Abstract: The study considers the effect of different levels of shade on growth and morphology of shoots and rooting ability of cuttings developed from decapitated ground layered stock plants. Two-year-old seedling-originated stock plants of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were decapitated at the tip and layered on ground. Shoots were allowed to develop at three levels of shade: vegetational shade (75% of full sun), lateral shade (40% of full sun) and overhead shade (10% of full sun). Different levels of shade significantly affected the growth and morphology of shoots. Active bud percentages as well as number of shoots produced per stock plant with longer internodes were significantly higher in lateral shade. Rooting percentages of cuttings obtained from the shoots of vegetational, lateral and overhead shade were 80, 87 and 90, respectively. The maximum number of roots (6.2) and root dry mass (20.7 mg) were found in cuttings obtained from lateral shade, followed by overhead shade. The results are discussed in the
Thakur, A K; Pandey, M
Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: Mature-green tomato fruits (cv. 'Bombay') were exposed to ethanol vapour at 0, 1, 2, or 4 ml/kg for 24 hours at 25 degrees C. Ripening was measured as a change in fruit colour. Ethanol treatment delayed fruit ripening which was concentration dependent. Higher concentration of ethanol vapour delayed tomato fruit ripening for more days. Postharvest treatment of ethanol vapour to tomato fruits showed higher TSS, lower acidity, higher brix:acid ratio and high sugar content compared to untreated fruits. The relative association of applied ethanol concentration showed a negative association with acidity and a positive association with sugar content at red-ripe stage. There was a negative relationship between titratable acidity and sugar content in ripe tomato fruit. Postharvest use of ethanol improves the sensory quality of fruits after complete ripening.
Boonyanuphap, J; Wattanachaiyingcharoen, D; Sakurai, K
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan.
Key words: bananas, databases, geographical information systems, plantations, precision agriculture
Abstract: Results are presented of experiments conducted in Thailand to construct the geographical databases of land suitability for Musa (ABB) group plantation, to assess land suitability for Musa (ABB) group using geographical information systems, and to select the possible lands for new banana plantations.
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Avijeet Chatterjee; Singh, S P
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2003 kharif season in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, on 29 vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) cultivars to identify the suitable direct and indirect component traits that contribute towards foliage yield. The first cutting of foliage started after the third week of sowing and subsequent cuttings were conducted at 15-day intervals. Data were recorded for plant height, stem diameter, branches per plant, leaves per plant, leaf size, protein content and foliage yield. Heritability values were high for all the characters in all the cuttings and pooled values. Foliage yield showed maximum heritability in all 4 cuttings followed by plant height and leaf size. Genetic gain was highest for foliage yield followed by leaf size and stem diameter. In general, the genetic advance values were high in all the cuttings for foliage yield, plant height, leaf size and stem diameter. Only plant height was positively correlated with foliage yield in all the cuttings. In the first and second
Viveka Katoch; Vidyasagar
Department of Vegetable Science, H.P. Agricultural University, Palampur - 176 062, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to understand the nature of gene effects for yield and its component characters in tomato. Six generations, (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2) of Hawaii 7998 x BT-18, Hawaii 7998 x EC 191536 and BT-18 x EC 191536, derived after crossing the bacterial wilt resistant parents, were studied following 3-parameter model of Cavalli (1952) and 6-parameter model of Jink and Jones (1958). Duplicate epistasis with relatively higher magnitude of [l] interaction (+) was observed for marketable yield per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant in Hawaii 7998 x BT-18 and BT-18 x EC 191536, thus suggesting a need for exploitation of hybrid vigour or intermating followed by selection in later generations, in these crosses. Whereas, the presence of additive effects [d and i] in Hawaii 7998 x EC 191536 indicated the importance of simple pedigree selection. For the traits related to earliness (days to 50% flowering and days to first harvest), pedigree selection in BT-18 x EC 191536 and pedigree selec
Akbudak, B; Ozer, H; Erturk, U
Department of Horticulture Gorukle, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the suitable atmospheric combinations for controlled atmosphere (CA) storage of apple cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold, and revealing some physical and chemical changes occurring during the storage of these cultivars. Granny Smith and Jonagold were stored for 210 and 180 days, respectively, at 0+or-0.5 degrees C and 90+or-5% relative humidity (RH) under the atmospheric combinations of 0:21 (CO2:O2) [normal atmosphere (NA)-control], 3:1, 3:1.5, 3:2 and 3:2.5. Fruits were kept at room conditions (20+or-2 degrees C and 60+or-5% RH) for 5 days at the end of storage period to determine the shelf life. Physical and chemical analyses (weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, fruit flesh firmness, pectin esterase activity, fruit skin colour) were realized on the fruit samples taken during storage and at the end of shelf life. At the end of the study, it was determined that the fruits of apple cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold could be store
Pramanick, P K; Sharma, V P; Deshmukh, P S; Singh, S K
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted from 1 November 1998 to 15 March 1999 and 1 November 1999 to 15 March 2000 to study the role of hydroperoxidase enzymes (peroxidase and catalase), phenols and their relationship with the intensity of dormancy in grape cv. Pusa Seedless, grown under the subtropical conditions of north India. Catalase activity increased during the early part of the dormancy cycle then declined and was lowest at bud break. On the other hand, peroxidase activity was lowest at the initial stages of dormancy then increased and was maximum at dormancy breaking. Phenol content increased from the onset of dormancy to deep dormancy then declined and was lowest at sprouting.
Giuffre, L; Alconada, M; Pascale, C; Ratto, S
Catedra de Edafologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 4453, 1417, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of overapplication of phosphorus fertilizers on soil properties in commercial greenhouses for tomato production and to study the relationship between soil extract P values and yields. Twenty commercial greenhouses with continuous tomato production were analysed in the horticultural belt of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, with Vertic Argiudoll soils, and compared with a control site. Composite soil samples were extracted at 0-20 cm of depth in 2 sampling dates: initial (tomato transplantation) and 6 months later (harvest). Oxidizable C, total N, Bray extractable P, and exchangeable bases in ammonium acetate extracts, were determined in dry soil samples. Electrical conductivity and pH were measured in saturated soil paste extracts. Tomato yields were determined at each experimental site. Overapplicaton of fertilizers was associated with physical-chemical degradation of the vertic soils of the region with visual symptoms of chlorosis, calcium deficiency, and
Proagro Seed Company, Dhumaspur Road, Badshahpur, Gurgaon, India.
Abstract: An efficient technique for laboratory rearing of the aubergine shoot and fruit borer (SFB) Leucinodes orbonalis is described. The modified oviposition chamber enhanced the overall egg-laying capacity of the adults in terms of fecundity and fertility of the eggs. For larval rearing, round-sized fruits provided a better medium than the long-sized fruits. Approximately 50% of the neonate larvae survived when released on artificial diet. No pupation was observed on the diet even 30 days after infestation. Most larvae were smaller in size compared to those reared on non-artificial diet. Aubergine did not possess resistance to SFB at the preflowering or pre-fruiting stages. However, data showed that to evaluate aubergine germplasm against SFB, the infestation can be as low as 3 or 10 larvae per plant. Aubergine infested with 3 larvae per plant should be kept for approximately 2 weeks and those infested with 10 larvae per plant for approximately 10 days prior to assessing damage by SFB.
Kshirsagar, P J; Gavankar, M S; Chavan, V G; Pujari, K H; Deshpande, S B; Shingre, B V; Patil, B P
Regional Fruit Research Station, Vengurle, Dist. Sindhudurg, 416 516 (M.S.), India.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2002 at 2 locations (Vengurle and Mulde) in Konkan, Maharashtra, India to evaluate the performance of the bold aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) cultivars NA-7, Krishna, Chakaiya and Kanchan. Based on pooled data for 3 years, Kanchan recorded the highest yields of 40.82 and 12.77 kg/tree at Vengurle and Mulde, respectively. Thus, Kanchan is highly recommended for cultivation in the Konkan region. However, for effective cross pollination and higher yield, mixed planting of Kanchan with Krishna and NA-7 could be the best strategy for aonla cultivation in the region. Monsoon season harvest proved to be superior under Konkan conditions.
R. Jagadeeswaran, V. Murugappan and M. Govindaswamy
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003.
Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy of slow release NPK fertilizers in turmeric, two field experiments were conducted on a sandy clay loam soil. These slow release NPK fertilizers are new products in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated formulations, which contains all the three major nutrients in them. Five slow release NPK fertilizer sources were tested in comparison with straight fertilizers at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125 % of recommended dose in a randomized block design. The results clearly indicated that the wet rhizome yield significantly increased with increasing levels of NPK and when applied in the form of tablets. The N, P and K uptake both in shoot as well as rhizome of turmeric increased significantly up to 125 % of NPK level applied. The uptake was significantly higher in plots which received tablet form of slow release fertilizers than other fertilizer sources.
Verma, S K; Singh, R K; Arya, R R
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Bhowali, Nainital, Uttaranchal - 263 132, India.
Abstract: Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance as percentage of mean were estimated in 17 strawberry accessions, grown in 1997 in Bhowali, Uttaranchal, India, for 16 characters. Fruit length showed high coefficient of variation (104.56%). Percentage of plant flowering showed the maximum phenotypic and genetic coefficient of variations, followed by fruit volume, flower number, number of flower trusses per plant and flower disk diameter. Fruit weight, plant height, petiole length, percentage of plant flowering and fruit volume showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean, which indicated that selection can be made for improvement. The genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the phenotypic correlation coefficients. This indicated little role of environment in the expression of genetic relationship. Fruit number per plant was positively and significantly correlated with fruit volume, fruit weight, flower disk diameter,
Pal, A K; Singh, B; Maurya, A N
Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005 (U.P.), India.
Abstract: A study was conducted during 1999-2000 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the inbreeding depression between Vigna unguiculata and V. sesquipedalis [V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis]. The experiment was carried out in a line x tester design and data on 30 hybrids generated from 13 parents were analysed for inbreeding depression in the F2 generation. Observations were recorded for 13 characters, i.e. days to 50% flowering, days to 1st green pod picking, plant height, peduncle length, number of primary branches per plant, pod length, pod diameter, number of peduncles per plant, number of pods per peduncle, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, green pod yield per plant and 100-seed weight. Significant and varying degrees of inbreeding depression was observed for all the parameters, indicating the presence of high degree of diversity among the parents and presence of non-additive gene action. Cross combination KLS-10 x Cowpea-263 yielded more in the F2 generation for green pod yield
Cyd Celeste Cagas, Miki Nakata, Mae Rose Sumugat and Nobuo Sugiyama
Graduated School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plug tray, root restriction, temperature
Abstract: Seedlings of three tomato cultivars, 'Reika', 'Marryroad' and 'First Power' were grown in either pots or plug trays in order to clarify the interaction effect of cultivar and root container size on the number of days to flowering and the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence under different temperature regimens. The number of days to flowering was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, regardless of temperature regimen. Flowering was delayed at 23/18?C compared with 30/25?C for seedlings raised in either pots or plug trays. The number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, except for 'Marryroad' at 23/18?C. Regardless of root container size, the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in 'First Power' than in 'Reika' and 'Marryroad' at 30/25?C. These results suggest the importance of cultivar choice for the production of tomato seedlings with a small number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence using plug trays in cool conditions.
Chezhiyan, N; Shanmugasundaram, K A
Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Abstract: BSR-1 is a new high-yielding (155 kg/tree, 42 952 kg/ha), self-fruitful, and late-maturing cultivar of aonla (Emblica officinalis [P. emblica]) selected from a large number of germplasm from Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu, India. Its fruits are flattened at the base and round at the apex, with an average weight of 27.30 g/fruit. The fruits contain high total soluble solids (18.1 degrees brix) and vitamin C (620 mg/100 g of flesh), low phenol (29.75 mg/g of flesh), and high crude fibre content (4.31%).