Abstract: The study was designed to assess the effect of locally produced butter from nuts of shea butter trees (Vitteleria paradoxom)on the ripening and storage of banana. A simple complete randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of coating matured banana fingers with shea butter oil before storage under three temperature conditions viz., 35, 25 and 10 oC. Each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed a significant effect of different storage temperatures. Days to ripening between coated and uncoated bananas, and the interaction with storage temperatures were not statistically different. A taste panel's results of assessing the effect of coating treatment on the textual quality of ripe bananas did not show any significant difference neither was there an effect on the appeal of ripened bananas. The result showed that banana fingers stored in the refrigerator at 10oC lasted beyond 53 days of storage irrespective of the treatment. At 25 oC, the coated fingers took 15.7 days to ripen while the uncoated lasted 8 days. Coated banana fingers stored at 35 oC took 11.3 days to ripen but the uncoated ripened after 6 days. The use of shea butter for shelf life prolongation is discussed while the test is continuing.
R.P.S. Dalal, Navjot, A. Thakur, A.S. Sidhu and J.S. Brar
Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Station, Bathinda 151001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic potential of old orchard soils on the seedling growth of rough lemon. Soils from the root zone spheres of eight orchards of mango, aonla, peach, pomegranate, citrus, pear, ber, guava and virgin soil as a control was used for raising the seedlings. The rough lemon Jatti khatti seedlings of one and a half year old raised in aonla, ber and peach orchard soil as growing media showed the reduction in shoot length (40-50%), leaf number (46-63%), leaf area/ plant (62-69%) and shoot dry weight (79-83%). The root length was most inhibited by ber, aonla and peach orchard soils. The percent reduction in root dry weight (11.23- 34.48%) of the seedling was not in equal proportion to reduction in root volume (42.55- 55.86%). Root dry weight density varied between 0.55-0.96 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 1.42-1.82. Whereas, in citrus, mango, pomegranate, ber and guava orchard soils, the percent reduction in root dry weight was in equal proportion to root volume and root dry weight density varied between 0.41-0.49 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 0.44-0.72. The shoot and root growth of the seedlings was at par when raised in citrus and pomegranate orchard soil as growing media. Leaf N and P contents increased, whereas, Ca and Mg decreased in all the orchard soils except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils as growing media. Leaf Fe, Cu and Mn contents in all the orchard soils as growing media were in toxic range except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils. Overall, the orchard soils of deciduous fruit plants showed more allelopathic effect than the soils growing evergreen fruit plants in citrus cultivation.
Ramezan Rezazadeh, Dion K. Harrison and Richard R. Williams
The University of Queensland Gatton, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Gatton Qld 4343, Australia.
Abstract: Somatic hybridization of mango via protoplast fusion was attempted at cultivar level. Enzymatically isolated protoplasts from leaves of greenhouse-grown seedlings of cvs. 'Tommy Atkins', 'Keitt' and 'Haden' and from proembryonic masses (PEMs) of cv. 'Kensington Pride' were used. Protoplasts were fused by polyethylene glycol (PEG), embedded in Ca-alginate beads and cultured in shallow liquid culture on shaker (30 rpm). After 4 weeks, Ca-alginate beads were depolymerized and released microcolonies of PEMs were plated onto the solid culture media. After two consecutive subcultures, fast growing large clumps of PEMs were picked up and cultured as PEMs line for analyses. Flow cytometry analysis of 242 PEMs lines revealed 41 tetraploid lines. DNA fingerprinting of the regenerated embryos from the tetraploid lines showed that only four lines were somatic hybrids, all resulting from 'Haden' + 'Kensington Pride' protoplast fusions. By contrast, the tetraploid lines from 'Keitt' + 'Kensington Pride' and 'Tommy Atkins' + 'Kensington Pride' were autotetraploids. Root-tip chromosome counts on resulting germinated cotyledonary embryos confirmed that somatic hybrid embryo lines had a chromosome number of 2n=4x=80 compared to diploid parents (2n=2x=40). Of 50 deflasked somatic-hybrid, in vitro plantlets with true leaves only 3 plantlets formed the healthy apical bud (meristem) in the soil and grew normally.
Shailendra Rajan, Divya Tiwari, V.K. Singh, Pooja Saxena, Shilpi Singh, Y.T.N. Reddy,K.K. Upreti, M.M. Burondkar, A. Bhagwan and Richards Kennedy
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Banga?lore.
Abstract: Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of weather dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on mango. BBCH (Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie) scale was used for data recording and to assess utility of the scale in mango phenological studies. Phenological stages of the mango were recorded at weekly intervals on 60 shoots of cultivar Totapuri at five diverse locations for testing usefulness of scale under different diverse ecologies and data from one location, i.e., Lucknow (26o 54' N and 80o 48' E ) was used for analysis. Existing BBCH scale was modified on the basis of data recorded for mango in which seven out of 10 principal stages were used, starting with bud development (stage 0) and ending with maturity of fruit (stage 8). Three digit scale was used for inclusion of the mesostages between the principal and secondary growth stages. Highly recurring flowering phenophases were 511 (18 %), 513 (20 %) recorded in standard week 9 and 517 (45 %) in standard week 11 (March). Other important phenophases, 619 (38 %) and 709 (10 %) occured during standard weeks 13 and 22 to 23, respectively. A high degree of variation in shoots representing principal growth stages viz., vegetative bud, leaf and shoot development was observed due to simultaneous transition of the stages during standard week 33 to 42 and 4 to 24. Limitations of existing BBCH scale and comprehended modifications have been proposed and discussed. The study revealed that the extended BBCH-scale for mango can be widely used because of its utility in describing all phenophases pertaining to bud, shoot, leaf, panicle and fruit development and indicated the incisive growth pattern of the shoots and seasonal variation. This is the first report on quantitative analysis of mango phenological data using BBCH scale.
Hatem Mabrouk and Slah Mejri
Laboratoire d'arboriculture fruitiere. Laboratoire des Industries agro-alimentaires. Institut national Agronomique de Tunisie : 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle 1082 -Tunis-Mahrajene-Tunisie.
Key words: Japanese plum, Prunus salicina L., maturity, fruit quality, cold storage, Tunisia.
Abstract: Fruit Quality attributes of two Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) varieties 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune' cultivated in Tunisia were monitored during fruit ripening on the tree and cold storage. A five years old commercial orchard was used for the study. Harvested fruits were stored in cold rooms at temperature less than 2?C and relative humidity around 90%. Beginning at two weeks before harvest, until the end of the cold storage period, samples of 20 fruits were taken at irregular time intervals and used for the determination of soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. At harvest, values of SSC were similar for both varieties reaching 15 and 14.8%, respectively for 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune'. During cold storage, the increase in SSC was nil for 'Fortune' and very low (0.2%) for 'Black Diamond'. In contrast, values of TA were different for 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune', the former was more acidic at harvest and during cold storage. TA values ranged between 0.94 and 1.24 % malic acid at harvest and 0.8 and 1% at the end of storage period. The sugar to acid ratio (SSC/TA) showed a continuous increase during ripening and cold storage for both varieties. Values of SSC/TA, differed largely between the two varieties, at all sampling dates. Fruit Firmness decreased during ripening and cold storage for both cultivars. At harvest 'Fortune' fruits were more firm (28.44 N) than 'Black Diamond' (21.77 N). At the end of cold storage, these values were as low as 10.64 N for 'Black Diamond' and 15.64 N for 'Fortune'. A linear regression analysis showed that the rate of firmness decrease during cold storage was very similar for both cultivar and reached a value of 0.23 N day-1. Thus, fruit firmness could be used to determine harvest time and to predict cold storage duration
H. Liang, YJ. Hu, W.M. Pang, W. Liu and M.X. Yang
College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.
Key words: Kiwifruit, radiation, top grafting, 60Co y-ray, breeding
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of radiation treatment of the grafted buds in kiwifruit improvement. After treated with 50 Gy 60Co y-ray, buds from different fruit spurs of Actinidia were top grafted onto the heavily pruned mature vines with 50 -100 grafted buds per stock plants and the grafted plants were under intensive cultural practices for high survival rate of the grafting. The experimental results showed that treatment with 60Co y-ray increased SSR diversity and phenotypic variations of the kiwifruit canes produced from the grafted buds. Selection of the favourable variants from a large population (canes from different plants) in a limited area of kiwifruit orchard was possible and some of favourable variants from the grafted populations were selected and rapidly propagated for further utilization in kiwifruit improvement.
P. Youryon, C. WongsAree, W.B. McGlasson, S. Glahan and S. Kanlayanarat
Postharvest Technology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. Postharvest Technology Innovation Centre, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. University
Key words: Ananas comosus, CAM plant, fruit acidity, harvesting time, black heart
Abstract: Pineapple plants cv. 'Trad-Srithong' (Ananas comosus L.) were found to exhibit crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The concentrations of organic acids were higher in mature crown and stem leaves harvested at 0600 than at 1200 h but there were no significant differences in acid concentrations among fruit harvested at these times. Fruit of 'Trad-Srithong' (Queen group) are highly sensitive to internal browning (IB), a form of chilling injury, when stored at <15 ?C. Fruit were harvested at 0600 and 1200 h and stored at 8, 13 and 20 ?C. IB developed in fruit stored at 8 and 13 ?C after 10 days but no symptom developed in control fruit stored at 20 ?C. Time of day, when the fruit were harvested had no effect on the development of IB in 'Trad-Srithong' fruit. TA increased in fruit during storage at all temperatures. Juice extracted from the pulp had higher TA and lower pH than the core tissue and symptoms of IB were more severe in the flesh surrounding the core. Ascorbic acid decreased late during storage period.
K. Nagaz, K. Khlouj, I. Toumi, F. El Mokh, M.M. Masmoudi and N. Ben Mechlia
Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. INAT, 43 avenue Charles Nicolle, 2083 Tunis, Tunisia.
Key words: Potato, salinity, nitrogen, yield, water use efficiency, arid
Abstract: Field studies were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2004 and 2007 in an arid region of southern Tunisia to determine the effect of water quality and nitrogen on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) of "Spunta", a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar. Irrigation water of two qualities viz., canal water (3.25 dS m1) and saline water (5.2 dS m1) was used. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1. For all treatments, irrigations were scheduled when readily available water in the root zone (35% of the total available water) was depleted. Yield, yield components, water supply and soil salinity were measured. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results showed that soil salinity values remained lower than those of ECiw and were lowest under emitters and highest midway to the margin of wetted bands. Potato yield significantly decreased under the use of saline water. The reduction in potato yield was mainly attributed to reduction in the number of tubers per m2 and tuber weight. WUE decreased significantly with increasing irrigation water salinity. Potato yield, yield components and WUE increased with an increase in nitrogen rates. The N application rate of 300 kg ha-1 gave good yield and higher WUE of potato in Southern Tunisia.
Waseem Shahri and Inayatullah Tahir
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, India.
Abstract: A study was conducted to examine the effects of pulse treatment with different concentrations of cycloheximide (CHI) on postharvest performance of cut spikes of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet Blue in distilled water and sucrose 0.2 M+HQS 100 mg/L. The present investigation revealed that at a particular threshold concentration (0.01 mM), it delays senescence and above that it prevents flower opening and promotes senescence. Cycloheximide at 0.01 mM concentration enhanced vase life, besides maintaining higher fresh and dry mass of flowers and soluble protein content in the sepal tissue. The fact that cycloheximide delays petal/sepal senescence demonstrates that the synthesis of particular suicide proteins, probably enzymes responsible for degradation of cellular constituents, orchestrates the cell death programme. Postharvest performance of spikes was much better in spikes pretreated with 0.01 mM CHI and transferred to sucrose+HQS and this can be used as an effective treatment to improve postharvest longevity in this flower system.
N.R. Bhat, H. AlMenaie, M. Suleiman, LAlMulla, B. Thomas, P. George, S. Isat Ali and G. D? Cruz
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P. O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait.
Key words: Olive, evapotranspiration, cultivars, adaptability, deficit irrigation, water stress
Abstract: The ability of olives to adapt harsh environmental conditions makes its cultivation possible where plants are frequently exposed to high temperatures and scarcity of water. As the annual crop evapotranspiration far exceeds the rainfall in Kuwait, supplemental irrigation is essential for plant production. Under this conditions, efficient irrigation strategy is crucial for sustainable olive production. Therefore, the irrigation study comprising of five cultivars (Arbequina, Barnea, Coratina, Koroneiki and UC13A6) and three levels of irrigation (50, 75 or 100% of ETp) was conducted during 2006 - 2008. The results showed that none of the cultivars was adversely affected by even the highest water stress level (50% of ETp), indicating that these cultivars were able to tolerate severe and prolonged drought conditions. However, cultivar differences in plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and weight of pruned materials were significant at P < 0.01. Overall, cultivars Barnea and Coratina exhibited better adaptability to deficit irrigation and grew more vigorously than other cultivars. UC13A6 was most affected by the harsh growing conditions of Kuwait.
Prasann Kumar, Biswapati Mandal and Padmanabh Dwivedi
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India. department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, BCKV, West Bengal, India.
Abstract: The recent developments to identify or evolve high biomass crop plants having capabilities to accumulate heavy metals suggest that phytoremediation of metal contaminated soil can be a viable alternative to most conventional clean up technology. Comparative study of heavy metals concentration in the roots, shoots and leaves of different woody plants species e.g. Bougainvillea glabra, Croton spp, Quisqualis indica, Ficus benjamina Variegata, Toona ciliata, and Siris (Albizia lebbeck)indicated their high heavy metals scavenging capacity. For studying the heavy metal content of sewage sludge and plant species, solid sludge and plants were collected from seven Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) viz., Howrah, Garulia, Bhatpara, Nabadwip, Srirampur, Kona, Chandannager, and from the Periurban areas viz., Nadia/Chakdaha/Ektapur (N/C/E), Pumlia (N/C/P), Sikarpur (N/C/S), Tatla (N/C/T). Sludge samples were taken from heaps at various places in the pile of each plant, using an auger. Around 6-10 individual samples were mixed together and pooled sample were used for analysis. The concentration of Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni in the roots of plants at STP ranged from 0.805 to 1.03, 9.24 to 32.6, 10.62 to 15.56, and <0.05 mg kg-1, respectively. Whereas, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni content in the shoots of plants at STPs ranged from 1.55 to 1.7, 9.27 to 22.6, 5.35 to 11.03, and <0.05 mg kg-1, respectively. In the leaves, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni content ranged from 1.76 to 3.58, 9.1 to 22.76, 8.76 to12.02, and <0.05 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, above mentioned plant species can be selected for scavenging heavy metals from soils and sludges.
Dilip Kumar Mishra and L.P. Yadava
K.V.K., Kasturbagram, Indore, M.P. -452020, Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow-227107, India.
Abstract: The effects of method of application and concentration of paclobutrazol on flower stalk length, flower size, flower longevity and yield of China aster were studied. Thiry five days old seedlings of China aster cv. Poornima were treated with paclobutrazol @ 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm through root dip, soil drench and foliar spray methods. Length of flower stalk and flower size significantly decreased with increased concentrations of paclobutrazol except in case of flower size when applied as foliar spray. Contrarily, flower longevity not influenced adversely with increased concentration of paclobutrazol, whether applied as root dip or soil drench or foliar spray. In each application method, flower yield was significantly higher at 25 ppm paclobutrazol. However, drench application of paclobutrazol was consistently more effective than foliar or root dip treatments with regard to length of flower stalk. Among the different levels and methods of paclobutrazol application, plants treated with 25 ppm as foliar spray proved to be superior over control and rest of the treatment combinations by increasing flower diameter and yield of cut flower as compared to control.
A.A. Waman, B.N. Sathyanarayana , K. Umesha, Balakrishna Gowda, T.H. Ashok, M. Rajesh and R.G. Guruprakash
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065, Karnataka, India.
Key words: Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, In vitro, low cost options, medicinal plant, plant growth regulators, Withania somnifera
Abstract: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal., one of the 32 prioritized medicinal plants of India, is well known for its importance in the Ayurveda system of medicine. Attempt was made to establish an efficient plant regeneration protocol for a commercial cultivar 'Poshita' and to acclimatize the plantlets ex vitro, so as to reduce the cost. Results revealed that shoot induction was possible only after an intervening callus phase, irrespective of the concentration of growth regulators present in the nutrient pool. Nodal explant cultured on MS media supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP + 0.5 mg L-1 NAA showed superiority in callus induction capacity over epicotyls and leaves. Nodal segments when cultured on a media containing BAP alone could induce shoots in cent per cent explants. Highest number of shoots (5.8) was obtained in media containing 2 mg L-1 BAP. Number of adventitious buds was found to be maximum (13) with epicotyl explant and 1 mg L-1 BAP combination. Nodal explants cultured on high concentration of BAP (4 mg L-1) showed highest incidence of malformed shoots (4.3). A total of 66.7 % plantlets could root and establish ex vitro even without auxin treatment and survival rate increased (87.5%) with increase in IBA concentration to 500 mg L-1. The present protocol can be exploited on a commercial scale to obtain maximum benefits from the improved cultivar. Furthermore, ex vitro hardening can help to reduce the cost of production and thereby make the tissue culture industry more profitable.
B. Anita, N. Selvaraj and R.M. Vijayakumar
Horticultural Research Station, Ooty, Nilgiris-643001, India.
Abstract: Protected cultivation is an emerging technology in Nilgiris for raising cut flower crops. Due to controlled environmental condition and continuous growing of crops, the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla has emerged as a major problem in gerbera cultivation causing enormous yield loss. The damage progressively increases if proper sanitation control measures are not followed during the polyhouse cultivation. In the absence of Methyl Bromide, it is necessary to use other options. Biofumigation was evaluated to control soil borne nematode parasites with the aim to develop bio-pesticides, which could be effective against root knot nematodes without deteriorating soil environment. Two field trials were conducted to study the effect of combined use of biofumigants and bioagents on the nematode population. Mustard crop was ploughed in situ before flowering and covered with a plastic mulch for one month in polyhouses. The biocontrol agents viz., Pseudomonasfluorescens and Trichoderma viride were tried either alone or in combination with biofumigation. The stem length, flower yield and nematode population in soil were recorded. The study conducted at two different locations indicated that biofumigation with mustard followed by soil application of P. fluorescens @1.25 kg/ha at the time of planting significantly suppressed the population of M. hapla in soil by 67.5 to 67.8% and enhanced the flower yield of gerbera by 41 to 44%.
K. Umesha, G.R. Smitha, B.S. Sreeramu and A.A. Waman
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065, Karnataka, India. Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi, Anand-387 310, Gujarat, India
Abstract: The influence of different organic manures, bio-fertilizers and green manures on growth, yield and glycoside content of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)was studied over a period of three years (2004-2007). Various organic supplements viz., farm yard manure (15 and 25 t ha-1), vermicompost (1 and 2 t ha-1), neem cake (0.5 and 1 t ha-1) and bio-fertilizers viz., Azospirillum, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and VAM (each @ 0 and 10 kg ha-1) were applied. The results of eleven harvests revealed that all the growth parameters viz., plant height, number of branches and plant spread were influenced by various organics and bio-fertilizers and showed variation from season to season (harvest to harvest) and plants responses did not followed a definite trend. Dry leaf yield during first (6.16 t ha-1) and second year (4.34 t ha-1) of cropping was maximum with the treatment receiving FYM (25 t ha-1) + vermicompost (2 t ha-1) + neem cake (1 t ha-1) + bio-fertilizers (10 kg ha-1) and differed significantly. However, in third year of cropping the treatments had no significant influence on the dry leaf yield. Both the glycosides i.e., stevioside (7.8 %) and rebaudioside content (3.4 %), and glycoside yield were also highest in the above said treatment.