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Fredah. K. Rimberia, S. Adaniya, M. Kawajiri, N. Urasaki, S. Kawano, T. Etoh and Y. Ishimine

Facultiy of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Southern Plant Co., Ltd., Kochinda, Okinawa 901-0401, Japan. Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Sakiyama, Naha, Okinawa 903-0814, Japan. Facultiy of

Key words: Fruit swelling, gibberellins, papaya (Carica papaya), parthenocarpy, sex types.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 58-61.

Abstract: To improve the productivity of vegetable papaya in subtropical regions, 1) fruit setting rate (parthenocarpic ability) and fruit productivity between sex types (females and hermaphrodites) and among cultivars; and 2) effect of gibberellins (GAs) on fruit swelling, was studied. In both sex types, the number of fruits per tree correlated more closely with fruit yield than with individual fruit weight. Females produced higher number of fruits per tree, thus attaining a higher fruit yield than hermaphrodites. A variation in parthenocarpic ability was observed among cultivars, and this ability was higher in female plants than in hermaphrodites. These results suggest that it is possible to grow female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability. However, parthenocarpic fruits were significantly smaller than those produced by pollination. GA treatment was found to be effective for promoting fruit swelling under greenhouse conditions. Thus, in the greenhouse production of papaya, GA treatment was more efficient than hand pollination. Based on these results, we suggest that in subtropical regions, efficient production of papaya fruit for use as a vegetable may be realized by selection and cultivation of female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability and promotion of fruit swelling by GA treatment.
Mohammad E. Amiri

Department of Horticulture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

Key words: Hyperhydration, medium composition, multiplication, root formation, tissue culture, Prunus amygdalus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the potential of mineral dependent growth of almond in vitro. Shoot-tip of almond (Prunus amygdalus L. var. Binazir) was subcultured on four different concentrations (4, 6, 8, 10 gl1) of gelled modified de Fossard medium (de Fossard, 1976) with four relative concentrations (0X, 0.2X, 1X and 2X basal medium) containing BA 0.75 mgl-1 and NAA 0.75 mgl-1. As mineral concentration increased, both growth and multiplication rate significantly (P=0.05) increased. But increase was not proportional. There was a negative relationship between mineral concentration and root formation. Agar concentration affected the percentage of root formation and hyperhydration. The greatest amount of growth (fresh weight 29%, and dry weight 0.30%) were obtained in the high (2X) mineral concentration with low agar (6 gl-1) treatment after 8 weeks culture period. The highest multiplication rate (7-8 number month-1) was also obtained in the same treatment (2X mineral and 6 gl-1 agar concentrations). No hyperhydration was observed in high agar concentration treatments. This means, increasing agar concentration resulted in decreased hyperhydration phenomenon, however, growth and multiplication rate decreased as agar concentration increased. Highest percentage (68%) of root formation was obtained in low mineral and low agar concentration treatment. Multiplication rate was 2-4 month-1 at low (0.5X) concentration and increased to 7-8 at high (2X) concentration.
M.I..Sai, A. Fardous. M. Muddaber. S. El Zuraiqi L. Al Hadidi. I. Bashabsheh

Water Management and Environment Research Program. National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer "NCARTT". Jordan, BALQA -Baq'a, P.O.Box 639, 19381.

Key words: Rose, R. indica, R. canina, R. hybrida, salinity, reclaimed water, media, rootstock, sodium, tuff

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 65-69.

Abstract: The effect of three irrigation regimes of low quality water (the effluent of reclaimed wastewater from Ramtha treating plant) on soil, drained water and plant tissue chemical composition of First Red cut flower rose cultivar grown on three rootstocks Rosa indica, Rosa canina, and Natal Briar was investigated for two successive years 2003 and 2004 in two planting media soil and Zeotuff. Phosphorus showed intermediate levels in both depths. Potassium in soil accumulated at high levels, especially at 0-20 cm depth. Manganese, copper, and zinc showed no accumulation in soil, iron reached high levels in both depths of soil. Less salinity build up was shown by the three irrigation treatments in soil than water drained from tuff beds regardless of rootstock used for the First Red rose cultivar during the first year, 2003. Both EC and SAR reached a steady status throughout the second year 2004. Based on the nutrient standards mentioned for rose tissue in the literature, the only macro and micro element accumulation was recorded for sodium in the tissue of First Red rose planted in both media during both years and iron in both media during the first year only, regardless of water treatment.
J. M. Onguso, F. Mizutani,A.B.M. Sharif Hossain andA. R. ElShereif

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498 Ko, Hattanji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799 - 2424, Japan.

Key words: Brix, dwarfing techniques, liquid nitrogen, partial ringing, total shoot length

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 70-74.

Abstract: Effect of partial ringing and liquid nitrogen application on the growth and fruit quality of peach was studied. Twelve five-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch.), cv. 'Hikawa Hakuho' grafted on wild peach rootstock were randomly selected for this experiment in April 2004. A 4 cm wide partial ring of bark was removed from eight of them at a height of 25 cm above the graft union leaving a 5 mm connecting strip. Four of the ringed trees were treated with liquid nitrogen at the ringed portions while the rest were intact trees as controls. Both partial ringing and partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen treatment led to reduced shoot length, fruit acidity, total shoot length and weight of pruned branches but increased soluble solids content. Liquid nitrogen had little additive effect on partial ringing in terms of these parameters. Both treatments had a similar effect on tree and fruit characteristics as evidenced by similar bark width recovery and fruit diameter. The use of partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen application in commercial peach orchards promises to be slightly more efficient in causing shoot length reduction while improving fruit quality.
J. Muhtaseb, H. Ghnaim and A. Sheikh

Irrigated Agriculture Research Program,National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), Jordan. Ministry of Agriculture, Jordan.

Key words: Fruit quality, rootstocks, sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, juice content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 75-77.

Abstract: Fruit quality of three orange varieties: 'Salustiana', 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin' grafted on four rootstocks viz., Sour orange (Citrus aurantium), 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata), C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla were evaluated in Jordan Valley. Results indicated that sweet orange grafted on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana gave the largest fruit weight, diameter and length, while those grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the smallest fruit. In addition, 'Salustiana' on C. macrophylla, 'Pineapple' on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Hamlin' on both C. volkameriana and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest juice percentage, however, 'Salustiana' on sour orange, 'Pineapple' on C. macrophylla and 'Hamlin' on sour orange and C. macrophylla had the least. Orange trees on sour orange and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest TSS percentage, while on C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla it was low. Moreover, 'Salustiana' grafted on C. macrophylla gave low juice pH while on 'Cleopatra' mandarin it gave high juice pH, the opposite was observed for 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin'
Sunita Singh and S.D. Kulkarni

Agro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal (MP), India.

Key words: Banana handling, artificial ripening, texture, Ethephon, banana beverage, texture, and banana grades.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 78-81.

Abstract: This study relects on varied maturity levels of available raw and ripe bananas at market level, scope of improvements in quality of bananas by ripening technique and to generate newer avenues for value addition. Raw bananas from the market were ripened in June month both by crude market and standard BIS methods. The final ripeness textural range differed due to ripening methods used {28.56 N (crude market method) and 46.57 N (BIS method) a 63.06 % increase} as compared to available ripe grades in market (same month -June) (13.01 ? 0.99 N) entering after ripening by crude method. Initial texture of available raw grades used as above (June month) was 99.36 ? 10.84 N. The over-ripe bananas (~15 % of bananas available for sale in mandi) if used for beverage yielded an alcoholic drink (with ~8 % alcohol). The processed over-ripe bananas were compared to sale of over-ripe bananas to show potential value addition.
Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes and Charles de Araujo

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal, 36570-000, Vi?osa-MG. Brazil

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, unheated greenhouse, drip irrigation, SPAD, plant nutrition

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 8-11.

Abstract: This study evaluated the feasibility of using SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter and plant visual aspect for N management in drip fertirrigated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under unheated greenhouse. Two separate experiments were carried out at Universidade Federal de Vi?osa - MG ? Brazil in leached and non-leached soils under greenhouse. Six treatments were evaluated in a randomised complete-block design with four replicates. In treatment 1, N was applied at the time SPAD reading in leaf dropped below a critical value previously established for the specific plant physiological stage (SPAD-1). In treatments 2 and 3, SPAD critical values were increased 20 % (SPAD-2) and decreased 10% (SPAD-3), respectively. In treatment 4, the visual aspect of tomato plant (PVA) was utilized as a criterion of N management. In treatments 5 and 6 (check), N rates were 280 and 0 kg N ha-1, respectively. Total applied N rates ranged from 0 to 594 kg N ha-1. In both the experiments, total and marketable fruit yields were highest in SPAD-1 treatment which only differed from the check plot. All five criteria allowed high total tomato fruit yields but, as experiments average, N use efficiency was highest with the PVA treatment. The highest net income was obtained with SPAD-1 treatment and was associated with the highest yield. The results indicate that a SPAD meter can provide a quantitative measure of the N requirement of the tomato plants as long as appropriate SPAD critical values are established. Visual ratings of plant canopy needs to be more evaluated and improved.
Reza Sedaghat and S. Suryaprakash

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Iran, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: Pistachio, Iran, export, production problems, productivity, economics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Pistachio is one of the most important agricultural crop in Iran. The country earns sizable income from pistachio export. To be globally competitive, the production and trade of pistachio must be economically viable especially in long run. This paper aims to analyze the constraints in production and marketing of Pistachio in Iran. Necessary data were collected through personal interview of randomly selected sample of farmers and exporters/ processors. One hundred farmers and ten processor/ exporters interviewed in Kerman province and Tehran city (Iran), in the crop year 2003-04. The Garret ranking technique was adopted to identify the constraints. Farmers and traders were asked to rank the problems considered. Farmers ranked 14 problems into 9 different categories. Differences between scores adopted for different categories were low and they varied from 74 to 87, indicating that all the problems are important from producer's point of views. On the other hand, traders ranked only 12 given problems among 17. They classified each and every problem into a distinct category. Score variations were comparatively high varying from 19 to 60 indicating that there is significant difference between different categories of problems. The results of tabular analysis of export data showed that pistachio industry of Iran was facing a negative growth rate of production, productivity, export quantity and export value during the period 1991-2002.
Jiang YueMing; Su XinGuo; Jiang YueLin; Li YueBiao; Lin WenBin

South China Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou LeYiJu 510650, China.

Key words: bagging, crop quality, fruits, storage disorders, storage life, storage quality, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest. To determine the potential of fruit bagging for extending storage life, litchi fruits were enclosed in 0.05 mm white polyethylene bags at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days before normal harvest. At commercial maturity, bagged and unbagged litchi fruits were picked and then held individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days at 20 degrees C and 95-100% relative humidity in the dark. Bagging of fruits before normal harvest markedly delayed skin browning and reduced rot development of litchi fruit during storage. The best inhibition of the browning and disease development of litchi fruit was observed when the fruit was bagged 3 days before normal harvest. Bagged fruits had lower levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA), but no significant differences in the TS and TA between bagged and unbagged fruits after 6 days of storage were recorded for flesh tissues. Thus, bagging fruit before normal harvest had the potential to reduce rots, main
Venkataramana, C; Reddy, K M; Sadashiva, A T; Reddy, M K

Division of Horticulture, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: chillies, crop yield, crosses, diallel analysis, disease resistance, flowering date, fruits, general combining ability, genetic effects, genetic variance, genotypes, maternal effects, plant height, plant pathogens, reciprocal effects, ripening, specific c

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 108-112.

Abstract: Combining ability analysis of 8x8 diallel cross (including reciprocals) was carried out during kharif 2001 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India involving Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant and susceptible lines of chilli. The variances for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) were highly significant for all the characters, suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The sca variance played an important role in the genetic control of days to 50% flowering, days to 50% ripening, fruit width, plant height, plant spread, number of fruits per plant, green fruit yield per plant and percent CMV incidence. On the contrary, additive gene action was observed for fruit length. The genotype VR-27 was judged to be the best general combiner for fruit yield per plant and Perennial, Punjab Lal, Punjab Gucchedar and Pant C-1 proved to be good general combiners for percent CMV incidence. The crosses Punjab Gucchedar x Pant C-1 and Tiwari x EG-174 had greater sca effect
Sabir, S M; Riaz, K

University College of Agriculture, Rawalakot - 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Key words: ascorbic acid, branches, calcium, canopy, chemical composition, chlorophyll, essential oil plants, fruits, iron, leaf area, leaves, magnesium, medicinal plants, multipurpose trees, nonreducing sugars, phosphorus, plant composition, plant height, plant mor

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 113-116.

Abstract: Elaeagnus umbellata is a native multipurpose plant from Himalayan regions of Pakistan. The berries of the plant are rich in vitamins, flavonoids, essential oil, lycopene and other bioactive compounds. To compare various populations of E. umbellata for morphology and chemical composition, five populations from different areas of district Bagh were compared using plant and fruit characters. Chemical analysis of berries showed variation in vitamin C (13.8-16.9 mg/100 g), seed oil (5.7-6.1%), oil in pulp (7.6-8.1%), reducing sugar (6.8-8.4%), non-reducing sugar (1.4-2.2%), protein (2.5-5.1%) and chlorophyll content (5.3-6.8%) in leaves, while the mineral element composition revealed high contents of potassium (175-375 ppm), sodium (20-40 ppm), calcium (70-110 ppm), magnesium (70-86.6 ppm), iron (78.5-95 ppm) and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). Significant variation in morphological characters including plant height, number of branches per plant, number and size of thorns, number of leaves, leaf area, plant canopy, stem
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; El Shereif, A R; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Hattanji, Matsuyama 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: bark, buds, crop quality, fruit set, fruits, growth, peaches, ringing, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 117-120.

Abstract: A study was conducted in southern Japan to investigate the effects of partial ringing (bark removal) on peach (Prunus persica cv. Hikawahakuho). The bark was cut once at 2 cm length x 2 mm width and 8 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 1, and cut once or weekly at 2 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 2. Control plants were not subjected to partial ringing. Ringing reduced shoot and bark growth and increased flower bud and fruit set in comparison to the unringed control. Tree circumference was higher above the ringed portion than the lower part of partially ringed trees. Fruit weight and maturity degree were also higher in ringed trees than unringed ones. The results indicate that partial ringing can be used for dwarfing peach trees and enhancing fruit quality.
Biswajit Panda; Singh, Y V; Ram, H H

Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, India.

Key words: aubergines, crop yield, diallel analysis, fruits, heterosis, hybrids, maturity, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 121-123.

Abstract: Hybrid advantages as consequences of fruit yield and its component characters were studied in 10 round-fruited aubergine hybrids along with their 5 genetically diverse parents in half-diallel manner during 2002-03 in Uttaranchal, India. Appreciable heterosis was recorded over mid, better and standard parents for all the characters. Heterosis to the extent of 8.8, 18.6, 28.0, 41.1 and 59.5% over standard parent (Pant Rituraj) was recorded for fruit length, fruit diameter, total number of fruits per plant, total weight of fruits per plant and early yield, respectively. Heterosis for yield was the cumulative effect of heterosis for most yield attributing characters. The highest yielding hybrid was PB-62 x T-3 (4.5 kg per plant), followed by PR x PB-61 (4.2 kg per plant), with 41.1 and 32% standard heterosis, respectively. The hybrid PR x PB-61 combination was also earliest in maturity with 59.5%, followed by PR x PB-60 showing 41.3% standard heterosis. These two crosses could be exploited as commercial hybrids i
Mishra, S K; Singh, R P

Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.

Key words: crop quality, edible fungi, hemp, Indian mustard, limes, linseed, mushrooms, non wood forest products, plant extracts, storage quality, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 124-126.

Abstract: Water-diluted extracts of 23 plants (Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Azadirachta indica, Callistemon lanceolatus [Callistemon citrinus], Calotropis gigantea, Cannabis sativa, Chrysanthemum indica [Chrysanthemum indicum], Citrus aurantiifolia, Cleome viscosa, Clerodendrum indicum, Dahlia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Dombeya spectabilis, Erigeron canadensis [Conyza canadensis], Eucalyptus citriodora, Evolvulus alsinoides, Juniperus chinensis, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Thuja orientalis [Platycladus orientalis] and Tridax procumbens) and 2 cakes (linseed and mustard [? Indian mustard]) were used as washing agents to improve the weight, whiteness and toughness of harvested sporophores of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 5 and 25 degrees C. The weight of sporophores increased by 6.66% just after washing them with water diluted extracts of plants and cakes. At the end of the experiment (12th day), the weight declined by 1.87-4.38% among th
Amit Kumar; Kumar, K; Sharma, S D

Department of Fruit Breeding & Genetic Resources, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan (H.P.) 173 230, India.

Key words: abscission, cross pollination, flowers, genotypes, open pollination, self pollination, walnuts

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 127-129.

Abstract: Pistillate flower abscission (PFA) was investigated in 18- to 20-year-old trees of 13 indigenous selections and 7 exotic cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) subjected to different modes of pollination, i.e. natural (open) pollination, self (hand) pollination and cross pollination, during 1999 and 2000 in Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. PFA ranged from 12.40 to 100.00% under natural pollination, 8.47 to 62.36% under self pollination and 12.33 to 100.00% under cross pollination in the first year. The corresponding values of PFA were 13.22 to 97.66, 9.11 to 60.40 and 13.50 to 96.67%, respectively, in the following year. In unpollinated flowers, PFA ranged from 0 to 100.00% in 1999 and from 5.33 to 94.33% in 2000. The results indicate no clear trend towards this economically important phenomenon and suggest that PFA is neither exactly due to genetic differences nor entirely due to mode of pollination.

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