny of the backcross F1 x OR segregated into three types of plants, (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, and (iii) orange-red corolla in the ratio of 2:1:1. The F2 generation of the cross VI x MJ-1 segregated into five kinds of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) pink corolla, (iii) magenta corolla, (iv) rose corolla, and (v) white corolla in the ratio of 144:48:12:36:16, while the progeny of the backcross, F1 x MJ-1 segregated into four types of plants viz., (i) violet corolla, (ii) magenta corolla, (iii) rose corolla and (iv) pink corolla in the ratio of 1:1:1:1. The results suggested that genes involved B, R, W, O/Omand J were inherited independently and that the gene B blued the corolla pigment in B-RRwwO- genotypes but not in B-RRwwOm-jj and B-RRwwOm-JJ genotypes. No new corolla colours were observed in the studied crosses due to the interaction between genes governing violet, orange-red and magenta corolla. The observed segregation for different corolla colours in the studied crosses was same as that expected from independent segregation and known interactions between the genes involved, validating the earlier proposed models.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Key words: boron, chemical composition, iron, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, plant composition, plant nutrition, rhizomes, turmeric, zinc
Abstract: The optimum levels for nutrients in the rhizomes of turmeric were generated by Critical Value Approach (CVA), Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutritional Diagnosis (CND). Approximately 500 soil and rhizome samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS for rhizomes, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 17% of the turmeric growing area was limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 23% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS.