Abstract: This paper discusses the automation or support system for decision making in greenhouses. This automation is practised in the form of a computer program which are governed by setpoints. The choice of setpoints for environmental parameters must be done by a reasoning process integrating the situation outside the greenhouses, and inside situation that will be managed in an advantageous manner ensuring a profitable, though safe combination of growth and development factors while keeping the energy spending within acceptable bounds and as low as possible.
A. Misra and P. Singh
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015, India.
Abstract: Changes in growth attributes, photosynthesis (Pn), photosynthetic pigments with y-Glu.cys peptidase peptide and Zn accumulation in a Zn-efficient genotype of spearmint MSS-5 were investigated. Effect of phosphorus toxicity on MSS-5 were significantly different than the other genotypes; Arka, Neera and control (the local strain), in terems of phenotypic changes in height and a decrease in chlorophyll contents and CO2 exchange rate. Heavy P manuring lead to the tolerance of Zn accumulation in MSS-5 with y-Glu.cys. peptidase peptide with high protein contents and Pn. Hence, the P toxicity induced a differential utilization of y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide for higher accumulation of Zn in MSS-5 spearmint with higher photosynthetic rate for increasing the height and essential monoterpene oil(s). The study also indicated that accumulation of toxic heavy metal-Zn with y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide made protein synthesis easier with antioxidants Zn cofactor enzymes.
Das, A K
National Research Centre for Citrus, Amravati Road, PO Box 464, Nagpur - 440 010, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: Of all the agricultural pests and diseases that threaten citrus crops, citrus canker is one of the most devastating. The disease, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, occurs in large areas of the world's citrus growing countries including India. At least 3 distinct forms or types of citrus canker are recognized. Among these, Asiatic form (Canker A) is the most destructive and affects most of the major citrus cultivars. Severe infection of the disease produces a variety of effects including defoliation, dieback, severely blemished fruit, reduced fruit quality and premature fruit drop. Warm, humid, cloudy climate, along with heavy rainfall and strong wind promotes the disease. Control of canker in countries or regions where the disease is not present include quarantine or regulatory programme to prohibit introduction of infected citrus plant material and fruit, as well as continuous and strict surveying in the field and the immediate destruction of infected trees. In countries where canker
Anthony W. Kahtz
University of Illinois Extension, Mt. Vernon, Illinois
Abstract: Growth of Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) 'Early Amethyst' and Ilex glabra (L.) 'Compacta' liners were evaluated in substrate containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% composted biosolids as compared to a 3:2:1 (v:v:v) pine bark:peat:sand horticultural mix. Biosolid waste substrate amended with biosolids had higher pH, EC, nitrate, bulk density and container capacity compared to a standard horticultural nursery mix. Total porosity and air-filled capacity were greater for the control compared to substrate amended with biosolids. The effects of substrate amended with composted biosolids on growth varied for each species. Callicarpa dichotoma "Early Amethyst' liners grown in substrate amended with 20, 40 and 60% biosolid waste had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to the control. Ilex glabra 'Compacta' liners grown in the control (standard nursery mix) had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to any biosolid amended substrate. It was concluded that substrate amended with biosolid waste can be utilized for the container production of plants, however, its usage may be species specific.
M.M. ElFouly, S.H.A. Shaaban and A.A. ElSayed
Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.
Abstract: The study was conducted for two successive years at a private farm in El-Saf, Giza, Egypt on 19 years old trees of olive cultivars, Picual, Aggizi and Manzanillo, grown in calcareous soils. Leaf nutrients were measured bi-monthly during the 2001-2002 growing season. The study revealed that most of nutrients in the soil were at inadequate level. Nutrient concentrations in the leaves of the three cultivars were nearly the same. Results revealed that leaf N ranged between low to satisfactory. P contents were adequate in spring while inadequate in summer. K leaf contents were adequate. Peaks of Mg were found to be the highest during winter. Ca peaks were observed during March-June. Fe and Zn were inadequate while Mn was adequate. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn peaked during June, which could be due the repeated foliar application of these nutrients during this period. The seasonal nutrient changes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) of the olive leaves are supposed to be used as a guide for proper fertilization. Nutrients should be added as acidic fertilizer to the soil, which is useful in calcareous and high pH conditions.
R. Crofton Sloan and Susan S. Harkness
North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 1690, Verona, MS, 38879, USA.
Key words: Zinnia elegans, zinnia, cut flower, field production
Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and planting date on zinnia (Zinnia elegans)cut flower production. Parameters evaluated were the number of days to harvest, duration of harvest period for each planting date, number of stems per plant, stem length and diameter. Plants from the May planting date produced stems over a longer period of time compared to plants from the June and July plantings with the exception of 'Scarlet Splendor' from the July planting. Within each of the three planting dates, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of stems produced per plant due to the cultivar effect for 10 of the 13 cultivars evaluated. A trend of increasing stem and bloom size from the May planting date to the July planting was observed. The median number of stems produced by the zinnia cultivars in this study from the May, June, and July planting dates were respectively 21.6, 10.8 and 14.5 stems per plant for plants spaced one foot apart in the row. The potential stem yield for a single 100 ft row of the zinnia cultivars included in this trial was 2160, 1080 and 1450 stems for the production life of May, June, and July plantings, or 4690 stems for the three plantings combined. The cut flower zinnias evaluated in this study were very productive during the summer growing season.
H.S. Balpande, O. Challa and Jagdish Prasad
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 010, Maharashtra, India.
Key words: Grape, soil characterstics, growth, yield, drainage, depth, available water content
Abstract: Six grape growing typical pedons in Nasik district, Maharashtra were characterised and soil-site parameters were correlated with yield and yield attributes of the crop. These soils were very shallow (Darana), moderately deep (Mahiravani, Kothure), shallow (Shivdi), deep (Talegaon) and very deep (Andersool) and characterised by well drained (Darana, Mahiravani, Shivdi) and moderately well drained (Talegaon, Kothure, Andersool). The height, stem girth, spread volume, bunch per plant, berries per bunch were very much related with soil depth, drainage, pH, available water content and DTPA extractable micronutrient cations.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Jagadeeswaran, R; Mahendran, P P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, foliar diagnosis, iron, leaves, magnesium, manganese, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nitrogen, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nut
Abstract: The optimum levels for 12 nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the leaves of turmeric were generated using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) approaches. Approximately 500 soil and leaf samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 9% of the turmeric growing area was severely limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 20% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS. The order of nutrient imbalance was in the order S > B > Mg > Cu > P > Na > Ca > K > Zn > N > Fe > Mn based on DRIS, S > B > Cu > Ca > Na > Zn > Mg > P > Fe > Mn > K
Ruchi Bist, H. Punetha, A.K. Gaur and L.D. Bist
Department of Biochemistry, Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.
Key words: Picrorhiza kurroa, axillary bud, In vitro multiplication, micropropagation
Abstract: Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (Kutki) has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract, fever, and to treat dyspepsia, chronic diarrhoea and scorpion sting in Ayurveda medicine owing to the presence of active principles in root and rhizomes. The plant is self-regenerating but unregulated over-harvesting has caused it to be threatened to near extinction. The current research describes a protocol of micro propagation of this important medicinal plant from establishment to hardening in field conditions. Multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from mature explants on Murashige and Skoogs (1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.25 mg L-1 kinetin (KN), 0.5 mg L-1 ascorbic acid and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Optimal rooting (86.6%) and growth of microshoots were observed on a medium containing 0.25 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 2 % (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully grown in soil.
Sadeghi Pour Marvi Mahdi
Department of Soil and Water Research, Varamin Agricultural Research Center, Ghodosi Blvd. Varamin, 3371616738, Iran.
Abstract: Modern fertilization recommendation must optimize crop yield and quality and minimize chances of negative environmental effects due to over fertilization. Data from fertilizer studies can be fitted to several mathematical models to determine optimum fertilizer rates, but resulting recommendations can vary depending on the model chosen. In this research, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as a case study vegetable crop to compare models for estimating fertilizer N requirements. Field studies were conducted to measure yield response to applied N. The area was located at 25?21' E longitude and 51?38' N latitude in the North of Varamin city, (Tehran province, Iran) in the alluvial plain of Varamin. Soil family was fine, mixed, active, thermic, typic haplocambids based on Soil Taxonomic system (USDA, 1999). Plants were grown in Central Research Station of Varamin and received five rates of N (0, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1) as a urea in split applications. Data for plant fresh mass and N uptake were recorded. Logistic, linear-plateau and quadratic models were compared for the field data. The logistic model described the data for cultivar quite well, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 and above. Coefficients for the linear-plateau model were derived from the logistic model. All three models for lettuce production were compared graphically and analytically. The model coefficients were used to make improved estimates of fertilizer recommendations for field production of lettuce.
Liliana Marban, Lidia Giuffre, Marta Riat, Romina Romaniuk and Ernesto Giardina
Ingeis-Conicet Pabellon Ingeis. Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Av. San Martin 4453 (1417), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract: The effect of conventional fertilization was compared with a vermicompost that was mixed with substrate for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in a greenhouse experiment. The study was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Eight treatments were compared: a control treatment of a substrate mixture (T0: with no vermicompost added), five treatments with increasing percentages of vermicompost added to the substrate mixture (H1 to H5), and two treatments using two application rates of a chemical fertilizer (F1 and F2). Both fertilizer and vermicompost presented very low levels of heavy metals, which assured agronomical suitability. Vermicompost from SS-MSW (Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste) and slaughterhouse sludge, presented significant value as soil conditioner and biofertilizer and produced increased levels of C and N (P<0.05). The phosphorus addition by vermicompost was high, with a decrease of zinc absorption by plants and potential contamination risk. Mixtures including more than 50% of the vermicompost and the highest rate of fertilizer showed statistically significant differences for dry weight, leaf length, plant survival and P-Zn antagonism (P<0.05).
Abstract: Delayed flowering of chrysanthemum under high temperature conditions is a serious obstacle for all year round cut chrysanthemum flower production in southern temperate and subtropical zones. To clarify the causes of flowering delay in spray chrysanthemum, two different genotypes of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium)were grown under high-temperature conditions: summer-to-autumn flowering type (SA type, high temperature tolerant) and autumn flowering type (A type, high temperature sensitive). Their flower-bud initiation and development were subsequently compared. Results clarify that two independent events caused by high temperatures occur in the shoot apex of spray chrysanthemum under short-day conditions. First, high temperatures slowed floral development in inflorescence, thereby increasing the number of florets in both SA and A chrysanthemum genotypes. Secondly, high temperatures slowed the developmental speed of inflorescence after the budding stage, and the time to reach the bud break stage was prolonged, thereby delaying flowering, especially in A chrysanthemum genotypes.
F. Nazoori, A. Talaie and A. Javanshah
Rafnajan's Payam Nor University; Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran; Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan-Iran.
Abstract: Effects of different chilling periods were evaluated on growth and development of floral buds of male seedling trees (Pistacia.vera L.) for chilling requirements of male genotypes helpful in predicting overlapping of flowering with female trees and escape from spring cold damage. The chilling requirement and responses of male genotypes to chilling treatment were determined by applying eight levels of chilling to shoots (i.e. 600-1300 h) at 3?1 oC. Based on the effect of chilling hours on bud break on four male pistachio genotypes were grouped to early (P1 and P6) and late flowering (P7 and P10) types. Percentage and rate of bud break, duration of flowering, growth and development of bud (length and width) were evaluated. The results indicated that genotypes had different chilling requirement. Among the male pistachio genotypes, the adequate chilling hours (bud break >80%) for P1, P6, P7 and P10 genotypes were 800, 700, 1100, and 1300 hours, respectively. P1 and P6 had low chilling requirement (700 hours) for 50% bud break compared to P7 and P10 (900 and 800 hours). Increased chilling led to decreased heat unit requirements for sprouting, resulting in greater overall growth and development. Chilling was a determining factor in floral bud break for all the genotypes, increasing chilling also produced greater bud break percentages. All genotypes required fewer heat units for bud break as chilling increased. Increasing the chilling hours also increased the length and width of flower buds and reduced duration of flowering.
Omveer Singh; Misra, K K
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.
Abstract: The performance of 24 ber (Z. mauritiana) in terms of growth, yield and yield components were studied under the tarai conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 1998-99. Sanaur 6 recorded the highest tree height (5.75 cm) and spread (11.90 m), trunk girth (2.13 m), cross trunk sectional area (3616.08 cm2) and volume (1698.39 m3). Rohtak Gola, Seo, Nazuk, Narikeli and Sanaur 2 recorded the highest shoot length (248 cm), number of leaves per shoot (515.50), leaf length (10.68 cm), length:breadth ratio (2.32) and photosynthetic efficiency (0.182 mg/cm2/h), respectively. Sanaur 3 recorded the highest leaf breadth (7.71 cm) and area (43.19 cm2); ZG3 recorded the highest number of fruits per shoot (50.50) and per tree (11665.50), and yield (214.40 kg); and ZG 2 recorded the highest yield efficiency by weight (0.215 kg/cm2) and number of fruits per m3 volume of tree (59.05).
Mandal, A B; Aparna Maiti; Elanchezhian, R
Plant Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, Andamans, India.
Abstract: Axillary buds from crown of mature fruits, slips and suckers of pineapple cv. Queen cultured in MS medium supplemented with high auxin:cytokin ratio and then transferred to MS medium with high cytokinin:auxin ratio showed high establishment percentage. Shoot multiplication increased upon subculture on freshly prepared MS medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA). The best multiplication medium was an MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg BA/litre, 2 mg NAA and IBA/litre and 10% coconut water. In vitro grown shootlets were successfully rooted in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg NAA and IBA/litre. The highest number of buds produced in 6 months was obtained from shaken liquid medium. Pulsing of explants enhanced the culture response as indicated by higher shoot multiplication rate in all types of explants.