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Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes and Charles de Araujo

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal, 36570-000, Vi?osa-MG. Brazil

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, unheated greenhouse, drip irrigation, SPAD, plant nutrition

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 8-11.

Abstract: This study evaluated the feasibility of using SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter and plant visual aspect for N management in drip fertirrigated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under unheated greenhouse. Two separate experiments were carried out at Universidade Federal de Vi?osa - MG ? Brazil in leached and non-leached soils under greenhouse. Six treatments were evaluated in a randomised complete-block design with four replicates. In treatment 1, N was applied at the time SPAD reading in leaf dropped below a critical value previously established for the specific plant physiological stage (SPAD-1). In treatments 2 and 3, SPAD critical values were increased 20 % (SPAD-2) and decreased 10% (SPAD-3), respectively. In treatment 4, the visual aspect of tomato plant (PVA) was utilized as a criterion of N management. In treatments 5 and 6 (check), N rates were 280 and 0 kg N ha-1, respectively. Total applied N rates ranged from 0 to 594 kg N ha-1. In both the experiments, total and marketable fruit yields were highest in SPAD-1 treatment which only differed from the check plot. All five criteria allowed high total tomato fruit yields but, as experiments average, N use efficiency was highest with the PVA treatment. The highest net income was obtained with SPAD-1 treatment and was associated with the highest yield. The results indicate that a SPAD meter can provide a quantitative measure of the N requirement of the tomato plants as long as appropriate SPAD critical values are established. Visual ratings of plant canopy needs to be more evaluated and improved.
Reza Sedaghat and S. Suryaprakash

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Iran, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: Pistachio, Iran, export, production problems, productivity, economics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Pistachio is one of the most important agricultural crop in Iran. The country earns sizable income from pistachio export. To be globally competitive, the production and trade of pistachio must be economically viable especially in long run. This paper aims to analyze the constraints in production and marketing of Pistachio in Iran. Necessary data were collected through personal interview of randomly selected sample of farmers and exporters/ processors. One hundred farmers and ten processor/ exporters interviewed in Kerman province and Tehran city (Iran), in the crop year 2003-04. The Garret ranking technique was adopted to identify the constraints. Farmers and traders were asked to rank the problems considered. Farmers ranked 14 problems into 9 different categories. Differences between scores adopted for different categories were low and they varied from 74 to 87, indicating that all the problems are important from producer's point of views. On the other hand, traders ranked only 12 given problems among 17. They classified each and every problem into a distinct category. Score variations were comparatively high varying from 19 to 60 indicating that there is significant difference between different categories of problems. The results of tabular analysis of export data showed that pistachio industry of Iran was facing a negative growth rate of production, productivity, export quantity and export value during the period 1991-2002.
Jiang YueMing; Su XinGuo; Jiang YueLin; Li YueBiao; Lin WenBin

South China Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou LeYiJu 510650, China.

Key words: bagging, crop quality, fruits, storage disorders, storage life, storage quality, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest. To determine the potential of fruit bagging for extending storage life, litchi fruits were enclosed in 0.05 mm white polyethylene bags at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days before normal harvest. At commercial maturity, bagged and unbagged litchi fruits were picked and then held individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days at 20 degrees C and 95-100% relative humidity in the dark. Bagging of fruits before normal harvest markedly delayed skin browning and reduced rot development of litchi fruit during storage. The best inhibition of the browning and disease development of litchi fruit was observed when the fruit was bagged 3 days before normal harvest. Bagged fruits had lower levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA), but no significant differences in the TS and TA between bagged and unbagged fruits after 6 days of storage were recorded for flesh tissues. Thus, bagging fruit before normal harvest had the potential to reduce rots, main
Venkataramana, C; Reddy, K M; Sadashiva, A T; Reddy, M K

Division of Horticulture, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: chillies, crop yield, crosses, diallel analysis, disease resistance, flowering date, fruits, general combining ability, genetic effects, genetic variance, genotypes, maternal effects, plant height, plant pathogens, reciprocal effects, ripening, specific c

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 108-112.

Abstract: Combining ability analysis of 8x8 diallel cross (including reciprocals) was carried out during kharif 2001 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India involving Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant and susceptible lines of chilli. The variances for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) were highly significant for all the characters, suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The sca variance played an important role in the genetic control of days to 50% flowering, days to 50% ripening, fruit width, plant height, plant spread, number of fruits per plant, green fruit yield per plant and percent CMV incidence. On the contrary, additive gene action was observed for fruit length. The genotype VR-27 was judged to be the best general combiner for fruit yield per plant and Perennial, Punjab Lal, Punjab Gucchedar and Pant C-1 proved to be good general combiners for percent CMV incidence. The crosses Punjab Gucchedar x Pant C-1 and Tiwari x EG-174 had greater sca effect
Sabir, S M; Riaz, K

University College of Agriculture, Rawalakot - 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Key words: ascorbic acid, branches, calcium, canopy, chemical composition, chlorophyll, essential oil plants, fruits, iron, leaf area, leaves, magnesium, medicinal plants, multipurpose trees, nonreducing sugars, phosphorus, plant composition, plant height, plant mor

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 113-116.

Abstract: Elaeagnus umbellata is a native multipurpose plant from Himalayan regions of Pakistan. The berries of the plant are rich in vitamins, flavonoids, essential oil, lycopene and other bioactive compounds. To compare various populations of E. umbellata for morphology and chemical composition, five populations from different areas of district Bagh were compared using plant and fruit characters. Chemical analysis of berries showed variation in vitamin C (13.8-16.9 mg/100 g), seed oil (5.7-6.1%), oil in pulp (7.6-8.1%), reducing sugar (6.8-8.4%), non-reducing sugar (1.4-2.2%), protein (2.5-5.1%) and chlorophyll content (5.3-6.8%) in leaves, while the mineral element composition revealed high contents of potassium (175-375 ppm), sodium (20-40 ppm), calcium (70-110 ppm), magnesium (70-86.6 ppm), iron (78.5-95 ppm) and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). Significant variation in morphological characters including plant height, number of branches per plant, number and size of thorns, number of leaves, leaf area, plant canopy, stem
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; El Shereif, A R; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Hattanji, Matsuyama 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: bark, buds, crop quality, fruit set, fruits, growth, peaches, ringing, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 117-120.

Abstract: A study was conducted in southern Japan to investigate the effects of partial ringing (bark removal) on peach (Prunus persica cv. Hikawahakuho). The bark was cut once at 2 cm length x 2 mm width and 8 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 1, and cut once or weekly at 2 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 2. Control plants were not subjected to partial ringing. Ringing reduced shoot and bark growth and increased flower bud and fruit set in comparison to the unringed control. Tree circumference was higher above the ringed portion than the lower part of partially ringed trees. Fruit weight and maturity degree were also higher in ringed trees than unringed ones. The results indicate that partial ringing can be used for dwarfing peach trees and enhancing fruit quality.
Biswajit Panda; Singh, Y V; Ram, H H

Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, India.

Key words: aubergines, crop yield, diallel analysis, fruits, heterosis, hybrids, maturity, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 121-123.

Abstract: Hybrid advantages as consequences of fruit yield and its component characters were studied in 10 round-fruited aubergine hybrids along with their 5 genetically diverse parents in half-diallel manner during 2002-03 in Uttaranchal, India. Appreciable heterosis was recorded over mid, better and standard parents for all the characters. Heterosis to the extent of 8.8, 18.6, 28.0, 41.1 and 59.5% over standard parent (Pant Rituraj) was recorded for fruit length, fruit diameter, total number of fruits per plant, total weight of fruits per plant and early yield, respectively. Heterosis for yield was the cumulative effect of heterosis for most yield attributing characters. The highest yielding hybrid was PB-62 x T-3 (4.5 kg per plant), followed by PR x PB-61 (4.2 kg per plant), with 41.1 and 32% standard heterosis, respectively. The hybrid PR x PB-61 combination was also earliest in maturity with 59.5%, followed by PR x PB-60 showing 41.3% standard heterosis. These two crosses could be exploited as commercial hybrids i
Mishra, S K; Singh, R P

Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.

Key words: crop quality, edible fungi, hemp, Indian mustard, limes, linseed, mushrooms, non wood forest products, plant extracts, storage quality, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 124-126.

Abstract: Water-diluted extracts of 23 plants (Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Azadirachta indica, Callistemon lanceolatus [Callistemon citrinus], Calotropis gigantea, Cannabis sativa, Chrysanthemum indica [Chrysanthemum indicum], Citrus aurantiifolia, Cleome viscosa, Clerodendrum indicum, Dahlia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Dombeya spectabilis, Erigeron canadensis [Conyza canadensis], Eucalyptus citriodora, Evolvulus alsinoides, Juniperus chinensis, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Thuja orientalis [Platycladus orientalis] and Tridax procumbens) and 2 cakes (linseed and mustard [? Indian mustard]) were used as washing agents to improve the weight, whiteness and toughness of harvested sporophores of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 5 and 25 degrees C. The weight of sporophores increased by 6.66% just after washing them with water diluted extracts of plants and cakes. At the end of the experiment (12th day), the weight declined by 1.87-4.38% among th
Amit Kumar; Kumar, K; Sharma, S D

Department of Fruit Breeding & Genetic Resources, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan (H.P.) 173 230, India.

Key words: abscission, cross pollination, flowers, genotypes, open pollination, self pollination, walnuts

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 127-129.

Abstract: Pistillate flower abscission (PFA) was investigated in 18- to 20-year-old trees of 13 indigenous selections and 7 exotic cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) subjected to different modes of pollination, i.e. natural (open) pollination, self (hand) pollination and cross pollination, during 1999 and 2000 in Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. PFA ranged from 12.40 to 100.00% under natural pollination, 8.47 to 62.36% under self pollination and 12.33 to 100.00% under cross pollination in the first year. The corresponding values of PFA were 13.22 to 97.66, 9.11 to 60.40 and 13.50 to 96.67%, respectively, in the following year. In unpollinated flowers, PFA ranged from 0 to 100.00% in 1999 and from 5.33 to 94.33% in 2000. The results indicate no clear trend towards this economically important phenomenon and suggest that PFA is neither exactly due to genetic differences nor entirely due to mode of pollination.
Paramjeet Kaur; Cheema, D S; Neena Chawla

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: carotenes, carrots, dry matter, genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic variation, sugar content, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 130-132.

Abstract: Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for different quality characters, i.e. total soluble solids (TSS), dry matter, carotene, juice yield and total sugars, were studied in 28 carrot genotypes grown during 2002/03 and 2003/04 in Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Analysis revealed the existence of considerable amount of genetic variability for all characters studied. Carotene content exhibited the highest value of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability (broad sense) and genetic advance as percentage of mean, indicating that this character can be effectively improved through selection.
Oyetunji, O J; Osonubi, O

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: abscission, biomass production, chillies, crop yield, endomycorrhizas, flowering, flowers, fruiting, fruits, inoculation, mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizas

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 133-136.

Abstract: A semi-controlled experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizas (Glomus mosseae, G. etunicatum or both) on chilli pepper (tatase) production in sub-humid soils of the tropics. The mycorrhizas were inoculated by placing 10 g of inoculum in each hole opening made in a container in which 4-week-old seedlings were transplanted. G. etunicatum was effective in improving the biomass production of tatase as well as its flowering and fruiting potential. Mycorrhizal inoculation also reduced the number of abscised flowers and fruits. Dual inoculation with both mycorrhizas did not improve its performance in comparison to the single inoculation with G. etunicatum.
Jagdev Sharma; Upadhyay, A K; Adsule, P G

National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm P.O., Pune - 413 307, India.

Key words: application methods, crop yield, grapes, plant water relations, subsurface irrigation, trickle irrigation, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 137-138.

Abstract: To minimize the expenditure on irrigation water, the efficiency of sub-surface application of drip water was evaluated for one year (from April 2003 to April 2004) on a 6.475-ha drip-irrigated commercial vineyard at Ghuli Garden in Shohale, Solapur district, Maharashtra, India. The vines had suffered from moisture stress during the year preceding the experimentation. In the present study, 3-year-old Y-trellis-trained and drip-irrigated Thompson Seedless vines were used to compare the efficiency of the two methods of irrigation. The vineyard had a shallow soil with a high infiltration rate. For the subsurface method, the irrigation water from drippers was applied below the soil surface at 4 inches depth. The sub-surface method of irrigation produced a higher yield than the surface drip irrigation (12.49 and 8.16 t/ha, respectively). The water use efficiency of sub-surface method was 28.91 kg grapes/mm irrigation compared to only 18.88 kg grapes/mm irrigation with surface drip irrigation. The results of this st
Ratan Kumar; Rai, R M; Singh, R B; Pant, N

Horticultural Experiments and Training Centre, Chaubattia (Ranikhet), Almora - 263 651, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: acidity, application rates, chlormequat, crop quality, firmness, fruiting, fruits, growth, growth retardants, internodes, paclobutrazol, peaches, plant growth regulators, plant height, shoots, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 139-141.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the effects of foliar spraying with cycocel [chlormequat] (CCC; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) and cultar (paclobutrazol; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) on the growth, yield and fruit quality of peach cv. Paradelux growing in high-density orchards in Chaubattia, Uttaranchal, India. Cultar at 1500 ppm was most effective in reducing the plant height, extension growth and shoot internode length. Both cycocel at 1500 ppm and cultar at 1000 ppm increased the fruit number and yield, but had no significant effect on fruit weight. Fruit firmness increased under 1000 and 1500 ppm cultar treatment in the second year. However, total soluble solids and acidity were not affected by both growth retardants. Cultar at 1000 ppm was the best treatment in terms of controlling vegetative growth and fruiting of young peach trees.
Kahl, H; Krug, A

School of Horticulture, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 540, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Key words: bentonite, blood, bones, cabbages, growing media, lettuces, plant development, seed germination, slow release fertilizers, tomatoes, weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 142-144.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dried blood or blood and bone and bentonite, as a slow release fertilizer, on germination rate of lettuce, tomato, and white and red cabbages, plant yield and the attraction of sciarid flies (Sciaridae) and whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). The potting mixes comprised: standard mix (60 litres compost + 20 litres sand + 20 litres composted bark + 300 g gypsum + 200 g kelp powder) + 250 g dried blood, 250 g blood and bone, 125 g bentonite (a); standard mix + 250 dried blood, 250 g blood and bone (b); standard mix + 125 g bentonite (c); and standard mix (d). The germination rate for lettuce and tomato was similar for the mixes with and without blood and bone. The germination of red and white cabbages was strongly affected by the presence of blood and bone. Only 13 seeds out of 80 germinated in the samples with blood and bone compared with a total number of 80 germinated seeds out of 80 in the samples without blood and bone. In the mixes with bentonite, 113
Ferrini, F; Mancuso, S; Nicese, F P

Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, University of Florence, Viale delle Idee, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.

Key words: chlorophyll, gas exchange, growth, leaves, light intensity, ornamental plants, ornamental woody plants, plant morphology, plant physiology, shading, woody plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 63-66.

Abstract: To verify the effects of reduced light intensity on plant growth and on selected morphological and physiological characteristics of the leaves, 50 uniform two-year-old, asexually propagated plants of Viburnum sargentii 'Onondaga' were subjected to two shading levels (52 and 14% of the full solar radiation) for the entire growing season. A third group of 25 plants was grown in full sun and used as control. No differences were found in terms of leaf gas exchange, while leaf chlorophyll content was lower in the full sun-grown plants. A significantly higher chlorophyll a/b ratio was also found in this plants. Leaves were smaller in the heavy-shaded plants, which also showed a lower weight and specific leaf weight (leaf weight/area ratio). These plants also showed a reduced growth for all the parameters considered, while no differences were found between the full sun-grown plants and the mid-shaded ones. Based on our results, V. sargentii, though classified as a facultative shade species, can also be used in full

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