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Rathinakumari, A C; Kumaran, G S; Mandhar, S C

Section of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 089, India.

Key words: cabbages, cauliflowers, containers, design, drilling, drills, equipment performance, mechanization, performance tests, vegetable growing, vegetables, work capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 49-51.

Abstract: A tray type dibbler with capacity of 100 portrays/h and a vacuum seeder with capacity of 50 portrays/h were designed and developed. The tray type dibbler is made out of wooden board with 98 nylon pegs to dibble in the media. The tray type vacuum seeder is made of acrylic sheet and it consists of a vacuum chamber, seed plate with 98 holes to pick the seeds, vacuum pump and necessary control valves. It was observed that the seeder picked and dropped the round shaped seeds like cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol perfectly, i.e., 100% singles. For other vegetable seeds, the metering performance of the seeder was good with singles in the range of 93-97%, doubles between 3-7% and no missing was recorded. It is suggested that these handy and low cost tray type dibbler and tray type vacuum seeder are very much useful for small vegetable nursery growers.
Rathinakumari, A C; Kumaran, G S; Mandhar, S C

Section of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 089, India.

Key words: cabbages, cauliflowers, containers, design, drilling, drills, equipment performance, mechanization, performance tests, vegetable growing, vegetables, work capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 49-51.

Abstract: A tray type dibbler with capacity of 100 portrays/h and a vacuum seeder with capacity of 50 portrays/h were designed and developed. The tray type dibbler is made out of wooden board with 98 nylon pegs to dibble in the media. The tray type vacuum seeder is made of acrylic sheet and it consists of a vacuum chamber, seed plate with 98 holes to pick the seeds, vacuum pump and necessary control valves. It was observed that the seeder picked and dropped the round shaped seeds like cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol perfectly, i.e., 100% singles. For other vegetable seeds, the metering performance of the seeder was good with singles in the range of 93-97%, doubles between 3-7% and no missing was recorded. It is suggested that these handy and low cost tray type dibbler and tray type vacuum seeder are very much useful for small vegetable nursery growers.
Rajan, S; Yadava, L P; Ram Kumar; Saxena, S K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: crop quality, fruits, genetic variation, guavas, heritability, phenotypic variation, seed characteristics, seed weight, seeds, selection criteria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 52-54.

Abstract: A total of 68 guava accessions were studied to determine the genetic variability and heritability for fruit weight and associated seed characteristics. Data were recorded for fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, number of seeds per 100 g fruit and seed content. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation were observed for all the traits. However, GCV was maximum for pulp:seed weight ratio followed by number of seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per 100 g fruit. The estimates of PCV ranged from 33.85 (average fruit weight) to 609.75% (pulp:seed weight ratio). The number of seeds per 100 g fruit, number of seeds per fruit and 100-seed weight also exhibited high levels of PCV. The estimates of heritability in the broad sense ranged from 0.558 (seed content) to 0.843 (pulp:seed weight ratio) suggesting that all the characters had high magnitude of heritability. The estimate of genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 43.76
Rajan, S; Yadava, L P; Ram Kumar; Saxena, S K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: crop quality, fruits, genetic variation, guavas, heritability, phenotypic variation, seed characteristics, seed weight, seeds, selection criteria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 52-54.

Abstract: A total of 68 guava accessions were studied to determine the genetic variability and heritability for fruit weight and associated seed characteristics. Data were recorded for fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, number of seeds per 100 g fruit and seed content. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation were observed for all the traits. However, GCV was maximum for pulp:seed weight ratio followed by number of seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per 100 g fruit. The estimates of PCV ranged from 33.85 (average fruit weight) to 609.75% (pulp:seed weight ratio). The number of seeds per 100 g fruit, number of seeds per fruit and 100-seed weight also exhibited high levels of PCV. The estimates of heritability in the broad sense ranged from 0.558 (seed content) to 0.843 (pulp:seed weight ratio) suggesting that all the characters had high magnitude of heritability. The estimate of genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 43.76
Hardevinder Singh; Cheema, D S

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: characteristics, firmness, genetic variation, heat stress, heritability, lycopene, pericarp, phenotypic variation, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 55-57.

Abstract: Studies were conducted on 15 advance generation breeding lines of tomato, including 4 control cultivars, to study the variation and heritability of quality characteristics in tomato raised under normal and high temperature conditions (November and February, respectively). Data were recorded for total soluble solids (TSS), pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, acidity, lycopene content and dry matter content. There were significant differences among the genotypes under normal conditions, whereas differences were not significant under high temperature conditions. The population mean was higher during November than February planting for all the characters except acid content and TSS. In general, the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation indicating that the genotypic effect is lessened under the influence of the given environment. Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) were high for all the characters for November planting except for lycopene content.
Hardevinder Singh; Cheema, D S

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: characteristics, firmness, genetic variation, heat stress, heritability, lycopene, pericarp, phenotypic variation, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 55-57.

Abstract: Studies were conducted on 15 advance generation breeding lines of tomato, including 4 control cultivars, to study the variation and heritability of quality characteristics in tomato raised under normal and high temperature conditions (November and February, respectively). Data were recorded for total soluble solids (TSS), pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, acidity, lycopene content and dry matter content. There were significant differences among the genotypes under normal conditions, whereas differences were not significant under high temperature conditions. The population mean was higher during November than February planting for all the characters except acid content and TSS. In general, the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation indicating that the genotypic effect is lessened under the influence of the given environment. Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) were high for all the characters for November planting except for lycopene content.
Pant, T; Bhatt, R P; Bhoj, A S; Kumar, N

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh - 262 501, India.

Key words: crop yield, cucumbers, fruits, hydroponics, leaf area index, photosynthesis, plant density, protected cultivation, soilless culture, transpiration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 58-60.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the suitable plant density (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 plants per m2) for growing cucumber (cv. Green Long) in recirculating hydroponic system of cultivation. An increase in plant density from 2 to 6 plants per m2 significantly increased yield. A declining trend in yield and fruit number was observed at more than 6 plants per m2. The leaf area index and photosynthetic rate in different treatments were also recorded. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates were maximum when plant density was maintained at 6 plants per m2.
Pant, T; Bhatt, R P; Bhoj, A S; Kumar, N

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh - 262 501, India.

Key words: crop yield, cucumbers, fruits, hydroponics, leaf area index, photosynthesis, plant density, protected cultivation, soilless culture, transpiration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 58-60.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the suitable plant density (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 plants per m2) for growing cucumber (cv. Green Long) in recirculating hydroponic system of cultivation. An increase in plant density from 2 to 6 plants per m2 significantly increased yield. A declining trend in yield and fruit number was observed at more than 6 plants per m2. The leaf area index and photosynthetic rate in different treatments were also recorded. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates were maximum when plant density was maintained at 6 plants per m2.
Satoh, S; Nukui, H; Inokuma, T

Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi 1-1, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.

Key words: carnations, cut flowers, methodology, preservatives, sucrose, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 8-10.

Abstract: An attempt was made to determine the vase life of spray type carnation flowers by observing the number of open flowers, i.e. the percentage of open flowers to the total number of initial flower buds, and to evaluate the efficacy of this method. The vase life determined by this method was similar to that determined by measuring ethylene production and observing senescence symptoms of carnation flowers. The method effectively evaluated the action of preservatives, sucrose and 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide in carnation flowers. The results indicated that this method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of the vase life of carnation flowers, especially those of the spray type.
Satoh, S; Nukui, H; Inokuma, T

Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi 1-1, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.

Key words: carnations, cut flowers, methodology, preservatives, sucrose, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 8-10.

Abstract: An attempt was made to determine the vase life of spray type carnation flowers by observing the number of open flowers, i.e. the percentage of open flowers to the total number of initial flower buds, and to evaluate the efficacy of this method. The vase life determined by this method was similar to that determined by measuring ethylene production and observing senescence symptoms of carnation flowers. The method effectively evaluated the action of preservatives, sucrose and 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide in carnation flowers. The results indicated that this method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of the vase life of carnation flowers, especially those of the spray type.
Puchooa, D

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.

Key words: callus, gene expression, genes, genetic engineering, genetic transformation, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, leaves, tissue culture, transgenic plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2004, volume 6, issue 2, pages 11-15.

Abstract: Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression was observed in tissues of litchi (Litchi chinensis) after transformation using Agrobacterium. In vitro grown leaf tissues were used for transformation. After four weeks in culture, expression of GFP was apparent when the regenerated callus and the leaves were observed under fluorescence microscope fitted with a blue exciter filter, a blue dichroic mirror and a barrier filter. Although no transformed litchi plantlets were regenerated, screening for GFP gene expression may prove useful to improve transformation efficiency and to facilitate detection of transformed litchi plants.
Moftah, A E; Al Humaid, A I

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, PO Box: 1482 King Saud University, Al-Qassim Branch, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: antitranspirants, chlorophyll, drought, evapotranspiration, irrigation scheduling, kaolin, leaf conductance, net assimilation rate, photosynthesis, pinolene, plant water relations, stomata, turgor, water stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2004, volume 6, issue 2, pages 16-22.

Abstract: The effects of pinolene-base Vapor Gard (VG) emulsion type film and Kaolin (Surround WP) particle type film antitranspirants on stomatal behaviour, water status, carbon assimilation and transpiration rate of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double plants, grown under irrigation regimes of 100, 80 and 60% of total evapotranspiration (ET) values, were studied to select the most suitable antitranspirant for conserving irrigation water, with no detrimental effects on growth and production of tuberose plants grown in arid regions. Severe water stress decreased the stomatal frequency and conductance (gs), leaf water potential ( Psi w), osmotic potential ( Psi pi ) and turgor potential ( Psi p), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content (chl), carbon assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E). Both types of antitranspirants effectively enhanced the performance and physiological activities of water-stressed plants particularly, at the 80% ET, but they did not compensate for the negative effects caused
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, foliar diagnosis, grapes, iron, magnesium, manganese, mineral nutrition, nitrogen, nutrient balance, nutrient deficiencies, petioles, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, potassium, sodi

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2004, volume 6, issue 2, pages 23-26.

Abstract: Diagnostic norms were developed from 53.2% top yielding vineyards in Tamil Nadu, India, among 940 observations on yield and petiole analyses of Muscat grapes using bivariate Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and multivariate Compositional Nutritional Diagnosis (CND). About 66 optimum nutrient ratios and concentrations were computed from N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn analytical results. When several nutrients are limiting yield simultaneously, the diagnosis of nutrient disorder by multivariate CND approach is required for higher diagnostic precision. Based on the classification of NIIs, approximately 17% were severely limited by mineral nutrition and 32% of the vineyards were identified as having possible imbalances. The norm values and identification of yield limiting nutrients were close to each other with DRIS and CND, while there was no consensus with Critical Value Approach norms and diagnosis.
Mohapatra, A; Rout, G R

Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Biotechnology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar - 751 015, Orissa, India.

Key words: auxins, benzyladenine, buds, culture media, cytokinins, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, plant growth regulators, rooting, shoots, sucrose, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2004, volume 6, issue 2, pages 27-29.

Abstract: Efficient and rapid micropropagation system was developed for Geoderum purpureum [Geodorum purpureum], an important terrestrial orchid, through axillary meristem culture by manipulating cytokinin and auxin. Multiple shoots were induced from axillary meristems cultured on agar-based MS medium supplemented with 2.0-3.0 mg benzyladenine/litre, 0.5-1.0 mg IAA/litre and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum number of shoot buds were obtained with 3.0 mg benzyladenine and 1.0 mg IAA/litre. The rate of shoot multiplication was maintained in subsequent subculture on similar fresh culture medium. Elongated shoots were separated and rooted on half strength basal MS medium supplemented with IAA or IBA and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum percentage of rooting was obtained on medium having 0.5 mg IAA/litre. Plantlets, thus developed were established in soil with 80% survival.
Hassanein, A M

Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt.

Key words: benzyladenine, buds, carotenoids, chlorophyll, enzyme activity, enzymes, growth, IBA, in vitro culture, internodes, leaf area, light intensity, micropropagation, moisture content, peroxidase, plant growth regulators, propagation, rooting, roots, shade pla

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2004, volume 6, issue 2, pages 30-34.

Abstract: Although all nodal segments of Syngonium podophyllum irrespective of their age and different concentrations of benzylaminopurine [benzyladenine] (BAP) showed axillary shoot growth, young nodes cultured on MS medium supplemented with 5 micro M BAP gave the best results. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 micro M IBA. Increase of the frequency of axillary bud sprouting and decrease in the frequency of root formation with the increase of light intensity were recorded, which was accompanied with increase of relative peroxidase activity. Instead of peat, soil consisted of sawdust, sand and clay (1:1:1) was a suitable combination producing valuable plant survival. Subjecting the plants growing in the soil to full sunlight for one day enhanced the peroxidase activity and aggressive chlorophyll degradation, thereby leading to leaf bleaching especially at relatively high temperature (40 degrees C) or low moisture content of the soil (50% field capacity). Plants grown under illu

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