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Muhammad Munir and Farhat Naz (United Kingdom &

School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK. Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. Pakistan.

Key words: Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, apical dominance, growth, flowering.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: Plants of an early flowering Antirrhinum cultivar 'Chimes White' were pinched at 4, 5, 6, and 7 leaf-pair stage to observe the effects on flowering time and plant quality. Though control plants flowered earlier (81 days) than the pinched ones, they produced less number of flower buds. Flower time and rate of progress to flowering in pinched plants increased linearly and significantly. The quality of pinched plants regarding branch numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant fresh weight etc. was significantly improved in all treatments. Many plant growth parameters were successfully fitted by the second degree polynomial model whereas linear model indicated a good fit in reproductive development.
Y A. Batta

Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, P. O. Box 425 (Tulkarm), West Bank, Palestine

Key words: Grape, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor piriformis, Trichoderma harzianum, difenoconazole, captan, cyprodinil + flodioxonil, metalaxyl + mancozeb, postharvest

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 29-32.

Abstract: The present research deals with the effect of postharvest treatment of grape berries with four commonly used fungicides and two forms of Trichoderma harzianum on the infection with soft-rot fungi- Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor piriformis. This effect was evaluated by comparison of the external diameter of rot-lesion in treated and untreated berries, in addition to comparison of percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control. Results indicated that the infection with R. stolonifer and M. piriformis was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all treated berries in comparison with untreated control berries. The highest reduction in mean external rot-lesion diameter was obtained for both R. stolonifer and M. piriformis when inoculated berries were treated with Score? (difenoconazole) applied at 0.35%(v/v) or Switch? (cyprodinil + flodioxonil) applied at 0.20%(w/v) or formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion applied at 9.6x108 conidia/ml of formulation (13.5, 13.2, and 19.3 mm, respectively for R. stolonifer; 7.2, 7.5, and 19.2mm, respectively for M. piriformis). The greatest decrease in percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control was also obtained for both the fungal species when inoculated berries were treated with the same type of fungicides (Score? and Switch?) and Trichoderma (formulated T. harzianum in invert emulsion) (60.9, 61.7, and 44.1%, respectively for R. stolonifer; 74.5, 73.4, and 31.9%, respectively for M. piriformis). Overall results indicate that the most effective treatment obtained on grape berries could be integrated with other control measures being usually used in grape berry-rot management plans by alternating fungicidal treatment (e.g. Score? or Switch?) with application of formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion.
E.M. Khah, E. Kakava,A. Mavromatis, D. Chachalis and C. Goulas

University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytoko Street, 38446, N. Ionia, Magnesias, Volos, Greece;**NationalAgricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), PlantProtec

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon hirsutum, grafting, rootstock, scion, tomato, yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: Seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. 'Big Red' were used as scion and rootstock (self-grafted) and non-grafted control, while two hybrid tomatoes 'Heman' and 'Primavera' were used as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown in the greenhouse and in the open-field. Grafted plants (BH and BP) were more vigorous than the non-grafted ones in the greenhouse as well as in the open-field. Plants grafted onto 'Heman' and 'Primavera' produced 32.5, 12.8% and 11.0 and 11.1% more fruit than the control (B) in the greenhouse and the open-field, respectively, whereas self-grafted plants BB had a lower yield in both cultivation conditions. However, the self-rooted plants B presented earliness in their performance, probably due to the lack of stress that followed the grafting operation. Quality and qualitative fruit characteristics were not affected by grafting.
Liu ZhaoPu, Zhao GengMao, Liu Ling, Zheng QingSong

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China.

Key words: Amino acid, aloe qualities, nitrate, protein, total nitrogen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 33-36.

Abstract: Diluted seawater such as 10% (10 volumes of seawater and 90 volumes of freshwater), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used to irrigate Aloe vera L. during four successive years in Ledong region, Hainan Province of China. The effect of seawater irrigation on nitrogen metabolism of aloe plant was studied. Total nitrogen content of aloe leaves ranged from 1.48 to 1.56 % of dry matter, and no significant differences were observed between control (freshwater irrigation) and seawater treatments. The total nitrogen content of aloe roots, in the range of 0.74 to 0.85 % of dry matter, was much lower than that in the leaves. There was no significant difference in total nitrogen content of roots between control and seawater treatments. It is suggested that seawater treatments do not affect nitrogen uptake and transport in aloe plant. The nitrate content in aloe leaves irrigated with seawater was much lower than that with fresh water irrigation, and a continuous decline in nitrate content was noted with increasing seawater concentration. The nitrate/total nitrogen ratio also tends to decrease in leaves suggesting that nitrate has been assimilated into osmoregulated substances under seawater stress. The amino acid content of aloe plant was not affected, while the ratios of amino acid/total nitrogen significantly increased under seawater stress as compared with control. The protein content and protein/total nitrogen ratios were not affected by seawater treatment except for 100%, suggesting that there was a favourable transformation from amino acids to proteins under salt stress. It is concluded that a long term irrigation by diluted seawater on leachable sandy soil with excessive annual rain precipitation could effectively maintain yield and improve the quality of aloe.
L.Andrews and R.A.I. Brathwaite

Caroni Research Station, Waterloo Road, Carapichaima, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus

Key words: Citrus, Valencia, Ortanique, mandarin, mineral nutrition, yield, fruit set, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 37-41.

Abstract: Low yields of citrus in Trinidad prompted an investigation to determine whether infield yield variation in citrus was due to differences in plant nutrition induced by field variability. Selected trees of three cultivars (Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis), Portugal mandarin (C. reticulata) and Ortanique tangor (C. sinensis x reticulata) were monitored for one to two years and indicators of yield such as percent fruit set, fruit count and fruit quality measured. Leaf nutrient content of the trees and nutritive factors of the soil in the root zone were also determined. Nutrient deficiencies were found in the fields of all the three cultivars. The most common deficiencies were of calcium, zinc and magnesium. There was limited evidence of yield correlation with soil pH (P = 0.012), and leaf phosphorus content (P = 0.02), Zn (P = 0.005) and N (P = 0.001). DRIS analysis supported the notion that infield yield variability was associated with nutrients that were limiting. Percent fruit set was associated with Ca/Mg ratio (r = 0.542, P = 0.045; r = 0.607, P = 0.016) and foliar concentration of micro elements Cu (r = 0.738, P = 0.003; r = 0.667, P = 0.007) and Fe (r = 0.507, P = 0.064; r = 0.573, P = 0.026) in 1997 for one field each of Valencia orange and Portugal mandarin, respectively. The most commonly derived relationship for fruit quality was a negative relationship of leaf nitrogen concentration with fruit weight. A positive relationship between leaf concentration of manganese and peel thickness occurred in Portugal mandarin for the two years of the study.
Esmaeil Chamani, Donald E. Irving, Daryl C. Joyce, MosaArshad

Centre for Native Floriculture, School of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queens?land 4343, Australia; 'Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Mohaghghegh Ardebil University, Ardebil, Iran, ''Horticulture Department

Key words: Postharvest, thidiazuron, vase life, Rosa hybrida, lateral shoot, pulse treatment, cut flower, longevity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 42-44.

Abstract: Effects of postharvest-applied thidiazuron (TDZ) on the vases life of 7 rose cultivars (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. Cut rose flowers were pulse-treated with TDZ for 24 hours at 22 oC. Application of 20, 60 and 100 uM TDZ to 'Memoire' rose did not affect vase life when compared with the control (0 uM TDZ). Similarly, pulse treatments with 10 uM TDZ did not affect the vase life of cvs. 'Champagne', 'Laser', 'Magnum', 'Neon' and 'Tresor 2000' roses compared with their untreated controls, but did increase the vase life of 'First Red' by 2 days (+11.5 %). Lateral shoot development was a common side effect of TDZ treatment.
Ahmed A. ElObeidy

Department of Fruit Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Apple cactus, Cereus, drought resistance, hyper-arid environment, water use efficiency.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 45-49.

Abstract: Introducing new crop with high water use efficiency into the hyper-arid environment will participate in curb rising demand of water. Apple cactus (Cereus species) characteristics fit with most of the requirements of a drought tolerant crop with very high water-use efficiency. Several Cereus species were introduced into a desert, characterized with rare rainfall and high temperatures. The introduced fruiting species were Cereus hexagonus, C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. validus. C. pachanoi was introduced as a rootstock. C. peruvianus cuttings survived storage up to eight months. Horizontal position of the cuttings during storage encouraged the development of lateral branches. Plants were propagated by cuttings, acclimatized and then transplanted into the field in the desert. Growth and development of the introduced species were assessed under the new environment. All the introduced species grew successfully except C. validus that was eliminated during the first summer. C. peruvianus monstrose was characterized with dramatic contraction of the stem in the dry condition. The main stem of C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose, C. hexagonus and C. pachanoi grew 9.2, 10.2, 8.1 and 15 cm/month, respectively. C. peruvianus developed the highest number of sprouts. C. Peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. hexagonus unite with the C. pachanoi to form successful grafts with percentage of success 80, 53 and 86.5, respectively. C. validus failed completely to unite with C. pachanoi. C. peruvianus and C. peruvianus monstrose were the most promising in the new hyper-arid environment in terms of adaptability and healthy growth.
Manjusha Dhane, S.A.Tamhankar, S.G. Patil, G.S. Karibasappa and V.S. Rao

Genetics Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar Road, Pune-411004.National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm, Pune-412307.

Key words: Diversity, genetic relationships, ISSR markers, grape varieties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 50-52.

Abstract: As a result of large-scale introduction, the origin and authenticity of many grape varieties is unclear and the subject of some controversy. This has led to confusion regarding their correct identification. Molecular markers have proved to be useful to analyze the genetic relationships as well as diversity between different grape varieties. In the present study, 34 grape varieties have been characterized using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 93 ISSR primers screened initially, 11 showed good polymorphism. Total 174 bands were obtained, out of which 145 were polymorphic. The pair wise similarity indices were calculated from the band data. Cluster analysis of the varieties resulted in the formation of two main clusters, one belonging to Vitis vinifera and other to V. labrusca. Varieties belonging to V. vinifera appeared more diverse and formed distinct sub-clusters based on their colour, flavour and seeds. Out of 34 varieties screened, 10 varieties with green/yellow berries were grouped together in one subcluster and 15 with red/black berries in the other. Three varieties with green/ yellow berries, Italia, Queen of Vineyard and Thompson seedless were grouped with the varieties with red/black berries. The cluster of labrusca varieties showed homogeneity and had five varieties except Dakh, which belongs to vinifera. Concord separates initially from all other varieties. Incidentally, Concord is a pure selection from V. labrusca, while other varieties like Bangalore Blue, Black Muscat, Catawba and Muzzafar Nagar in labrusca group, may be the hybrids of V. abrusca x V. vinifera. The current study thus revealed that genetic relationships among grape cultivars could be assessed using ISSR markers.
K.H. Mohsen, Ebrahim, IbrahimA. Ibrahim, HamdyA. Emaraand Ewald Komor

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Egypt, Department of Plant Physiology, Bayreuth University, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany

Key words: Banana (Musa spp. L.), medium (solid/liquid), micropropagation, osmotic stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG), proline, sugars

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 53-57.

Abstract: Shoot tip explants of the Egyptian banana cultivars Maghraby, Valery, Grand Nain and Hindy were tested for their tolerance to water stress. Shoot survival, shoot growth and root growth stimulation in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was strongest in cultivar Hindy followed by Grand Nain, Maghraby and Valery. The accumulation of soluble sugars and proline in shoots was positively correlated with the applied polyethylene glycol concentration, while the reverse was true for N, P and K content. The cultivar Hindy exhibited higher metabolite accumulation response and cultivar Maghraby the least. The effects were most clear on liquid medium whereas solid (agar) medium exerted some additional effects increasing the osmotic stress at low PEG concentrations and alleviating the PEG effect at high PEG concentrations. In conclusion, the cultivar Hindy appeared to be the most tolerant to water stress because of strong accumulation of compatible solutes and greater stimulation of root development.
Fredah. K. Rimberia, S. Adaniya, M. Kawajiri, N. Urasaki, S. Kawano, T. Etoh and Y. Ishimine

Facultiy of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Southern Plant Co., Ltd., Kochinda, Okinawa 901-0401, Japan. Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Sakiyama, Naha, Okinawa 903-0814, Japan. Facultiy of

Key words: Fruit swelling, gibberellins, papaya (Carica papaya), parthenocarpy, sex types.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 58-61.

Abstract: To improve the productivity of vegetable papaya in subtropical regions, 1) fruit setting rate (parthenocarpic ability) and fruit productivity between sex types (females and hermaphrodites) and among cultivars; and 2) effect of gibberellins (GAs) on fruit swelling, was studied. In both sex types, the number of fruits per tree correlated more closely with fruit yield than with individual fruit weight. Females produced higher number of fruits per tree, thus attaining a higher fruit yield than hermaphrodites. A variation in parthenocarpic ability was observed among cultivars, and this ability was higher in female plants than in hermaphrodites. These results suggest that it is possible to grow female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability. However, parthenocarpic fruits were significantly smaller than those produced by pollination. GA treatment was found to be effective for promoting fruit swelling under greenhouse conditions. Thus, in the greenhouse production of papaya, GA treatment was more efficient than hand pollination. Based on these results, we suggest that in subtropical regions, efficient production of papaya fruit for use as a vegetable may be realized by selection and cultivation of female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability and promotion of fruit swelling by GA treatment.
Mohammad E. Amiri

Department of Horticulture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

Key words: Hyperhydration, medium composition, multiplication, root formation, tissue culture, Prunus amygdalus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the potential of mineral dependent growth of almond in vitro. Shoot-tip of almond (Prunus amygdalus L. var. Binazir) was subcultured on four different concentrations (4, 6, 8, 10 gl1) of gelled modified de Fossard medium (de Fossard, 1976) with four relative concentrations (0X, 0.2X, 1X and 2X basal medium) containing BA 0.75 mgl-1 and NAA 0.75 mgl-1. As mineral concentration increased, both growth and multiplication rate significantly (P=0.05) increased. But increase was not proportional. There was a negative relationship between mineral concentration and root formation. Agar concentration affected the percentage of root formation and hyperhydration. The greatest amount of growth (fresh weight 29%, and dry weight 0.30%) were obtained in the high (2X) mineral concentration with low agar (6 gl-1) treatment after 8 weeks culture period. The highest multiplication rate (7-8 number month-1) was also obtained in the same treatment (2X mineral and 6 gl-1 agar concentrations). No hyperhydration was observed in high agar concentration treatments. This means, increasing agar concentration resulted in decreased hyperhydration phenomenon, however, growth and multiplication rate decreased as agar concentration increased. Highest percentage (68%) of root formation was obtained in low mineral and low agar concentration treatment. Multiplication rate was 2-4 month-1 at low (0.5X) concentration and increased to 7-8 at high (2X) concentration.
M.I..Sai, A. Fardous. M. Muddaber. S. El Zuraiqi L. Al Hadidi. I. Bashabsheh

Water Management and Environment Research Program. National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer "NCARTT". Jordan, BALQA -Baq'a, P.O.Box 639, 19381.

Key words: Rose, R. indica, R. canina, R. hybrida, salinity, reclaimed water, media, rootstock, sodium, tuff

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 65-69.

Abstract: The effect of three irrigation regimes of low quality water (the effluent of reclaimed wastewater from Ramtha treating plant) on soil, drained water and plant tissue chemical composition of First Red cut flower rose cultivar grown on three rootstocks Rosa indica, Rosa canina, and Natal Briar was investigated for two successive years 2003 and 2004 in two planting media soil and Zeotuff. Phosphorus showed intermediate levels in both depths. Potassium in soil accumulated at high levels, especially at 0-20 cm depth. Manganese, copper, and zinc showed no accumulation in soil, iron reached high levels in both depths of soil. Less salinity build up was shown by the three irrigation treatments in soil than water drained from tuff beds regardless of rootstock used for the First Red rose cultivar during the first year, 2003. Both EC and SAR reached a steady status throughout the second year 2004. Based on the nutrient standards mentioned for rose tissue in the literature, the only macro and micro element accumulation was recorded for sodium in the tissue of First Red rose planted in both media during both years and iron in both media during the first year only, regardless of water treatment.
J. M. Onguso, F. Mizutani,A.B.M. Sharif Hossain andA. R. ElShereif

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498 Ko, Hattanji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799 - 2424, Japan.

Key words: Brix, dwarfing techniques, liquid nitrogen, partial ringing, total shoot length

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 70-74.

Abstract: Effect of partial ringing and liquid nitrogen application on the growth and fruit quality of peach was studied. Twelve five-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch.), cv. 'Hikawa Hakuho' grafted on wild peach rootstock were randomly selected for this experiment in April 2004. A 4 cm wide partial ring of bark was removed from eight of them at a height of 25 cm above the graft union leaving a 5 mm connecting strip. Four of the ringed trees were treated with liquid nitrogen at the ringed portions while the rest were intact trees as controls. Both partial ringing and partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen treatment led to reduced shoot length, fruit acidity, total shoot length and weight of pruned branches but increased soluble solids content. Liquid nitrogen had little additive effect on partial ringing in terms of these parameters. Both treatments had a similar effect on tree and fruit characteristics as evidenced by similar bark width recovery and fruit diameter. The use of partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen application in commercial peach orchards promises to be slightly more efficient in causing shoot length reduction while improving fruit quality.
J. Muhtaseb, H. Ghnaim and A. Sheikh

Irrigated Agriculture Research Program,National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), Jordan. Ministry of Agriculture, Jordan.

Key words: Fruit quality, rootstocks, sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, juice content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 75-77.

Abstract: Fruit quality of three orange varieties: 'Salustiana', 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin' grafted on four rootstocks viz., Sour orange (Citrus aurantium), 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata), C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla were evaluated in Jordan Valley. Results indicated that sweet orange grafted on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana gave the largest fruit weight, diameter and length, while those grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the smallest fruit. In addition, 'Salustiana' on C. macrophylla, 'Pineapple' on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Hamlin' on both C. volkameriana and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest juice percentage, however, 'Salustiana' on sour orange, 'Pineapple' on C. macrophylla and 'Hamlin' on sour orange and C. macrophylla had the least. Orange trees on sour orange and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest TSS percentage, while on C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla it was low. Moreover, 'Salustiana' grafted on C. macrophylla gave low juice pH while on 'Cleopatra' mandarin it gave high juice pH, the opposite was observed for 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin'
Sunita Singh and S.D. Kulkarni

Agro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal (MP), India.

Key words: Banana handling, artificial ripening, texture, Ethephon, banana beverage, texture, and banana grades.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 78-81.

Abstract: This study relects on varied maturity levels of available raw and ripe bananas at market level, scope of improvements in quality of bananas by ripening technique and to generate newer avenues for value addition. Raw bananas from the market were ripened in June month both by crude market and standard BIS methods. The final ripeness textural range differed due to ripening methods used {28.56 N (crude market method) and 46.57 N (BIS method) a 63.06 % increase} as compared to available ripe grades in market (same month -June) (13.01 ? 0.99 N) entering after ripening by crude method. Initial texture of available raw grades used as above (June month) was 99.36 ? 10.84 N. The over-ripe bananas (~15 % of bananas available for sale in mandi) if used for beverage yielded an alcoholic drink (with ~8 % alcohol). The processed over-ripe bananas were compared to sale of over-ripe bananas to show potential value addition.

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