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Yueju Wang, Michael Wisniewski, Richard Meilan, Minggang Cui and Leslie Fuchigami

Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331-7304, USA, BUSDA-ARS, 45 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV, 25430-9606, USA, CForestry & Natural Resource Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2072, U

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, overexpression, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), heat, UV-B, oxidative stress, sunscald.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 87-90.

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, are by-products of biological redox reactions. ROS can denature enzymes and damage important cellular components. Plants develop antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to scavenge ROS and detoxify them. The effect of increased cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) on heat and UV-B stress tolerance was studied using transformed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Zhongshu No. 5) plants. This research demonstrates, in either laboratory or field tests, the potential to enhance tolerance to heat, UV-B, and sunscald stress by gene transfer. Overexpression of cAPX in transgenic tomato enhanced resistance to heat (40 ?C) and UV-B stress compared to wild-type plants. When leaf disks were placed at 40 ?C for 13 hours, the electrolyte leakage of disks from wild-type were 93%, whereas two tested transgenic lines (A9, A16) exhibited 24% and 52% leakage respectively. When fruits of wild-type and transgenic plants were exposed to UV-B (2.5mW cm-2) for five days, the extent of browning was 95%, and 33%, and 37%, respectively. In field tests, the detached fruits from field-grown transgenic plants showed more resistance to exposure to direct sunlight than fruits from wild-type plants. APX activity in leaves of cAPX transgenic plants was several folds higher than in leaves of wild-type plants when exposed to heat, UV-B, and drought stresses.
Ignasi Iglesias and SimA Alegre

Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentdries (IRTA) - Estacio Experimental de Lleida, Avda. Rovira Roure, 191. 25198-Lleida, Spain.

Key words: Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., 'Mondial Gala', net, hail protection, insurance, radiation, temperature, humidity, vigour, fruit colour, quality, cost, benefit.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 91-100.

Abstract: The effects of crystal (transparent) and black nets on the protection of fruits from hail, the interception of light, temperature, humidity and fruit quality were evaluated over four seasons (from 2000 to 2003) at the IRTA-Experimental Station, Lleida (NE-Spain) on 'Mondial Gala' apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Nets demonstrated their efficiency for fruit protection against hail; decreased maximum orchard temperatures and increased minimum temperatures and relative humidity. Based on PAR values, on sunny days, the black net intercepted 25% more incident radiation than the control and the crystal net intercepted 12% more. The use of black net resulted in a significant reduction of colour intensity and days taken for maturity, and provided lower average yields for fruit harvested at the first picking. The crystal net was associated with intermediate values between black net and control, or similar values to those of the control. Both nets reduced fruit temperature and the incidence of sunburn improving global skin quality. The black net increased the vigour of the trees. Fruit firmness was not affected by the use of nets. Soluble solid content decreased when black net was used, while maturity was delayed in some seasons. There were no consistent effect with respect to titratable acidity and fruit cracking. The annual cost of the anti-hail nets was 1874 to 1612 ? ha1, respectively, for crystal and black nets, depending mainly on the durability of the net. The annual cost of insurance was 760 ? ha1 and was determinated by site, cultivar, yield and price insured, and was lower than that of covering by nets. The gross profit corresponding to the crystal net (8896 ? ha1) was lower to the control/insurance (9223 ? ha1) and greater to the black net (7842 ? ha1) because of the reduction in fruit colour. With 'Mondial Gala' apples, the use of both colour nets was not economically beneficial compared to the control.
Randal. L. Shogren and Monica David

Plant Polymer Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA/ARS, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, University of Illinois Extension, 1201 South Dorner Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, Corresponding author.

Key words: Degradable mulch, soybean oil, sustainable agriculture, vegetable production

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 12-14.

Abstract: This project was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a biodegradable paper/cured vegetable oil mulch with newspaper/straw and bare soil for reducing weed growth and promoting vegetable yields. There were no significant differences in total tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or pepper (Capsicum annum) yields between the different mulch types. The coated paper and newspaper/straw mulches were effective in preventing weed growth around the plants while hand weeding was required for the bare soil plots. After 3 months, there was slight degradation (a few cracks, names are necessary to report factually on available data; however the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name. USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. holes) of the coated paper mulches but not enough to allow noticeable weed penetration or detachment of the buried edge. Paper/cured oil mulch rolls appear to be a convenient and effective alternative to laborious hand weeding or spreading of newspaper and straw for vegetable gardening.
D.T. Nhut, M.T. Ngoc Huong, D.V. Khiem and J.A. Teixeira da Silva

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: Compact 3U, Neon, Cymbidium 'Tim Hot', Lilium longiflorum, Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da'

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 15-20.

Abstract: A novel lighting system (Compact 3U) was successfully applied to the micropropagation of some horticultural plants. Cymbidium 'Tim Hot', Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were used for this study. To compare in vitro growth of plantlets placed under Neon and Compact 3U lighting systems, Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on !/2 MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar under two lighting sources at 45 |amolm-2s-1. After three weeks of culture, the shoot and root length, leaf area and fresh weight of strawberry plantlets under Compact 3U system were significantly higher than those grown under Neon system. To clarify the effect of irradiance of Compact 3U system on the development of plantlets, Cymbidium 'Tim Hot' shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA, 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 100% coconut water, 25 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar, Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on V MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar at different irradiances: (1) Neon at 45 |amolm-2s-1 (control), and Compact 3U at: (2) 45 ^molm-2s-1, (3) 60 |amolm-2s-1, and (4) 75 ^molm-2s-1. The results showed that plantlets of the three genera adapted differently to irradiances and lighting sources, but in all, the growth of plantlets were better under the Compact 3U system. Futhermore, ex vitro plantlets derived from Compact 3U system also developed better than those from Neon system.
Lotte von Richter and CatherineA. Offord

Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Mount Annan Botanic Garden, Mount Annan Drive, Mount Annan, NSW2567, Australia.

Key words: Nutrition, controlled-release fertiliser, nitrogen, Actinotus helianthi, flannel flower, cut flower

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 21-24.

Abstract: Two controlled-release fertiliser (CRF) formulations, Nutricote Total ? 13N : 5.7P : 10.8K (N13) and Nutricote Total ? 18N : 2.6P : 6.6K (N18), were applied at 0, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 5 and 10 kg m-3, to flannel flower (Actinotus helianthi Labill.) seedlings grown in soil-less potting mix in containers. After five months, during peak spring flowering, a number of characters relating to the quality of the cut flower product of this species were assessed. As the rate of fertiliser application increased, the plant height, total number of stems, number of flowering stems and number of flowers and buds increased. There were significantly more stems and flowers overall, and more flowering (saleable) stems, in the N18 treatments at all application rates. Plant height was not affected by fertiliser formulation. Basal foliar necrosis, which scored highly in the control treatment (0 fertiliser), was reduced by fertiliser application.
Muhammad Munir and Farhat Naz (United Kingdom &

School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK. Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. Pakistan.

Key words: Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, apical dominance, growth, flowering.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: Plants of an early flowering Antirrhinum cultivar 'Chimes White' were pinched at 4, 5, 6, and 7 leaf-pair stage to observe the effects on flowering time and plant quality. Though control plants flowered earlier (81 days) than the pinched ones, they produced less number of flower buds. Flower time and rate of progress to flowering in pinched plants increased linearly and significantly. The quality of pinched plants regarding branch numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant fresh weight etc. was significantly improved in all treatments. Many plant growth parameters were successfully fitted by the second degree polynomial model whereas linear model indicated a good fit in reproductive development.
Y A. Batta

Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, P. O. Box 425 (Tulkarm), West Bank, Palestine

Key words: Grape, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor piriformis, Trichoderma harzianum, difenoconazole, captan, cyprodinil + flodioxonil, metalaxyl + mancozeb, postharvest

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 29-32.

Abstract: The present research deals with the effect of postharvest treatment of grape berries with four commonly used fungicides and two forms of Trichoderma harzianum on the infection with soft-rot fungi- Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor piriformis. This effect was evaluated by comparison of the external diameter of rot-lesion in treated and untreated berries, in addition to comparison of percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control. Results indicated that the infection with R. stolonifer and M. piriformis was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all treated berries in comparison with untreated control berries. The highest reduction in mean external rot-lesion diameter was obtained for both R. stolonifer and M. piriformis when inoculated berries were treated with Score? (difenoconazole) applied at 0.35%(v/v) or Switch? (cyprodinil + flodioxonil) applied at 0.20%(w/v) or formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion applied at 9.6x108 conidia/ml of formulation (13.5, 13.2, and 19.3 mm, respectively for R. stolonifer; 7.2, 7.5, and 19.2mm, respectively for M. piriformis). The greatest decrease in percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control was also obtained for both the fungal species when inoculated berries were treated with the same type of fungicides (Score? and Switch?) and Trichoderma (formulated T. harzianum in invert emulsion) (60.9, 61.7, and 44.1%, respectively for R. stolonifer; 74.5, 73.4, and 31.9%, respectively for M. piriformis). Overall results indicate that the most effective treatment obtained on grape berries could be integrated with other control measures being usually used in grape berry-rot management plans by alternating fungicidal treatment (e.g. Score? or Switch?) with application of formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion.
E.M. Khah, E. Kakava,A. Mavromatis, D. Chachalis and C. Goulas

University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytoko Street, 38446, N. Ionia, Magnesias, Volos, Greece;**NationalAgricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), PlantProtec

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon hirsutum, grafting, rootstock, scion, tomato, yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: Seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. 'Big Red' were used as scion and rootstock (self-grafted) and non-grafted control, while two hybrid tomatoes 'Heman' and 'Primavera' were used as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown in the greenhouse and in the open-field. Grafted plants (BH and BP) were more vigorous than the non-grafted ones in the greenhouse as well as in the open-field. Plants grafted onto 'Heman' and 'Primavera' produced 32.5, 12.8% and 11.0 and 11.1% more fruit than the control (B) in the greenhouse and the open-field, respectively, whereas self-grafted plants BB had a lower yield in both cultivation conditions. However, the self-rooted plants B presented earliness in their performance, probably due to the lack of stress that followed the grafting operation. Quality and qualitative fruit characteristics were not affected by grafting.
Liu ZhaoPu, Zhao GengMao, Liu Ling, Zheng QingSong

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China.

Key words: Amino acid, aloe qualities, nitrate, protein, total nitrogen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 33-36.

Abstract: Diluted seawater such as 10% (10 volumes of seawater and 90 volumes of freshwater), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used to irrigate Aloe vera L. during four successive years in Ledong region, Hainan Province of China. The effect of seawater irrigation on nitrogen metabolism of aloe plant was studied. Total nitrogen content of aloe leaves ranged from 1.48 to 1.56 % of dry matter, and no significant differences were observed between control (freshwater irrigation) and seawater treatments. The total nitrogen content of aloe roots, in the range of 0.74 to 0.85 % of dry matter, was much lower than that in the leaves. There was no significant difference in total nitrogen content of roots between control and seawater treatments. It is suggested that seawater treatments do not affect nitrogen uptake and transport in aloe plant. The nitrate content in aloe leaves irrigated with seawater was much lower than that with fresh water irrigation, and a continuous decline in nitrate content was noted with increasing seawater concentration. The nitrate/total nitrogen ratio also tends to decrease in leaves suggesting that nitrate has been assimilated into osmoregulated substances under seawater stress. The amino acid content of aloe plant was not affected, while the ratios of amino acid/total nitrogen significantly increased under seawater stress as compared with control. The protein content and protein/total nitrogen ratios were not affected by seawater treatment except for 100%, suggesting that there was a favourable transformation from amino acids to proteins under salt stress. It is concluded that a long term irrigation by diluted seawater on leachable sandy soil with excessive annual rain precipitation could effectively maintain yield and improve the quality of aloe.
L.Andrews and R.A.I. Brathwaite

Caroni Research Station, Waterloo Road, Carapichaima, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus

Key words: Citrus, Valencia, Ortanique, mandarin, mineral nutrition, yield, fruit set, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 37-41.

Abstract: Low yields of citrus in Trinidad prompted an investigation to determine whether infield yield variation in citrus was due to differences in plant nutrition induced by field variability. Selected trees of three cultivars (Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis), Portugal mandarin (C. reticulata) and Ortanique tangor (C. sinensis x reticulata) were monitored for one to two years and indicators of yield such as percent fruit set, fruit count and fruit quality measured. Leaf nutrient content of the trees and nutritive factors of the soil in the root zone were also determined. Nutrient deficiencies were found in the fields of all the three cultivars. The most common deficiencies were of calcium, zinc and magnesium. There was limited evidence of yield correlation with soil pH (P = 0.012), and leaf phosphorus content (P = 0.02), Zn (P = 0.005) and N (P = 0.001). DRIS analysis supported the notion that infield yield variability was associated with nutrients that were limiting. Percent fruit set was associated with Ca/Mg ratio (r = 0.542, P = 0.045; r = 0.607, P = 0.016) and foliar concentration of micro elements Cu (r = 0.738, P = 0.003; r = 0.667, P = 0.007) and Fe (r = 0.507, P = 0.064; r = 0.573, P = 0.026) in 1997 for one field each of Valencia orange and Portugal mandarin, respectively. The most commonly derived relationship for fruit quality was a negative relationship of leaf nitrogen concentration with fruit weight. A positive relationship between leaf concentration of manganese and peel thickness occurred in Portugal mandarin for the two years of the study.
Esmaeil Chamani, Donald E. Irving, Daryl C. Joyce, MosaArshad

Centre for Native Floriculture, School of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queens?land 4343, Australia; 'Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Mohaghghegh Ardebil University, Ardebil, Iran, ''Horticulture Department

Key words: Postharvest, thidiazuron, vase life, Rosa hybrida, lateral shoot, pulse treatment, cut flower, longevity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 42-44.

Abstract: Effects of postharvest-applied thidiazuron (TDZ) on the vases life of 7 rose cultivars (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. Cut rose flowers were pulse-treated with TDZ for 24 hours at 22 oC. Application of 20, 60 and 100 uM TDZ to 'Memoire' rose did not affect vase life when compared with the control (0 uM TDZ). Similarly, pulse treatments with 10 uM TDZ did not affect the vase life of cvs. 'Champagne', 'Laser', 'Magnum', 'Neon' and 'Tresor 2000' roses compared with their untreated controls, but did increase the vase life of 'First Red' by 2 days (+11.5 %). Lateral shoot development was a common side effect of TDZ treatment.
Ahmed A. ElObeidy

Department of Fruit Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Apple cactus, Cereus, drought resistance, hyper-arid environment, water use efficiency.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 45-49.

Abstract: Introducing new crop with high water use efficiency into the hyper-arid environment will participate in curb rising demand of water. Apple cactus (Cereus species) characteristics fit with most of the requirements of a drought tolerant crop with very high water-use efficiency. Several Cereus species were introduced into a desert, characterized with rare rainfall and high temperatures. The introduced fruiting species were Cereus hexagonus, C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. validus. C. pachanoi was introduced as a rootstock. C. peruvianus cuttings survived storage up to eight months. Horizontal position of the cuttings during storage encouraged the development of lateral branches. Plants were propagated by cuttings, acclimatized and then transplanted into the field in the desert. Growth and development of the introduced species were assessed under the new environment. All the introduced species grew successfully except C. validus that was eliminated during the first summer. C. peruvianus monstrose was characterized with dramatic contraction of the stem in the dry condition. The main stem of C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose, C. hexagonus and C. pachanoi grew 9.2, 10.2, 8.1 and 15 cm/month, respectively. C. peruvianus developed the highest number of sprouts. C. Peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. hexagonus unite with the C. pachanoi to form successful grafts with percentage of success 80, 53 and 86.5, respectively. C. validus failed completely to unite with C. pachanoi. C. peruvianus and C. peruvianus monstrose were the most promising in the new hyper-arid environment in terms of adaptability and healthy growth.
Manjusha Dhane, S.A.Tamhankar, S.G. Patil, G.S. Karibasappa and V.S. Rao

Genetics Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar Road, Pune-411004.National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm, Pune-412307.

Key words: Diversity, genetic relationships, ISSR markers, grape varieties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 50-52.

Abstract: As a result of large-scale introduction, the origin and authenticity of many grape varieties is unclear and the subject of some controversy. This has led to confusion regarding their correct identification. Molecular markers have proved to be useful to analyze the genetic relationships as well as diversity between different grape varieties. In the present study, 34 grape varieties have been characterized using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 93 ISSR primers screened initially, 11 showed good polymorphism. Total 174 bands were obtained, out of which 145 were polymorphic. The pair wise similarity indices were calculated from the band data. Cluster analysis of the varieties resulted in the formation of two main clusters, one belonging to Vitis vinifera and other to V. labrusca. Varieties belonging to V. vinifera appeared more diverse and formed distinct sub-clusters based on their colour, flavour and seeds. Out of 34 varieties screened, 10 varieties with green/yellow berries were grouped together in one subcluster and 15 with red/black berries in the other. Three varieties with green/ yellow berries, Italia, Queen of Vineyard and Thompson seedless were grouped with the varieties with red/black berries. The cluster of labrusca varieties showed homogeneity and had five varieties except Dakh, which belongs to vinifera. Concord separates initially from all other varieties. Incidentally, Concord is a pure selection from V. labrusca, while other varieties like Bangalore Blue, Black Muscat, Catawba and Muzzafar Nagar in labrusca group, may be the hybrids of V. abrusca x V. vinifera. The current study thus revealed that genetic relationships among grape cultivars could be assessed using ISSR markers.
K.H. Mohsen, Ebrahim, IbrahimA. Ibrahim, HamdyA. Emaraand Ewald Komor

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Egypt, Department of Plant Physiology, Bayreuth University, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany

Key words: Banana (Musa spp. L.), medium (solid/liquid), micropropagation, osmotic stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG), proline, sugars

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 53-57.

Abstract: Shoot tip explants of the Egyptian banana cultivars Maghraby, Valery, Grand Nain and Hindy were tested for their tolerance to water stress. Shoot survival, shoot growth and root growth stimulation in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was strongest in cultivar Hindy followed by Grand Nain, Maghraby and Valery. The accumulation of soluble sugars and proline in shoots was positively correlated with the applied polyethylene glycol concentration, while the reverse was true for N, P and K content. The cultivar Hindy exhibited higher metabolite accumulation response and cultivar Maghraby the least. The effects were most clear on liquid medium whereas solid (agar) medium exerted some additional effects increasing the osmotic stress at low PEG concentrations and alleviating the PEG effect at high PEG concentrations. In conclusion, the cultivar Hindy appeared to be the most tolerant to water stress because of strong accumulation of compatible solutes and greater stimulation of root development.
Fredah. K. Rimberia, S. Adaniya, M. Kawajiri, N. Urasaki, S. Kawano, T. Etoh and Y. Ishimine

Facultiy of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Southern Plant Co., Ltd., Kochinda, Okinawa 901-0401, Japan. Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Sakiyama, Naha, Okinawa 903-0814, Japan. Facultiy of

Key words: Fruit swelling, gibberellins, papaya (Carica papaya), parthenocarpy, sex types.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 58-61.

Abstract: To improve the productivity of vegetable papaya in subtropical regions, 1) fruit setting rate (parthenocarpic ability) and fruit productivity between sex types (females and hermaphrodites) and among cultivars; and 2) effect of gibberellins (GAs) on fruit swelling, was studied. In both sex types, the number of fruits per tree correlated more closely with fruit yield than with individual fruit weight. Females produced higher number of fruits per tree, thus attaining a higher fruit yield than hermaphrodites. A variation in parthenocarpic ability was observed among cultivars, and this ability was higher in female plants than in hermaphrodites. These results suggest that it is possible to grow female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability. However, parthenocarpic fruits were significantly smaller than those produced by pollination. GA treatment was found to be effective for promoting fruit swelling under greenhouse conditions. Thus, in the greenhouse production of papaya, GA treatment was more efficient than hand pollination. Based on these results, we suggest that in subtropical regions, efficient production of papaya fruit for use as a vegetable may be realized by selection and cultivation of female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability and promotion of fruit swelling by GA treatment.

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