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Paramjeet Kaur; Cheema, D S; Neena Chawla

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: carotenes, carrots, dry matter, genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic variation, sugar content, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 130-132.

Abstract: Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for different quality characters, i.e. total soluble solids (TSS), dry matter, carotene, juice yield and total sugars, were studied in 28 carrot genotypes grown during 2002/03 and 2003/04 in Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Analysis revealed the existence of considerable amount of genetic variability for all characters studied. Carotene content exhibited the highest value of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability (broad sense) and genetic advance as percentage of mean, indicating that this character can be effectively improved through selection.
Oyetunji, O J; Osonubi, O

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: abscission, biomass production, chillies, crop yield, endomycorrhizas, flowering, flowers, fruiting, fruits, inoculation, mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizas

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 133-136.

Abstract: A semi-controlled experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizas (Glomus mosseae, G. etunicatum or both) on chilli pepper (tatase) production in sub-humid soils of the tropics. The mycorrhizas were inoculated by placing 10 g of inoculum in each hole opening made in a container in which 4-week-old seedlings were transplanted. G. etunicatum was effective in improving the biomass production of tatase as well as its flowering and fruiting potential. Mycorrhizal inoculation also reduced the number of abscised flowers and fruits. Dual inoculation with both mycorrhizas did not improve its performance in comparison to the single inoculation with G. etunicatum.
Jagdev Sharma; Upadhyay, A K; Adsule, P G

National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm P.O., Pune - 413 307, India.

Key words: application methods, crop yield, grapes, plant water relations, subsurface irrigation, trickle irrigation, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 137-138.

Abstract: To minimize the expenditure on irrigation water, the efficiency of sub-surface application of drip water was evaluated for one year (from April 2003 to April 2004) on a 6.475-ha drip-irrigated commercial vineyard at Ghuli Garden in Shohale, Solapur district, Maharashtra, India. The vines had suffered from moisture stress during the year preceding the experimentation. In the present study, 3-year-old Y-trellis-trained and drip-irrigated Thompson Seedless vines were used to compare the efficiency of the two methods of irrigation. The vineyard had a shallow soil with a high infiltration rate. For the subsurface method, the irrigation water from drippers was applied below the soil surface at 4 inches depth. The sub-surface method of irrigation produced a higher yield than the surface drip irrigation (12.49 and 8.16 t/ha, respectively). The water use efficiency of sub-surface method was 28.91 kg grapes/mm irrigation compared to only 18.88 kg grapes/mm irrigation with surface drip irrigation. The results of this st
Ratan Kumar; Rai, R M; Singh, R B; Pant, N

Horticultural Experiments and Training Centre, Chaubattia (Ranikhet), Almora - 263 651, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: acidity, application rates, chlormequat, crop quality, firmness, fruiting, fruits, growth, growth retardants, internodes, paclobutrazol, peaches, plant growth regulators, plant height, shoots, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 139-141.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the effects of foliar spraying with cycocel [chlormequat] (CCC; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) and cultar (paclobutrazol; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) on the growth, yield and fruit quality of peach cv. Paradelux growing in high-density orchards in Chaubattia, Uttaranchal, India. Cultar at 1500 ppm was most effective in reducing the plant height, extension growth and shoot internode length. Both cycocel at 1500 ppm and cultar at 1000 ppm increased the fruit number and yield, but had no significant effect on fruit weight. Fruit firmness increased under 1000 and 1500 ppm cultar treatment in the second year. However, total soluble solids and acidity were not affected by both growth retardants. Cultar at 1000 ppm was the best treatment in terms of controlling vegetative growth and fruiting of young peach trees.
Kahl, H; Krug, A

School of Horticulture, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 540, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Key words: bentonite, blood, bones, cabbages, growing media, lettuces, plant development, seed germination, slow release fertilizers, tomatoes, weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 142-144.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dried blood or blood and bone and bentonite, as a slow release fertilizer, on germination rate of lettuce, tomato, and white and red cabbages, plant yield and the attraction of sciarid flies (Sciaridae) and whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). The potting mixes comprised: standard mix (60 litres compost + 20 litres sand + 20 litres composted bark + 300 g gypsum + 200 g kelp powder) + 250 g dried blood, 250 g blood and bone, 125 g bentonite (a); standard mix + 250 dried blood, 250 g blood and bone (b); standard mix + 125 g bentonite (c); and standard mix (d). The germination rate for lettuce and tomato was similar for the mixes with and without blood and bone. The germination of red and white cabbages was strongly affected by the presence of blood and bone. Only 13 seeds out of 80 germinated in the samples with blood and bone compared with a total number of 80 germinated seeds out of 80 in the samples without blood and bone. In the mixes with bentonite, 113
Ferrini, F; Mancuso, S; Nicese, F P

Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, University of Florence, Viale delle Idee, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.

Key words: chlorophyll, gas exchange, growth, leaves, light intensity, ornamental plants, ornamental woody plants, plant morphology, plant physiology, shading, woody plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 63-66.

Abstract: To verify the effects of reduced light intensity on plant growth and on selected morphological and physiological characteristics of the leaves, 50 uniform two-year-old, asexually propagated plants of Viburnum sargentii 'Onondaga' were subjected to two shading levels (52 and 14% of the full solar radiation) for the entire growing season. A third group of 25 plants was grown in full sun and used as control. No differences were found in terms of leaf gas exchange, while leaf chlorophyll content was lower in the full sun-grown plants. A significantly higher chlorophyll a/b ratio was also found in this plants. Leaves were smaller in the heavy-shaded plants, which also showed a lower weight and specific leaf weight (leaf weight/area ratio). These plants also showed a reduced growth for all the parameters considered, while no differences were found between the full sun-grown plants and the mid-shaded ones. Based on our results, V. sargentii, though classified as a facultative shade species, can also be used in full
Duong Tan Nhut; Nguyen Trinh Don; Truong Thi Thuy An; Tran Pham Thanh Van; Nguyen Hong Vu; Phan Xuan Huyen; Dinh Van Khiem

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam.

Key words: chrysanthemums, hydroponics, in vitro culture, leaves, micropropagation, NAA, plant growth regulators, roots, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 67-71.

Abstract: Microponic and hydroponic systems for the production of disease-free chrysanthemums are described. Cuttings (3 cm in length), excised from shoot clusters multiplied in vitro, were pre-treated with NAA and grown for 28 days in microponic culture system. NAA at 500 ppm for 20 min was the optimum pre-treatment, resulting in fresh weight, shoot length, root length and survival rate of 0.31 g, 5.99 cm, 3.08 cm and 100%, respectively. Cuttings were grown in hydroponic culture system to avoid mass contamination in soil. The cuttings (10 cm in length), excised from shoots multiplied in vitro, were pre-treated with 500 ppm NAA for 20 min and grown for 28 days. Half-strength MS medium was optimum for hydroponic culture, resulting in shoot length, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf diameter, number of roots, root length and fresh weight of 14.85 cm, 7.0, 6.46 cm, 4.82 cm, 28.6, 2.47 cm and 2.24 g, respectively. This medium also resulted in 100% survival rate after 14 days of culture.
Al Humaid, A I; Moftah, A E

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (PO Box: 1482), King Saud University, Al-Qassim Branch, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: antitranspirants, biomass, bulbs, calcium, carbohydrates, chemical composition, crop yield, drought, flowering, growth, inflorescences, kaolin, leaves, mineral content, nitrogen, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutr

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 72-78.

Abstract: The effects of different types of antitranspirants (ATs) on vegetative growth, flowering, marketable inflorescences, bulb production, elemental content, soluble sugars, and total carbohydrate concentrations of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa cv. "Double"), grown under the irrigation regimes of 100, 80 and 60% of total evapo-transpiration (ET) value, were investigated. Plant biomass, number of leaves, length and weight of marketable inflorescences and bulb yield were significantly reduced by water deficit, particularly at 60% ET. The flowering period was markedly shortened under stress conditions. Under water deficit, N, P, K, Ca and total carbohydrates decreased, while soluble sugars increased in treated leaves compared to the control plants. Both types of ATs effectively enhanced plant performance, flower formation, bulb production, nutrient uptake and carbohydrate synthesis at the 80% ET treatment. The particle type AT, Kaolin, was more effective than the emulsion type AT, Vapour Gard (VG), due to its mechani
Sunitha Bhaskaran; Ganeshan, S; Krishnappa, M; Lalitha, A

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: genetic analysis, genetic mapping, plant morphology, polymerase chain reaction, quantitative traits, random amplified polymorphic DNA

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 79-82.

Abstract: Cuttings of Adhatoda beddomei were collected from Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, India, while A. vasica [Justicia adhatoda] was collected from Bangalore, Karnataka. Morphological characterization was conducted for 25 qualitative and 20 quantitative traits. The 3 A. beddomei accessions showed similar growth patterns while A. vasica showed significant difference in morphological characters. Among the quantitative traits, there was a tendency among the 3 A. beddomei accessions to be at par while A. vasica showed distinct dissimilarity. All the 25 qualitative traits observed showed similarity in A. beddomei accessions. In A. vasica, 19 traits were similar to that of A. beddomei while 6 differed. In A. beddomei, there was no incidence of fruit set inspite of considerable inflorescence development. Good quality DNA was obtained from all the 4 accessions based on the A260/A280 ratio obtained. Yield was similar in all the lines, i.e. ranging from 0.67 to 2.33 micro g/mg of DNA was obtained. The banding pattern of
Hossain, M A; Kamaluddin, M

Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh.

Key words: buds, guavas, light intensity, rooting, roots, shading, shoots, topping, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 83-86.

Abstract: Two-year-old stockplants of guava were topped leaving 25-cm-tall stumps. Shoots were allowed to develop at three light levels, i.e. open sun (100% daylight), lateral shade (50% daylight) and overhead shade (12% daylight). Bud activity, shoot growth and morphology, and rooting ability were studied. Active bud percentages were higher in shaded stockplants, leading to as many shoots as in 100% daylight. Although number of nodes per shoot tended to increase in shaded stockplants, estimates of cutting yield did not largely vary with the light regimes. Light intensity had no significant effect on the rooting success of cuttings. However, shade cuttings produced significantly higher number of roots and root dry mass per cutting than those from 100% daylight. The benefits of shading on rooting performance of cuttings was more pronounced in shoots developed in 50% daylight than those in 12% daylight. Lateral shade had a positive shade effect on shoot development likely by improving physiological conditions conducive f
Asao, T; Kitazawa, H; Washizu, K; Ban, T; Pramanik, M H R

Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 2059 Kamihonjo, Matsue, Shimane, 690-1102, Japan.

Key words: anthocyanins, application rates, hydroponics, leaves, nitrate, nutrient solutions, plant nutrition, roots, soilless culture, turnips

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 87-89.

Abstract: Seedlings of Japanese turnip (Brassica rapa [B. campestris var. rapa] cv. 'Tsudakabu') that were in the first-leaf stage were grown hydroponically in plastic containers containing 25, 50 and 75% of Enshi nutrient solution with either full or half dose of NO3-N. The nutrient solutions were renewed at 2-week intervals until harvest. The experiment was conducted from 19 September (transplanting in containers) to 21 November 2002 (harvesting). The size and colour of roots from hydroponic culture were similar to that of turnip grown in soil culture, while the size of leaves was larger in the former than that in the latter. Leaf number, leaf length and width, and leaf dry and fresh weights all decreased significantly at the lowest concentration of the nutrient solution. The presence of full and half dose of NO3-N in the 75 and 50% nutrient solution did not show significant difference in growth. Root dry and fresh weights also significantly decreased at the lowest concentration of the nutrient solution. Anthocyanin
Downer, A J; Faber, B

University of California Cooperative Extension, 669 County Square Drive, Suite 100 Ventura, CA 93003, USA.

Key words: composts, establishment, mulches, mulching, photosynthesis, plant residues, roots, soil water retention, stems, temperature, weed control, weeds

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 90-94.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the suitability of mulches made from Eucalyptus cladocalyx trimmings for the establishment of young California sycamore (Platanus racemosa) trees and whether composting reduced any phytotoxicity symptoms that might be associated with fresh E. cladocalyx. The mulches prepared from fresh and composted E. cladocalyx prevented the growth of annual weeds, increased soil moisture retention, reduced diffusive resistance of California sycamore and increased stem diameter compared to unmulched sycamores. The root length of sycamores was higher in soil profiles under mulched trees than in soil under unmulched ones. E. cladocalyx mulches reflected more photosynthetically active radiation and maintained lower surface temperature than biosolids mulch or unmulched soils. Both freshly chopped and composted eucalyptus branches were effective in promoting growth of sycamore.
Adebooye, O C; Adeoye, G O; Tijani Eniola, H

Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Key words: ascorbic acid, cracking, crop quality, crude fibre, cultivars, fruits, harvesting date, lycopene, moisture content, polyethylene, ripening, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 95-98.

Abstract: Studies were conducted during the early and late seasons of 2001/02 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, to examine the postharvest quality of fruits of three tomato cultivars (Roma VF, Ibadan Local and NHLe 158-13) ripened on the parent plant, transparent polyethylene, black polyethylene and laboratory tabletop. Cracking resistance was tested by dropping the fruits on a concrete floor from different vertical heights (50 to 275 cm). The height at which 50% of the fruits cracker (CH50) was 100-125 cm for Ibadan Local, 150 cm for Roma VF and 220 cm for NHLe 158-13. Ripening method and harvesting season had no significant effect on the cracking tendency of the tomato cultivars. Lycopene, crude fibre and ascorbic acid contents were significantly higher in fruits harvested during the late season than the early season. All three quality parameters as well as moisture content were significantly higher in fruits ripened on the parent plant than the other ripening methods. Ether extract content was neither affected by cultivar nor se
Razmovski Naumovski, V; Li Qian [Li, Q G]; Duke, C C

Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre (HMREC), Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, N.S.W., 2006, Australia.

Key words: chemical composition, crop yield, cultivation, medicinal plants, plant composition, plant extracts, quality controls, saponins, thin layer chromatography, traditional medicines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 99-104.

Abstract: This paper describes the cultivation, harvesting, processing and storage of G. pentaphyllum in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in comparison to its native China. The dry weight yield of Sydney-grown plants (0.50 kg/m2) was in the range of the yield obtained in China (0.4-0.5 kg/m2). The percentage of extracted material was also higher for the locally grown material (28.5%) in comparison to G. pentaphyllum products grown in China (10.3-18.1%). Thin layer chromatography revealed a different saponin profile for the local material compared with commercially available products, indicating its potential for use in quality control. These results suggest that Australia may be a new growing location for this traditional Chinese medicine.
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498, Hattaji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: buds, chlorophyll, climatic seasons, crop quality, crop yield, fruit set, fruits, peaches, plant development, pruning, regrowth, shoots, summer, winter

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 11-15.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted in Japan, to compare regenerated shoot growth, pruned shoot weight, chlorophyll content, bud formation, fruit set, fruit yield and quality in summer- and winter-pruned peach (cv. AB-1) trees. Summer pruning comprised heading cut, removal of vigorous and current season shoots on 24 July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 after harvest. Winter pruning was conducted in February-March 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The weight of shoots removed by summer pruning was smaller than winter pruning. The pruned shoot weight gradually decreased both in summer-pruned and winter-pruned trees. The regenerated shoot number was less and regrowth stopped within 2 months after summer pruning. Regenerated shoot length after summer pruning increased until October. Chlorophyll was higher in summer- than in winter-pruned trees in November. Leaf drop was 2 months earlier in winter- than in summer-pruned trees. The flowers were less in summer- than in winter-pruned trees. Fruit set was recorded in 2003 and 2004, and wa

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