Abstract: Limited fresh water is a global problem that adversely affects crops, including young apple (Malus x domestica)trees. Innovative technologies will be needed to ensure tree survival and productivity. Recently, selected chemicals have been used to prepare plants for avoidance and recovery from water stress by a process termed priming. Two priming compounds, abscisic acid (ABA) and DL-P-aminobutyric acid (BABA) have been shown to confer plant protection against a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Our objective was to determine the resistance to and recovery from dehydration of apple seedlings treated with s-ABA and BABA. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted in which combinations of s-ABA and BABA were applied as a root drench to one-year-old 'Royal Gala' apple trees and responses to dehydration were evaluated. Changes in leaf water potential (v|/w), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), leaf ABA and growth were measured during dehydration and rehydration. In two experiments, pretreatment with BABA reduced early morning E but BABA was not as effective as s-ABA in delaying dehydration-induced wilt of shoot tips. In another experiment during the second week without water both BABA- and s-ABA-treated trees had 42 to 62% higher leaf Y|/w, respectively, and 45% lower leaf ABA than unwatered controls. Higher leaf Y|/w was not consistently associated with reduced gs and E suggesting that mechanisms other than increased stomatal resistance may provide drought resistance. Compared with control trees, there was nearly 80% more shoot growth following rewatering after dehydration in trees that were primed with BABA and s-ABA (1.0 mM each). Leaf senescence was more evident in s-ABA- than BABA-treated trees and, although growth resumed after dehydration, the amount of growth varied with concentration of the priming treatments. Both individual compounds provided dehydration protection to young apple trees but in combination they were not clearly superior to either compound alone.
Simon J. van Donk, Dale T Lindgren, Daniel M. Schaaf, James L. Petersen and David D. Tarkalson
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, West Central Research and Extension Center, 402 West State Farm Road, North Platte, NE 69101-7751, USA.
Abstract: Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of 'Husker Red' Penstemon digitalis Nutt. plants. The effects of four wood chip thicknesses (depth of application: 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 cm) on soil water content, weed numbers, soil temperature, and height, width, stalk number, and first flower date of 'Husker Red' Penstemon were investigated. The addition of mulch, at all mulch thicknesses, conserved soil water compared to when no mulch was used. The differences in soil water content likely influenced some of the plant growth factors measured. Weed numbers were significantly higher at 0 and 2.5 cm mulch thickness compared to 5 and 10 cm thickness. In general, mid-day soil temperatures were highest at the shallower soil depths in the unmulched plots. Flowering plants in 2008 in the unmulched treatment were slightly shorter than in the mulched treatments. There were no significant differences in the number of flower stalks per plant although there was a trend for a lower number of stalks with the mulched treatment. The time of first flower was, on an average, about 2 days earlier for the unmulched treatment compared to the 10 cm mulch thickness. Wood chip mulch helped conserve soil water, which in turn had some effects on plant growth.
University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603. U of I Lane, Parma, ID-83660, USA.
Key words: Cold region table grapes, cultivar evaluation, grape genotype, grape adaptability, high desert table grape. Intermountain West region
Abstract: Long-term adaptability and feasibility of table grape production under the high desert conditions of southwest Idaho in the Intermountain West region of the United States were studied systematically in two phases. In the first phase, 'Alborz', 'Challenger', 'Italia', 'Emerald', 'Red Globe', 'Delight', 'Fantasy', 'Flame' and 'Fresno' (all Vitis vinifera L.) and NY36095, NY47616, 'Glenora', 'Reliance', 'Vanessa', 'Saturn', 'Jupiter' (hybrids of Vitis labrusca)had overall better berry quality and consumer preference than other tested grapes. In the second phase, 'Ralli' (also called 'Anahita' in the Intermountain West), 'Kashishi', and 'Autumn Royal' had excellent berry size and quality. 'Anahita' was harvested between Sept 1 and Sep 30. Both 'Kashishi' and 'Autumn Royal' were late-season grapes and matured between Sept 15 and Oct 15. 'Princess' was harvested between Sept 5 and Sept 30. This grape had outstanding flavour but the fruit set was low and clusters were small (268 g). 'Alborz' was harvested between Sept 1 and Sept 30, and with proper thinning, this cultivar had outstanding clusters and berries. Considering all viticultural and quality attributes, we recommend 'Alborz' as a potentially successful table grape for planting in small or large commercial scales under conditions of this study.
Lydia L.M. KitongaMwanza, John Swiader and Richard M.S. Mulwa
Egerton University, Department of Environmental Science, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801. Egerton University, Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, P
Abstract: This study was conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the potential use of the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for rapid onsite determination of plant N status in a drip-fertigated nitrogen cropping regime of sweet corn. Four N fertilizer rates (0, 84, 168, and 336 kg N ha-1) were applied to two sweet corn cultivars ('Kandy Plus' and 'Sugar Ace') in a factorial split-plot design. Leaf SPAD and leaf total N concentration were measured at 4 different growth stages (seventh leaf stage (V7), tenth leaf stage V10), silking (R1) and milking (R3) in season one and three sampling stages (V6, V10 and R1) in 2002. In season two, leaf N concentrations and leaf 'SPAD chlorophyll' measurements increased early in the season up to silking (R1 growth stage) and declined thereafter. Leaf N concentrations and leaf SPAD readings were positively correlated. Critical SPAD values (readings associated with the lowest N fertilizer rate and providing the highest marketable ear yield) were estimated as 52.8, 52.1 and 59.0 at V7, V10 and R1 in season one; in season two the values were 51.0, 49, and 56.5 receptively. Regressing N rate on yield placed maximum ear yields at 13.8 tons ha-1 with 174.8 kg N ha-1 in season one and 9.7 tons ha-1 with 306.2 kg ha-1 in season two. Increase in leaf SPAD readings at silking reflects a strong sink/source relationship among leaves for absorbed N. The positive relationship between leaf SPAD readings and leaf N status is due to the responsiveness of SPAD-chlorophyll to N fertilizer application. These results indicate that the SPAD meter can be used effectively to assess sweet corn N status early in the season, and at this time it is possible to correct any N deficiencies that might compromise yields.
Firdose Kolar, Nilesh Pawar and Ghansham Dixit
Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding, Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004.
Key words: D. malabaricum, mutagens: EMS, SA, gamma rays, chlorophyll mutants
Abstract: The phenotypic response of Delphinium malabaricum to chemical mutagens (EMS and SA) and physical mutagen (gamma rays) were studied. It was observed that D. malabaricum manifested specific reactions to the treatments with EMS, SA and gamma rays. Different mutation frequencies and width of mutation spectra were induced under the action of different concentrations of the applied mutagens. Eleven different types of chlorophyll mutants namely albina, albina-green, xantha, aurea, chlorina, viridis, yellow viridis, tigrina, striata, maculata and variegated type were identified in the treated populations and chlorophyll mutation frequency was calculated on plant population basis. Frequency of viridis mutants were highest followed by xantha and other types in all the treatments. The treatments of EMS were found to be more efficient than SA and gamma rays in inducing chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations (9.74%) was reported in the 0.25% EMS. Quantitative estimation of chlorophyll pigments was also done in different kinds of chlorophyll mutants and chlorophyll content was found in the following decreasing order: chlorina > maculata> variegated> striata> tigrina> viridis> yellow viridis> albina green> aurea> xantha > albina. The study of induced genetic variability for frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations is the first report in D. malabaricum.
Abstract: A powered walnut cracker is a device that does its job with a minimum of human effort. We offer a design consisting of an adjustable upper board, the lower board is replaced by chains or belts on which the nut is placed. The walnut moves, it touches the upper board and rotates while being cracked. The use of inexpensive bicycle parts is the advantage of this approach.
N. Kameswara Rao and Mohammed Shahid
International Center for Biosaline Agriculture, P.O. Box 14660, Dubai, UAE.
Abstract: The performance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) under the desert conditions of the Arabian Peninsula was evaluated. Ten cultivars introduced from six countries were studied. Two months old seedlings were transplanted into field plots in February 2007 and spears produced in the second year were harvested over a period of four weeks. Significant differences were found among cultivars for the number and quality of spears. The average number of spears harvested per plant varied between 5.0 and 26.4 and the spear yield between 36.3 and 159.2 g plant-1. The spear number and yield were highest in cultivar PI 277824. Seed yields from the first year of harvest varied from 29.7 to 136.2 g plant-1 among cultivars. In many cultivars, spear yields obtained in the second year were comparable to the yields reported from the productive environments in the tropics. The results show that asparagus has considerable potential for cultivation under the desert conditions of the Arabian Peninsula.
M. Manamohan, M.N. Prakash, G. Sharath Chandra, R. Asokan and S.N. Nagesha)
Corresponding author : Division of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake PO. Bangalore-560089, Karnataka, India.
Abstract: Transformation of tomato with heterologous genes requires rapid and efficient transformation protocols. Agrobacterium mediated transformation protocol of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. 'Arka Vikas' using dreb1A gene under Rd29A promoter in pCAMBIA 2301 binary vector was optimized by varying parameters such as type of explant, type and concentrations of hormones. Hypocotyls were found to be the best explants for shoot regeneration in tomato compared to cotyledons with 53.2 and 22.8% shoot regeneration, respectively. In the shoot regeneration medium, 0.1 mgL4 IBA as a source of auxin gave nearly 50% higher shoot regeneration than IAA at similar concentration. With this protocol it was possible to obtain transformed plants within a period of 77 days with a high regeneration and transformation efficiency (34%) compared to over 120 days using earlier published protocols. The T1 generation plants segregated in a 3:1 ratio for the transgene and Southern blot analysis of the selected plants had shown the transgene integration was at a single locus. With this method it is possible to rapidly and efficiently generate transgenic tomato plants.
T.S. Rahi and Bajrang Singh
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, U.P., India.
Abstract: The scarcity of fertile land for growing ornamental crops has received attention on the utilization of salt affected soils for floriculture. Two cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium viz. 'Flirt' and 'Jayanti' were evaluated under three salinity levels (EC 4, 6 and 8 dS/m) of irrigation water along with control (irrigating with non-saline water). The experiment consisting of eight treatments with three replications was conducted in earthen pots with randomized block design. The pots were filled with sandy loam soil and 20 days old rooted cuttings were planted @ three cuttings per pot. The growth parameters viz., plant height, number of buds and flowers per plant; fresh and dry weight as well as chlorophyll content increased significantly with increasing salinity levels. 'Jayanti' appeared to be more salt tolerant in comparison to 'Flirt' in their floral morphology as well as in productivity. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were reduced in plants as salinity increased. There was a relatively high N concentration in 'Flirt' cultivar. The concentration of other nutrients such as potassium, calcium and magnesium increased significantly with increasing salinity levels. This increase in nutritional uptake did not show any detrimental effect of Na toxicity in the salinized plants. As a result, nutrient use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus was enhanced with increasing salinity levels. Growth and flower yield both indicated that C. morifolium which is a plant of halophytic origin can be raised successfully as an ornamental cash crop in moderate saline environment, particularly 'Jayanti' cultivar. However, its critical limit to higher salinity tolerance is yet to be worked out.
Sunila Kumari, J.R. Desai and R.R. Shah
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450. Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492 006, India.
Abstract: Plant regeneration of Anthurium andraeanum cultivars 'Pumasillo' and 'Corallis' has been achieved through adventitious shoots formation from callus. Young brown leaf lamina was used as explants for indirect organogenesis. These were disinfected using sodium hypochlorite (5%), ethanol (70 %) and HgCl2 (0.1%). The results showed that both the varieties responded differently to callus induction, callus proliferation and shoot initiation treatments. In 'Corallis', the maximum number of cultures initiated callus on Nitsch medium supplemented with 5 mgL-1 adenine and 2 mgL-1 BAP while in Pumasillo, maximum number of cultures initiated callus on modified MS medium supplemented with 5 mgL-1 adenine and 3 mgL-1 BAP. Maximum shoot regeneration was observed on modified MS supplemented with 0.01 mgL-1 TDZ in both the cultivars. Rooting medium was (modified half-strength MS salts) supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 IBA and 0.04% active charcoals. The callusing frequency of 'Pumasillo' was higher as compared to 'Corallis'. Rooted plantlets were succesfully acclimatized in polythene covered plastic trays containing cocopeat. Later on the hardened plantlets were successfully transplanted to commercial potting medium (1:1:1:1 cocopeat: rice husk: sand: FYM ) and were transferred to poly house with survival rate of ninety per cent.
S.W. Goveas, S.K. Nivas and L.D. Souza
Laboratory of Applied Biology, St. Aloysius College, Mangalore-575003, Karnataka, India.
Key words: Selenicereus megalanthus, in vitro, yellow pitaya, multiple shoots, MS-Murashige and Skoog
Abstract: An efficient micropropagation system via multiple shoot induction directly from seedlings of S. megalanthus was developed. Seeds were germinated on Murashigae and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP). The shoot tips of the germinating seedlings started callusing when left on the same medium. After two weeks, the entire shoot apex portion of epicotyl gave rise to a friable callus, portions of which started becoming green and morphogenetic. The callus gave rise to multiple shoots. The highest number of shoots i.e. 18.6 was produced on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mgL"1 BAP. The shoots, 3-4 cm in length, when transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 IBA, rooted within one week.
Adel D. Alqurashi
Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box. 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
Key words: Date palm, pollen grain suspension, pollination, yield, fruit quality
Abstract: During 2008 and 2009 seasons, the effect of pollen grain-water suspension spray at different concentration on fruit setting, yield and quality of 'Helali' date palm cultivar growing under Hada-Alsham conditions, KSA was examined. The results showed that fruit set, bunch weight and total yield per tree were significantly higher when spray pollinated at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g L-1 than the traditional pollination. In this respect, there were no significant differences among spray pollination at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g L-1. However, spray pollination at 2.0 g L-1 gave fruit set percentage similar to traditional pollination. At harvest, the Rutab percentage in bunches was not affected by the method of pollination. At both the Bisir and Rutab stages, fruit, flesh and seed weight, diameter and length were not significantly affected by any of the pollination treatments. The biochemical characteristics of fruit such as TSS, acidity, vitamin C, total phenols and soluble tannins were not significantly affected by any of the pollination treatments at both stages. The concentrations of TSS and acidity were higher at the Rutab than at the Bisir stage. However, the concentrations of vitamin C, total phenols and soluble tannins were greatly lower at the Rutab than at the Bisir stage. This study showed the possibility to pollinate 'Helali' date trees by pollen grain-water suspension spray with optimum amount of pollen grains with no further need for thinning especially under hot arid conditions. However, more research work is required to standardize the optimum concentration of pollen grain-water suspension and the response of each date palm cultivar to this pollination technique.
S. Zivdar, E. Khaleghi and F. Sedighi Dehkordi
Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.
Abstract: Laboratory studies were conduced to determine the effect of salinity and temperature on seed germination of zinnia plant with two temperature regimes (25 and 30 oC) and 5 levels of salinity (distilled water as control and 3, 6, 9 and 12 dSm-1) in a factorial completely randomized design. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) between different levels of salinity, and salinity and temperature interactions on germination percentage, germination rate and length of rootlet. But temperature treatment only influenced rootlet length (P<0.05). Mean comparison of seed germination percentage showed that increasing salinity decreased the seed germination. The highest rootlet length was recorded in the control (8.273 cm) and the lowest (1.92 cm) was at 12 dSm-1 of salinity. The effect of temperature on the germination percentage, germination rate and length of rootlet determined that the highest germination percentage and length of rootlet was at 25 oC temperature. The study on the interaction of temperature and salinity exhibited that highest percentage of germination, germination rate and length of rootlet were in control at 25?C, whereas it was lowest at 30?C and 12 dSm-1 salinity.
Pooja Manchanda, Ajinder Kaur and Satbir Singh Gosal
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiasna, Punjab -141004, India.
Abstract: This is the first report of antibacterial and growth promoting effectiveness of cefotaxime in banana tissue culture. Young suckers (3-13 cm diameter) of commercially important banana varieties viz., 'Grand Naine' and 'Robusta' were regenerated into shoots on MS-medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 5 mgL-1) and multiplied on Banana Multiplication Medium (BMM) for 7 cycles of 3 weeks each. Shoots were separated and cultured on BMM supplemented with IBA (1.0 mgL-1) and cefotaxime at various concentrations viz., 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mgL1. Maximum shoot multiplication and elongation with respect to number of shoots, shoot length and plantlet fresh weight in both the genotypes was obtained with cefotaxime used at the rate of 400 and 500 mgL-1 in the medium. Among the different varieties, on the basis of mean of 50 shoot cultures, number of shoots per culture and shoot length was highest in cv. Robusta i.e. 7.20 (41.6% increase over control) and 8.50 cm (30.5% increase over control), respectively. Whereas, plantlet fresh weight was highest in cv. Grand Naine (494.8 mg, 38.9% increase over control) after 3 weeks of culturing with cefotaxime used at the rate of 500 mgL-1. Results revealed significant differences among varieties and media for different shoot multiplication and elongation parameters. Therefore, use of cefotaxime during tissue culture and genetic transformation of banana can improve frequency of shoot multiplication and transformation, respectively.
Y.A. ALKamal, A.I. Abdalla and A.A. Taha
University of Al Zaeim Al Azhari -Faculty of Agriculture, Khartoum North - P.O. Box 1432- Sudan
Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, okra, combining ability, line x tester analysis
Abstract: Seven lines of okra Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] (MOENCH) were evaluated for general and specific combining ability using three diverse testers following a line x tester mating design as described by Kempthorne (1957). Twenty one F1's hybrids along with ten parental lines were raised at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al Zaeim Al Azhari, Sudan, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes existing for yield and associated traits (P=0.01), indicating the presence of sufficient genetic variability in the material studied. Significant variability existed among hybrids (P=0.01) for number of pods per plant, length of pod, pod yield per plant and 100 seeds weight. Estimation of general combining ability effect identified lines HSD 1835, HSD1840 and HSD 2550 as a good general combiners for pod dry weight (P=0.05). Among testers Sinnar was found to be a good general combiner for number of pods per plant, length of pod, yield per plant, number of seed per pod and 100 seeds weight. Estimation of specific combining ability effect identified hybrids HSD 2550 x Sinnar as the best parent combination for number of pods per plant and yield per plant. HSD2543 x Sinnar and HSD1840 x Clemson Spineless recorded as the best parental combination for length of pod. The additive as well as non-additive gene effects played significant role in the inheritance of yield and yield related traits with predominance of additive gene action in the inheritance of major yield contributing traits. Testers contribution percentage were significantly higher for number of pods per plant (77.04%), pod dry weight (40.06 %) and number of seeds per pod (45.04%). The percentage contributions of the interaction were significantly higher and evident in the rest of the traits.