Abstract: To establish a simple and rapid extraction method for soluble carbohydrate for determination of osmolar concentration in petals by HPLC analysis, a method using a centrifugal filter device with microwave heating was developed. Rose 'Sonia' petals were placed in a centrifugal filter device and heated in a microwave oven to boiling. The centrifugal filter device was centrifuged with the petals at 12,000 g for 10 min. The resulting leached solution was subjected to HPLC analysis. No significant difference in soluble carbohydrate composition was observed between the solution obtained from this method and that obtained from a conventional extraction method in which tissues are homogenized using hot ethanol solution. Changes in soluble carbohydrate concentration with flower opening in 'Rote Rose' roses were investigated using the new method. The osmolar concentrations of glucose and fructose in the petals increased during flower opening. This increase was roughly comparable to the increase in osmotic pressure in the petals. The results suggest that the method using the centrifugal filter device with microwave heating is a simple and rapid way to determine osmolar concentration of soluble carbohydrates of rose petals.
Narendra Kumar; Dimri, D C; Nigam, J K
Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agri & Tech., Hill Campus, Ranichauri - 249 199, (Uttaranchal), India.
Abstract: Six important peach cultivars namely, Tessia Samisto, Early White Giant, Stark Early Giant, Hales Early, Crawford Early and July Elberta, were evaluated for their physico-chemical traits under humid temperate mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 2000/01. The maximum fruit size (6.72x6.15 cm), weight (89.21 g) and volume (91.51 ml) were recorded in Crawford Early, followed by July Elberta (5.68x5.47 cm, 81.69 g and 83.14 ml, respectively). The maximum TSS (12.79 degrees Brix) and total sugars (11.56%) were also registered in July Elberta, whereas maximum acidity (0.98%) and ascorbic acid (6.42 mg/100 g) were recorded in the cultivars Hales Early and July Elberta, respectively. On the basis of these parameters, July Elberta and Crawford Early have been found superior under mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal.
Tripathi, A N; Tripathi, S N; Shukla, R K; Pandey, G
Department of Horticulture, Janta College, Bakewar (Etawah), U.P. 206 125, India.
Abstract: A field trial was conducted during the winter season of 1998/99 in Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India to determine the optimum concentration of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA) and chlormequat (CCC) for application on French marigold. Spraying of NAA (50, 100 and 200 ppm), GA (100, 200 and 400 ppm) and CCC (200, 400 and 600 ppm) was done in February. Data were recorded for plant height, diameter of main stem, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, days to first flowering, diameter of flowers, fresh weight of flowers, number of flowers per plant, and flower yield per plant. CCC and GA application gave quite beneficial effects on these parameters. GA at 400 ppm and CCC at 600 ppm recorded the highest flower yield per plant (127.71 g) and number of flowers per plant (78.83), respectively. These chemicals had no adverse effect on the growth and flowering of French marigold.
Kenji Beppu, Makito Iino and Ikuo Kataoka
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.
Key words: Fruit set rate, ovule development, Prunus avium, soil cooling
Abstract: The effects of root zone cooling on flower development and fruit set of 'Satohnishiki' sweet cherry were studied. Soil temperature in pots of the tree was maintained at approximately 11?C from bud burst until petal fall, then at about 15?C until harvest by circulating cooled water through a tube coiling the pots. Root cooling did not appreciably affect flower size, pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in pistils. However, the treatment prolonged ovule longevity and markedly increased the fruit set rate. These results suggest the possibility of applying root cooling to improve the fruit set of sweet cherries grown in warm regions.
Engindeniz, S; Cukur, F; Yucel, D
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
Key words: costs, crop production, crop yield, fruit growing, peaches, production economics, profitability, returns
Abstract: Some technical and economic characteristics of peach growing in Kemalpasa, Izmir, Turkey, were examined. Data were obtained from a sample of 63 peach growers. Average yield per hectare and per tree was determined to be 16 848 kg and 37.7 kg, respectively. The average orchard size was 1.09 ha. Growers preferred square planting with 4.5 m x 4.5 m spacing rather than triangle planting. Redhaven, Cresthaven, Triogem and Dixired were the major cultivars grown. Net return per hectare and per tree was determined to be $839 and $1.88, respectively.
M. Melkamu, Tilahun Seyoum and Kebede Woldetsadik
Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Plant Science, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, P.O. Box 131, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study effects of preharvest treatment of ComCat? spray, organic manure, NP fertilization and the combinations of ComCat? with the two forms of fertilizers on yield and chemical quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Total and marketable yields were significantly influenced by the preharvest treatements. The result showed that the use of ComCat? and its combination with organic manure gave the highest total yield of 58.5 and 55.8 t ha-1, respectively. At harvest, 94 and 93% of tomatoes subjected to preharvest ComCat? and ComCat? plus organic manure treatment were marketable, respectively. The chemical quality parameters tested such as total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar were significantly (P<0.01) affected by the preharvest treatments. The study clearly demonstrated the importance of integerated agro-technology in order to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of tomatoes.
Phebe Ding and Ng Swee Bee
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti PutraMalaysia, 43400 UPMSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: Papaya is a climacteric fruit, naturally fragile and cannot resist low temperature. Thus, prolonging the postharvest life of papaya fruit for long distance transportation is highly desirable to increase its commercialisation. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been widely used to delay ripening and senescence of horticultural produces. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of 'Eksotika' papaya treated with 1-MCP and optimum concentration of 1-MCP in prolonging postharvest life of papaya. Papayas were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 uL L" of 1-MCP for 7 days at 21?C/90% relative humidity (RH). Then, the fruits were allowed to ripen at 26?C/70% RH. 1-MCP did not affect L*, C*, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, pH, vitamin C and weight loss of papaya. The ho and firmness of papaya treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP showed significant high values as compared to other concentrations. Similarly, visual quality evaluation also showed that fruits treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP retained green colour for 9 days and by day 13, no disease infection and shriveling was found in these fruits as compared to other concentrations. There is potential to prolong postharvest life of Eksotika papaya using 1-MCP.
Gh. Peyvast, P. Ramezani Kharazi, S. Tahernia, Z. Nosratierad and J.A. Olfati
Guilan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticultural Department, Rasht, Iran.
Key words: Broccoli, municipal solid waste compost, nitrate, yield, quality.
Abstract: A study of the nitrate uptake of Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. italica), grown with different amount of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) was conducted in 2006 on open field at the University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. The experiment was arranged in complete randomized block design with four treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg. ha-1 MSWC) and four replications. The results revealed that under prevailing local conditions, total yield of the broccoli was higher when fertilized with MSWC and low when compost was not applied to the planted area. The plants with the highest compost application (100 Mg ha-1) gave significantly highest yield at 37.03 Mg ha-1 which was statistically different from other treatments. The significant differences were found also on marketable yield with an exception at lowest compost treatment. The lowest amount of nitrate (0.197 % in DM) in broccoli edible part was with application of 50 Mg. ha-1 compost.
F.M. Saiful Islam, Hiroaki Hirai and Yoshiaki Kitaya
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.
Key words: CO2 concentration, CO2 gas diffusion coefficient, Daucus carota, growth, harvest index, storage roots, yield
Abstract: Three varieties of carrot (Daucus carota L.), 'Tokinashigosun', 'Hitokuchi' and 'Kurodagosun' were cultured hydroponically with rockwool blocks (56^8^30 cm high) in a greenhouse for 90 days. Two types of rockwool block, with holes and without holes were used in the study. Rockwool blocks with holes had seven rooting holes (10 cm in depth and 2.5 cm in diameter) 8 cm apart, which were filled with vermiculite for promoting root development. Rockwool blocks without holes were used as the control for comparison. Two rockwool blocks were placed side by side in a plastic box (58x18x18 cm high) and 14 plants were grown in each plastic box. The rockwool blocks were automatically sub-irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 35 ppm total N, 14 ppm P, 59 ppm K, 23 ppm Ca, 10 ppm Mg, 0.62 ppm Fe, 0.12 ppm Mn, 0.06 ppb B, 0.02 ppm Cu, 0.04 ppm Zn and 0.01 ppm Mo. The solution was added to the plastic boxes twice a day to keep the depth of the solution at 15 cm. The fresh and dry weights of the storage roots were 2 to 3 times greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than those without holes in each variety. The storage roots produced in the rockwool blocks with holes were 2 times longer than without holes in all the varieties. The diameter of storage roots was also greater in rockwool blocks with holes than without holes. Greater weights of the whole-plant and percent harvest index were obtained in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the varieties. Carbon dioxide concentration inside the rockwool blocks at a depth of 8 cm from the top surface and 1 cm beside the storage roots were lower in the rockwool blocks with holes (0.08%) than in the without holes (0.11%). Carbon dioxide gas diffusion coefficient in the rockwool media was greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes. The hardness of the growing media was lower in the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite than in the without holes. Therefore, better aerating conditions inside the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite and lower hardness of the media would partly account for the better growth of storage roots in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the tested varieties.
Anjaneya Reddy, M.S. Patil, P.R. Dharmatti and T Rajasekaram
Department of Plant Pathology, UAS, Dharwad-05, Department of Horticulture, UAS, Dharwad-05
Key words: Tomato leaf curl, ELISA, PCR and screening
Abstract: During summer 2005 out of 50 genotypes screened for tomato leaf curl virus under field conditions, none of the lines tested were resistant, however, six genotypes showed mild infection and nine genotypes showed moderate infection. In the second season, i.e., 2006 only Nandi and Vybhav showed moderate resistant reaction, along with the new commercial hybrids Hy-558, Hy-530, NS-563 and NS-719. The variety Vybhav was found superior over other varieties against the disease. The presence of virus in the symptomatic hosts was confirmed by ELISA and PCR. The plant height of the genotypes contributes to maximum extent (52.21 %) to the divergence followed by yield per plant and per cent disease incidence (10.86 % each), but the vector population contributed least (0.97 %). As a result of D2 clustering, the commercial hybrids possessing lot of diversity fall in to four different clusters, cluster II had got six entries, cluster III 3 entries, cluster IV 6 entries and cluster V only one entry wheras cluster I had 50 entries.
Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour, Fahimeh Jamie and Seyed Ali Elahinia
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran; Center of Natural Resources research, Alborz- Karaj, Iran.
Key words: Stone fruit trees, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, canker, Iran
Abstract: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes canker, leafspots and necrosis of the bark of cherry, plum, and peach fruit trees. Symptoms caused by this pathogen on leaves, blossoms, and fruit, reported as common else where, are rare in Guilan cherry orchards. In this research, during survey from cherry, plum, and peach orchards in different areas of Guilan province (Talesh, Hashtpar, Astaneh-Ashrafieh and Lahijan), samples were taken from infected tissues of disease trees. For isolation of bacteria causing disease, infected tissue were crushed in bacteriological saline (0.85% w/v NaCl) and 100uL of juice was cultured on nutrient agar (NA) and King's B medium. Strains of bacteria rod-shaped, gram negative and aerobic bacterium were isolated. The strains produced Levan on media including sucrose. All strains made Hypersensitive Reaction (HR) on tobacco and geranium leaves. All of the isolated bacteria were oxidase, nitrate, tween 80 hydrolysis, indole and starch hydrolysis negative and could not rot potato tuber slices, produced H2S, and grew at 36?C. The isolates could use citrate and urease. The isolates produced acid from sorbitol, galactose, myo-inositol, manitol, xylose, maltose and sucrose. Their gelatin test were positive. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, pathogenicity properties and total cellular protein profiles (SDS-PAGE), the predominate pathogenic type was identified as P. s. pv. syringae. This is the first report of the existence of P. s. pv. syringae on stone fruit trees in Iran.
Abstract: In the 2004 and 2005 seasons, experiments were carried out at INTA Balcarce, Argentina on potato cultivars Kennebec, Innovator and Shepody, with different susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. A randomized block design with four replications was created. Visual observations during the crop cycle were carried out in order to record the number of healthy and infected plants, with symptomatology of stem canker produced by R. solani. After harvest, the potatoes in each block were washed and weighted, the total yield recorded and the marketable and "seed" potatoes were classified into healthy, cracked or malformed tubers. The best results on the reduction of infected plants were obtained with the highest dose of fluazinam (as Frowncide 50SC) and pencycuron (as Monceren 25SC). Commercial and "seed" tuber yields in the Spunta cultivar showed no significant differences among treatments, but with the Shepody cultivar, when the severity of the disease was high (2004) both fungicide treatments surpassed the untreated check. When the severity of the disease was low (2005), all chemical treatments registered higher commercial and "seed" tubers yields than the untreated check. In Kennebec and Spunta cultivars, all the treatments - except the lowest dose of fluazinam - accomplished a higher quantity of healthy tubers and surpassed the untreated check; although only the highest doses showed the highest yield of healthy tubers, showing a positive relationship with respect to the applied dose. Only the highest doses of fluazinam considerably reduced diseased tuber incidence in comparison to the untreated check.
A.B.M. Sharif Hossain and Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce
Plant Physiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol (ET) at different concentrations on longevity and senescence delay in bougainvillea flowers. The treatments were water (control), 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. Positive response was found in case of 4, 8 and 10% of ET after a certain period of treatment application. Dry weight was higher in lower concentrations of ethanol and lower in higher concentrations. Flower longevity was 2 days longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations of ethanol. Petal wilting and abscission occurred 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. Perianth abscission also appeared 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in control. However, petal discoloration (color change) was later in control, 2, 4, 8 and 10% than in 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. The results showed that flower vase life was significantly affected by ethanol concentrations as well as longevity was longer in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations.
Mohammad Reza Zokaee Khosroshahi, Mahmood EsnaAshari and Mohammad Fattahi
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
Key words: Sweet cherry, P. avium, Surati-e-Hamedan, putrescine, postharvest life
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous putrescine on postharvest life and quality of sweet cherry fruit, cultivar "Surati-e Hamedan" at 2?C. Fruits were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM putrescine as well as distilled water (Control) for 10 minutes, then transferred into the fridge (2?C). The rate of ethylene production, weight loss, tissue firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and pH of fruits were determined 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 d after the beginning of storage. Parameters associated with ripening processes, including softening and loss of titratable acidity, significantly decreased by application of putrescine. Soluble solids content of cherries also increased by the putrescine treatment. In addition, cherries treated with higher concentrations of putrescine showed lower rate of ethylene production. Weight loss of the fruits was affected by putrescine in a concentration dependent manner, while putrescine did not affect pH of fruit juice.
Som Dev Sharma and Pramod Kumar
Scientist, Department of Pomology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP-173 230 India; Research Officer(R & D Agriculture), Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Lmited (GOI), Chembur, Mumbai-74, India.
Key words: AM fungi, Azotobacter, root colonization, correlation, mango
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to find out the nutritional status of mango orchards cv. Dashehari located in north- western Himalayan region of India and to establish the relationship of soil microflora especially, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Azotobacter with growth, fruit yield, and soil and leaf nutrient contents. The study revealed that the correlation between AM spore population and shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, available Cu and Zn content and leaf N, P, Cu, Zn and Mn contents was found to be positive and significant, whereas, the relationship with soil as well as leaf K content was negative but significant. Azotobacter count was positively and significantly correlated with fruit yield, soil organic carbon (OC) and leaf Fe content, while, it was negative and significant with leaf K content. The relationship of per cent root colonization with soil OC and available N content of orchard soil was found to be positive and significant, and with shoot extension growth, leaf area, fruit yield, electrical conductivity, available P, K, Cu, Zn and Mn content and P, K and Cu contents of leaf, it was negative but non-significant.