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K.T. Kareem, O.O. Alamu, R.K. Egberongbe and O. Arogundade

National Horticultural Research Institute, PMB 5432, Idi-Ishin, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Key words: Okra, okra mosaic virus, mulches, disease severity, Azadirachta indica, Eugenia uniflora, Terminalia catappa, Panicum, black plastic polythene, fruit yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 51-55.

Abstract: The study was conducted from June to September, 2010 to assess the impact of different mulch materials on the incidence and severity of okra mosaic virus (OMV) in okra cv. 'LD 88-1' in Ibadan, Nigeria. The overall effects of the different mulches were assessed on the incidence and severity of OMV and the resultant effect on the number of pods and pod biomass. The mulches assessed in the field experiment were Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga) leaves, Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) leaves, Panicum clippings and black plastic polythene. Positive and negative controls included hoe-weeded and unweeded plots, respectively. Results indicated that at 5 weeks after sowing (WAS), there was no significant difference in the OMV incidence on plants mulched with A. indica, E. uniflora and T. catappa with values ranging from 11.91 to 15.48% while a low virus incidence of 0.5% was recorded for the plastic mulched plants. The mean virus disease severity ranged from 0.7 to 4.0 on a scale of 1-4 scoring system with plastic mulched plants showing little or no symptom of OMV at 5 WAS. However, the plants on the unweeded plots were stunted with deformed fruits. Similar trend was observed at 7 WAS with plastic mulched plot having the least incidence and severity score while the unweeded plot has the highest OMV incidence and severity. Of all the mulch materials, plots mulched with Panicum produced the least yield values while plastic mulch induced the highest yield on the okra plants. Comparing the mean number of pods of weeded and unweeded control plots; the weeded plot produced average value of 23.0?0.1 pods/plant while the unweeded plot produced average of 12.0?0.15 pods/plant. The results obtained showed that mulches especially plastic are effective in controling okra mosaic virus.
H.A. Kassem, H.A. Marzouk and R.S. AlObeed

Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia., department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Key words: Putrescine, GA3, 2, 4-D, calcium, peel senescence, Navel orange

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 56-62.

Abstract: The present study was conducted in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons in order to extend harvest season and maintain fruit quality for better marketability of Washington navel oranges growing in clay soil by preharvest foliar sprays of GA3, 2,4-D, putrescine and calcium either alone or in combinations. Fruits were harvested on two different harvest dates, the first was at the estimated commercial harvest date (middle December), and the second was late in the harvest season (during February). At both harvesting dates, all spray treatments delayed fruit softening, peel ageing and fruit color break and decreased creasing and fruit drop. Also, fruit TSS, sugars and vitamin C contents increased. The treatments had positive influence on extending harvest season without any deterioration in fruit characteristics. Spraying the different substances in combinations gave better results, especially with putrescine.
S. Haripriya, E. Vadivel, R. Venkatachalam and P. Gayathri

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology & Bioinformatics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Aonla, free radical scavenging, DPPH, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 63-66.

Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to assess the free radical scavenging activity of aonla (Emblica officinalis) varieties viz., BSR-1, Chakaiya, Krishna and NA-7 at various stages of fruit development viz., initial stage, one-fourth maturity stage, half maturity stage, three-fourth maturity stage and full maturity stage using DPPH assay to identify the variety and stage of fruit development for maximum antioxidant activity. The experimental DPPH assay revealed that the free radical scavenging activity was significantly different among the aonla varieties and also at various stages of fruit development in each variety. It was also found that the DPPH free radical scavenging activities of fresh aonla fruit extracts were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the radical scavenging activity of the standard ascorbic acid at varying concentrations. The pattern of total soluble sugars accumulation and free radical scavenging activity at various stages of fruit development in each aonla variety studied were discussed in detail.
E.A. Ibrahim

Vegetable Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Cucumis melo, sweet melon, cultivars, water stress, drought resistance.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 67-70.

Abstract: Drought is a wide-spread problem, seriously influencing sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. Aegyptiacus L.) production and quality. Therefore, identification or development of tolerant genotypes is of immense importance for sweet melon production in drought prone areas. Two field experiments were conducted in clay loam soil at Baramoon Experimental Farm, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt during the two summer seasons of 2008 and 2009, to evaluate five sweet melon cultivars (Shahd El-Dokki, Ananas El-Dokki, Ismaelawi, Kahera-6 Improved, Albasosi) under regular irrigation and stress conditions (drought conditions were imposed after first irrigation and created by reducing the frequency of irrigation by one half to that of irrigated crop, i.e., missing alternate irrigation) using a split plot design with three replicates. Drought susceptibility index, relative yield reduction and relative yield values were used to describe yield stability and yield potential. Results indicated that exposure of sweet melon cultivars to water stress lead to significant decrease in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit flesh thickness and total yield per plant. Whereas, water deficit caused significant increase in total soluble solids. The tested cultivars markedly varied among them in all estimated characters. The interaction between irrigation levels and cultivars had significant effects on all traits under study in both seasons. Cultivars with the highest yield and yield components under non-stress conditions had the highest yield and yield components under stress conditions. On the basis of the drought resistance indices, Kahera-6 Improved was relatively stress susceptible, whereas Albasosi was more tolerant and stable cultivar therefore detailed studies are warrented for validating its drought tolerance characterstic.
Patrick Riga

Department of Plant Production and Protection, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (NEIKER-Tecnalia), Parque Tecnoldgico de Bizkaia, P. 812, E-48160 Derio, Spain.

Key words: Daminozide, Pelargonium peltatum, water stress.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 7-12.

Abstract: Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are commonly used in ornamental plant production to improve the decorative value of the plants and to meet marketable targets. The PGRs mostly used in ornamental plant culture are chemical growth retardants that control the size of plants, improve compactness and enhance flowering. However, the use of PGRs has been restricted under current legislation, and modified culture practices should be implemented to produce the desired quality of plants. Ornamental plant quality traits are determined by the genetic background of the plant and environmental conditions such as water availability. In the present study, the responses of growth and flower production in geranium (Pelargonium peltatum L.) subjected to cyclic deficit irrigation (CDI) were characterized to evaluate the technique as an alternative to the application of a plant growth regulator (daminozide). The leaf water potential of plants under CDI was lower than in control and PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the aerial dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf number, leaf blade area, specific leaf area and stem number of plants under CDI and PGR-treated plants were similar. However, the percentage of plants with at least one opened flower and the number of inflorescences per plant were increased by CDI. The marketable quality of the plants subjected to CDI was higher than that of the PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the water use efficiency of plants under CDI was 21% higher than that of PGR-treated plants, leading to a 10% reduction in the total water consumption during production.
R. Rekha, Pallavi Mandave and Neelambika Meti

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune- 4110046, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Axillary shoot proliferation, strawberry, runner tips, TDZ, daughter runners

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 71-73.

Abstract: A protocol for micropropagation of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie was standardized through axillary shoot proliferation from runner tips. Medium supplemented with TDZ (1 mg/L) alone was favourable for the induction of multiple shoots and daughter runners from runner tips. Such shoots were successfully multiplied for four times on MS incorporated with 0.5mg/L each of BAP, IBA and 1.0 mg/L of GA3. Rooting of subcultured shoots was achieved on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L of kinetin alone and along with 0.5 mg/L of IBA. Ex agar plants were harvested regularly after three weeks of growth period for their acclimatization in both cocopeat and soil. The survival rate of tissue cultured plants was 85%.
E.K. Tsado

School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B., 65. Minna - Niger State.

Key words: Shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), banana, ripening, storage, wax coating

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 74-76.

Abstract: The study was designed to assess the effect of locally produced butter from nuts of shea butter trees (Vitteleria paradoxom) on the ripening and storage of banana. A simple complete randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of coating matured banana fingers with shea butter oil before storage under three temperature conditions viz., 35, 25 and 10 oC. Each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed a significant effect of different storage temperatures. Days to ripening between coated and uncoated bananas, and the interaction with storage temperatures were not statistically different. A taste panel's results of assessing the effect of coating treatment on the textual quality of ripe bananas did not show any significant difference neither was there an effect on the appeal of ripened bananas. The result showed that banana fingers stored in the refrigerator at 10oC lasted beyond 53 days of storage irrespective of the treatment. At 25 oC, the coated fingers took 15.7 days to ripen while the uncoated lasted 8 days. Coated banana fingers stored at 35 oC took 11.3 days to ripen but the uncoated ripened after 6 days. The use of shea butter for shelf life prolongation is discussed while the test is continuing.
R.P.S. Dalal, Navjot, A. Thakur, A.S. Sidhu and J.S. Brar

Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Station, Bathinda 151001, India.

Key words: Allelopathy, Citrus jambhiri, old orchard soils, seedling growth, nutrients.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 77-80.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic potential of old orchard soils on the seedling growth of rough lemon. Soils from the root zone spheres of eight orchards of mango, aonla, peach, pomegranate, citrus, pear, ber, guava and virgin soil as a control was used for raising the seedlings. The rough lemon Jatti khatti seedlings of one and a half year old raised in aonla, ber and peach orchard soil as growing media showed the reduction in shoot length (40-50%), leaf number (46-63%), leaf area/ plant (62-69%) and shoot dry weight (79-83%). The root length was most inhibited by ber, aonla and peach orchard soils. The percent reduction in root dry weight (11.23- 34.48%) of the seedling was not in equal proportion to reduction in root volume (42.55- 55.86%). Root dry weight density varied between 0.55-0.96 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 1.42-1.82. Whereas, in citrus, mango, pomegranate, ber and guava orchard soils, the percent reduction in root dry weight was in equal proportion to root volume and root dry weight density varied between 0.41-0.49 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 0.44-0.72. The shoot and root growth of the seedlings was at par when raised in citrus and pomegranate orchard soil as growing media. Leaf N and P contents increased, whereas, Ca and Mg decreased in all the orchard soils except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils as growing media. Leaf Fe, Cu and Mn contents in all the orchard soils as growing media were in toxic range except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils. Overall, the orchard soils of deciduous fruit plants showed more allelopathic effect than the soils growing evergreen fruit plants in citrus cultivation.
Ramezan Rezazadeh, Dion K. Harrison and Richard R. Williams

The University of Queensland Gatton, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Gatton Qld 4343, Australia.

Key words: Flow cytometry, Haden, Keitt, Tommy Atkins, Kensington Pride, Mangifera indica L., PEG, PEMs, RAF, somatic embryo.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 101-107.

Abstract: Somatic hybridization of mango via protoplast fusion was attempted at cultivar level. Enzymatically isolated protoplasts from leaves of greenhouse-grown seedlings of cvs. 'Tommy Atkins', 'Keitt' and 'Haden' and from proembryonic masses (PEMs) of cv. 'Kensington Pride' were used. Protoplasts were fused by polyethylene glycol (PEG), embedded in Ca-alginate beads and cultured in shallow liquid culture on shaker (30 rpm). After 4 weeks, Ca-alginate beads were depolymerized and released microcolonies of PEMs were plated onto the solid culture media. After two consecutive subcultures, fast growing large clumps of PEMs were picked up and cultured as PEMs line for analyses. Flow cytometry analysis of 242 PEMs lines revealed 41 tetraploid lines. DNA fingerprinting of the regenerated embryos from the tetraploid lines showed that only four lines were somatic hybrids, all resulting from 'Haden' + 'Kensington Pride' protoplast fusions. By contrast, the tetraploid lines from 'Keitt' + 'Kensington Pride' and 'Tommy Atkins' + 'Kensington Pride' were autotetraploids. Root-tip chromosome counts on resulting germinated cotyledonary embryos confirmed that somatic hybrid embryo lines had a chromosome number of 2n=4x=80 compared to diploid parents (2n=2x=40). Of 50 deflasked somatic-hybrid, in vitro plantlets with true leaves only 3 plantlets formed the healthy apical bud (meristem) in the soil and grew normally.
Shailendra Rajan, Divya Tiwari, V.K. Singh, Pooja Saxena, Shilpi Singh, Y.T.N. Reddy,K.K. Upreti, M.M. Burondkar, A. Bhagwan and Richards Kennedy

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Banga?lore.

Key words: BBCH scale, Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie, mango, phenology, phenophase, flowering, growth

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 108-114.

Abstract: Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of weather dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on mango. BBCH (Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie) scale was used for data recording and to assess utility of the scale in mango phenological studies. Phenological stages of the mango were recorded at weekly intervals on 60 shoots of cultivar Totapuri at five diverse locations for testing usefulness of scale under different diverse ecologies and data from one location, i.e., Lucknow (26o 54' N and 80o 48' E ) was used for analysis. Existing BBCH scale was modified on the basis of data recorded for mango in which seven out of 10 principal stages were used, starting with bud development (stage 0) and ending with maturity of fruit (stage 8). Three digit scale was used for inclusion of the mesostages between the principal and secondary growth stages. Highly recurring flowering phenophases were 511 (18 %), 513 (20 %) recorded in standard week 9 and 517 (45 %) in standard week 11 (March). Other important phenophases, 619 (38 %) and 709 (10 %) occured during standard weeks 13 and 22 to 23, respectively. A high degree of variation in shoots representing principal growth stages viz., vegetative bud, leaf and shoot development was observed due to simultaneous transition of the stages during standard week 33 to 42 and 4 to 24. Limitations of existing BBCH scale and comprehended modifications have been proposed and discussed. The study revealed that the extended BBCH-scale for mango can be widely used because of its utility in describing all phenophases pertaining to bud, shoot, leaf, panicle and fruit development and indicated the incisive growth pattern of the shoots and seasonal variation. This is the first report on quantitative analysis of mango phenological data using BBCH scale.
Hatem Mabrouk and Slah Mejri

Laboratoire d'arboriculture fruitiere. Laboratoire des Industries agro-alimentaires. Institut national Agronomique de Tunisie : 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle 1082 -Tunis-Mahrajene-Tunisie.

Key words: Japanese plum, Prunus salicina L., maturity, fruit quality, cold storage, Tunisia.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 115-118.

Abstract: Fruit Quality attributes of two Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) varieties 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune' cultivated in Tunisia were monitored during fruit ripening on the tree and cold storage. A five years old commercial orchard was used for the study. Harvested fruits were stored in cold rooms at temperature less than 2?C and relative humidity around 90%. Beginning at two weeks before harvest, until the end of the cold storage period, samples of 20 fruits were taken at irregular time intervals and used for the determination of soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. At harvest, values of SSC were similar for both varieties reaching 15 and 14.8%, respectively for 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune'. During cold storage, the increase in SSC was nil for 'Fortune' and very low (0.2%) for 'Black Diamond'. In contrast, values of TA were different for 'Black Diamond' and 'Fortune', the former was more acidic at harvest and during cold storage. TA values ranged between 0.94 and 1.24 % malic acid at harvest and 0.8 and 1% at the end of storage period. The sugar to acid ratio (SSC/TA) showed a continuous increase during ripening and cold storage for both varieties. Values of SSC/TA, differed largely between the two varieties, at all sampling dates. Fruit Firmness decreased during ripening and cold storage for both cultivars. At harvest 'Fortune' fruits were more firm (28.44 N) than 'Black Diamond' (21.77 N). At the end of cold storage, these values were as low as 10.64 N for 'Black Diamond' and 15.64 N for 'Fortune'. A linear regression analysis showed that the rate of firmness decrease during cold storage was very similar for both cultivar and reached a value of 0.23 N day-1. Thus, fruit firmness could be used to determine harvest time and to predict cold storage duration
H. Liang, YJ. Hu, W.M. Pang, W. Liu and M.X. Yang

College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.

Key words: Kiwifruit, radiation, top grafting, 60Co y-ray, breeding

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 119-121.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of radiation treatment of the grafted buds in kiwifruit improvement. After treated with 50 Gy 60Co y-ray, buds from different fruit spurs of Actinidia were top grafted onto the heavily pruned mature vines with 50 -100 grafted buds per stock plants and the grafted plants were under intensive cultural practices for high survival rate of the grafting. The experimental results showed that treatment with 60Co y-ray increased SSR diversity and phenotypic variations of the kiwifruit canes produced from the grafted buds. Selection of the favourable variants from a large population (canes from different plants) in a limited area of kiwifruit orchard was possible and some of favourable variants from the grafted populations were selected and rapidly propagated for further utilization in kiwifruit improvement.
P. Youryon, C. WongsAree, W.B. McGlasson, S. Glahan and S. Kanlayanarat

Postharvest Technology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. Postharvest Technology Innovation Centre, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. University

Key words: Ananas comosus, CAM plant, fruit acidity, harvesting time, black heart

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 122-126.

Abstract: Pineapple plants cv. 'Trad-Srithong' (Ananas comosus L.) were found to exhibit crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The concentrations of organic acids were higher in mature crown and stem leaves harvested at 0600 than at 1200 h but there were no significant differences in acid concentrations among fruit harvested at these times. Fruit of 'Trad-Srithong' (Queen group) are highly sensitive to internal browning (IB), a form of chilling injury, when stored at <15 ?C. Fruit were harvested at 0600 and 1200 h and stored at 8, 13 and 20 ?C. IB developed in fruit stored at 8 and 13 ?C after 10 days but no symptom developed in control fruit stored at 20 ?C. Time of day, when the fruit were harvested had no effect on the development of IB in 'Trad-Srithong' fruit. TA increased in fruit during storage at all temperatures. Juice extracted from the pulp had higher TA and lower pH than the core tissue and symptoms of IB were more severe in the flesh surrounding the core. Ascorbic acid decreased late during storage period.
K. Nagaz, K. Khlouj, I. Toumi, F. El Mokh, M.M. Masmoudi and N. Ben Mechlia

Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. INAT, 43 avenue Charles Nicolle, 2083 Tunis, Tunisia.

Key words: Potato, salinity, nitrogen, yield, water use efficiency, arid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 127-133.

Abstract: Field studies were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2004 and 2007 in an arid region of southern Tunisia to determine the effect of water quality and nitrogen on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) of "Spunta", a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar. Irrigation water of two qualities viz., canal water (3.25 dS m1) and saline water (5.2 dS m1) was used. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1. For all treatments, irrigations were scheduled when readily available water in the root zone (35% of the total available water) was depleted. Yield, yield components, water supply and soil salinity were measured. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results showed that soil salinity values remained lower than those of ECiw and were lowest under emitters and highest midway to the margin of wetted bands. Potato yield significantly decreased under the use of saline water. The reduction in potato yield was mainly attributed to reduction in the number of tubers per m2 and tuber weight. WUE decreased significantly with increasing irrigation water salinity. Potato yield, yield components and WUE increased with an increase in nitrogen rates. The N application rate of 300 kg ha-1 gave good yield and higher WUE of potato in Southern Tunisia.
Waseem Shahri and Inayatullah Tahir

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, India.

Key words: Consolida ajacis, vase life, postharvest performance, soluble proteins, sucrose, senescence.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2011, volume 13, issue 2, pages 134-138.

Abstract: A study was conducted to examine the effects of pulse treatment with different concentrations of cycloheximide (CHI) on postharvest performance of cut spikes of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet Blue in distilled water and sucrose 0.2 M+HQS 100 mg/L. The present investigation revealed that at a particular threshold concentration (0.01 mM), it delays senescence and above that it prevents flower opening and promotes senescence. Cycloheximide at 0.01 mM concentration enhanced vase life, besides maintaining higher fresh and dry mass of flowers and soluble protein content in the sepal tissue. The fact that cycloheximide delays petal/sepal senescence demonstrates that the synthesis of particular suicide proteins, probably enzymes responsible for degradation of cellular constituents, orchestrates the cell death programme. Postharvest performance of spikes was much better in spikes pretreated with 0.01 mM CHI and transferred to sucrose+HQS and this can be used as an effective treatment to improve postharvest longevity in this flower system.

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