Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to study the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of the fruit of Garcinia indica using FRAP assay and to separate the compounds in the potential extract through TLC, HPLC and analyse using GC-MS. The study revealed that methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed a higher antioxidant value than the other extracts. The compounds present in the methanol extracts were separated by TLC, HPLC and analysed using GC-MS. The results of TLC revealed the separation of two different spots in case of phenols and a single spot in case of alkaloids. The eluted compounds, subjected to HPLC, separated into 8 peaks in case of phenolics and 8 peaks in case of alkaloids with varying retention time. The HPLC fractions were subjected to GC-MS to identify the compounds in comparison with the Wilcon-NIST library. The study is useful in identifying the bioactive compound for anticancer activity using cell lines.
R. Scott Veitch, Rajasekaran R. Lada and Mason T MacDonald
Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Department of Environmental Science, P. O. Box 550, B2N5E3, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to understand the effect of light emitting diodes on postharvest abscission in balsam fir (Abies balsamea L.) branches. In one experiment, branches were pre-exposed to the fluorescent light, LEDs, or darkness for 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 h. In a second experiment, branches were constantly exposed to fluorescent lights, LEDs, or darkness. The response variable was needle retention duration (NRD). A 48-hour exposure time to red, white, or blue LEDs significantly (P < 0.001) increased NRD by approximately 75, 118, or 127%, respectively, compared to a cool white fluorescent lighting or darkness. Constant exposure to any LED significantly (P < 0.001) improved NRD compared to fluorescent lights or darkness, though white and red LEDs were most effective. It is speculated that LED-promoted needle retention could possibly be due to changes in carbohydrate synthesis similar to those observed during cold acclimation.
YuanYeu Yau and Kevin Yueju Wang
USDA-ARS Vegetable Research Crops Unit and Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI53706, USA. Present address: Department of Natural Resources, Northeastern State University, Broken Arrow, OK 74014, USA.
Abstract: The in vitro development of a whole plant from a single cell is a characteristic feature of plants. Successful embryogenesis and regeneration during in vitro tissue culture are influenced by different factors including medium components. In this study, we compared two regeneration media (MSIII, B5) and a mixture of these media (MSIII+B5) for the regeneration of plants from putative transgenic carrot calli. Seventeen times more plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium than on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. A total of 432 plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium, compared to only 24 and 28 plantlets on MSIII and MSIII+B5, respectively. Plantlets regenerated on B5 medium were generally healthier and bigger than those regenerated on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. Fifty-two plantlets, 7-9 cm in length, were observed on the B5 regeneration medium, while no plants having 7-9 cm length were observed on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium after 4 months. This study demonstrated that B5 is a better medium than MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium for carrot callus regeneration and can be used routinely and efficiently for carrot genetic transformation experiments. The transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by both GUS staining assay and Southern hybridization analysis.
K. Nagaz, M.M. Masmoudi and N. Ben Mechlia
Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. INAT, 43 avenue Charles Nicolle, 2083 Tunis, Tunisia.
Abstract: A two-year study was carried out to assess the effect of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Four irrigation treatments were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB) to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI), 80% (DI-80) and 60% (DI-60). FI was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-MDI60) was also used. Farmer method consisted of applying the producer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are consistent between the two-year experiments and showed significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments also resulted in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha) although we didn't find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60). However, DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m2 and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP) values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provided significant advantage on yield and water productivity, compared to FM in pepper production under experimental conditions. For water-saving purposes, the FI irrigation scheduling is recommended for drip irrigated pepper grown under field conditions and can be used by farmers to optimize the use of saline water and to control soil salinity. In case of limited water supply, adopting deficit irrigation strategies (FI-DI60 and DI-80) could be an alternative for irrigation scheduling of pepper crop under the arid Mediterranean conditions of Tunisia.
W. Liu, M. Yang and H. Liang
College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.
Abstract: Differences of leaf morphology between male and female plants of Actinidia chinensis were observed by means of microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The experimental results showed that ratios of guard cell length to width were significantly different between male and female plants, which were greater than 3 in male plants and lower than 3 in female plants. Leaf shapes and petiole appearance were slightly different among different cultivars, however, the special parameter related to gender could not be found. Male seedlings and female seedlings germinated from seeds in the same fruit could be identified according to ratio of guard cell length to width. It is suggested that ratio of guard cell length to width may be used as a good marker to distinguish male plants from female plants in A. chinensis.
Karen I. Davis, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Brian E. Whipker and Muchha R. Reddy
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, Departments of Biology and Environmental Studies, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244, Department of Horticultural Scie
Abstract: The growth response, root substrate environment, and foliar nutrient concentrations of clerodendrum were evaluated in a range of fertilizer concentrations. A green-leaf selection of clerodendrum was grown for 129 days using a complete fertilizer containing micronutrients at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1 N. Shoot length and dry weight; root substrate electrical conductivity (EC); and foliar N, P, K, Cu, and Mn levels increased with increasing fertilizer concentration, while root substrate pH and foliar Mg and S decreased. The response of foliar Ca, Fe, Zn, and B concentrations to fertilizer concentration was not significant. Although clerodendrum grown with 100 to 400 mg L-1 N had similar foliar N, P, and K concentrations by mean separation, foliage was lighter green at <100 mg L-1 N; thus 200 mg L-1 N is recommended because it provided adequate fertility without excessive shoot growth.
Kazem Barzegar, Abbas Yadollahi, Ali Imani and Noorollah Ahmadi
Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Department of Horticultural Science, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran.
Abstract: Using drought tolerant almond cultivars under arid and semiarid regions such as Iran is important factor affecting production yield, especially in rainfed orchards. To evaluate responses of almond cultivars to drought stress under field condition, the experiment was carried out on six commercial cultivars namely 'Azar', 'Marcona', 'Mission', 'Nonpareil', 'Sahand', and 'Supernova'. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) data during three stress periods indicated that Pn decreased in stress treatments, but WUE increased under stress treatments. The highest Pn occured in 'Azar' in July and August, and the highest WUE was recorded in 'Sahand' and 'Supernova'. Leaf abscission in 'Sahand' was very high and Supernova had no significant abscission. Leaf relative water content (RWC) showed a downward trend from June to August. In 'Azar', 'Nonpareil' and 'Supernova'cultivars, RWC resulted from severe stress treatment had close relationship with RWC in well-watered treatment. This result may be due to osmoregulation in leaves of stressed plants. So these cultivars could keep high water content in their leaves and tolerate severe drought stress conditions than other investigated cultivars. The highest and lowest proline accumulation was observed in the leaves of 'Marcona' and 'Sahand', respectively; both 'Marcona' and 'Sahand' were sensitive to drought stress than 'Supernova' which showed medium proline accumulation. In almond, accumulation of proline in response to longer interval between irrigation is a general trait and cannot be used as indicator for defining the tolerant trees. In general, 'Supernova' and 'Azar' showed best response under drought stress.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, Major Singh, R.P. Singh, Smita Singh and Satyandra Singh
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, P.B.- 5002, P.O.-BHU, Varanasi, (U.P.) India - 221005, 1Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, (U.P.) India- 221005
Key words: Early blight, Alternaria solani, Solanum habrochaites, resistant, AUDPC
Abstract: Resistance to early blight (EB) disease of tomato caused by Alternaria solani was assessed by examining various parameters of the disease progress. For this study twenty three diverse tomato genotypes were screened under replicated trials for over three years (2007-2009) using artificial inoculation under controlled conditions as well as under natural epidemics at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, UP, India. Tested genotypes showed significant difference in their response to A. solani and disease severity. Area under disease progress curve (AUPDC) was positively correlated with percent disease index (PDI) and negatively with resistance. Of the 23 genotypes, only two i.e. EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites)and H-88-78-1 (S. lycopersicum)were highly resistant (PDI < 5.0; AUDPC < 200 and r value > 0.12) for EB disease under field and glasshouse environments. Characterization using molecular markers also indicated their resistance. It was concluded that there are significant differences between resistant and susceptible tomato lines against EB disease and some of the lines should be considered resistant rather than tolerant. Hence, the choice of resistant lines can be utilized in future breeding programmes for development of early blight resistant/tolerant cultivars of tomato.
Abstract: The study was carried out to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration, develop crop coefficient, area factors and estimates of pomegranate evapotranspiration for Pune region of Maharashtra. The crop coefficient values were estimated on weekly basis from the concept of shaded area approach that is widely used for the deciduous crops. Shaded area was estimated at 12.00-13.00 h with the help of specially prepared plywood board of different sizes with grid marking of size 20 x 20 cm for 5 randomly selected pomegranate trees each from 2 orchards of different ages. The values of water to be applied to pomegranate plantation spaced at 4.5 x 3 m and irrigated by the drip irrigation system of 90 % efficiency were estimated for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th year of pomegranate orchard for Ambe Bahar, Mrig Bahar and Hasta Bahar. The values of water to be applied presented in this paper would be useful for the appropriate irrigation water management of pomegranate.
K.T. Kareem, O.O. Alamu, R.K. Egberongbe and O. Arogundade
National Horticultural Research Institute, PMB 5432, Idi-Ishin, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Abstract: The study was conducted from June to September, 2010 to assess the impact of different mulch materials on the incidence and severity of okra mosaic virus (OMV) in okra cv. 'LD 88-1' in Ibadan, Nigeria. The overall effects of the different mulches were assessed on the incidence and severity of OMV and the resultant effect on the number of pods and pod biomass. The mulches assessed in the field experiment were Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga) leaves, Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) leaves, Panicum clippings and black plastic polythene. Positive and negative controls included hoe-weeded and unweeded plots, respectively. Results indicated that at 5 weeks after sowing (WAS), there was no significant difference in the OMV incidence on plants mulched with A. indica, E. uniflora and T. catappa with values ranging from 11.91 to 15.48% while a low virus incidence of 0.5% was recorded for the plastic mulched plants. The mean virus disease severity ranged from 0.7 to 4.0 on a scale of 1-4 scoring system with plastic mulched plants showing little or no symptom of OMV at 5 WAS. However, the plants on the unweeded plots were stunted with deformed fruits. Similar trend was observed at 7 WAS with plastic mulched plot having the least incidence and severity score while the unweeded plot has the highest OMV incidence and severity. Of all the mulch materials, plots mulched with Panicum produced the least yield values while plastic mulch induced the highest yield on the okra plants. Comparing the mean number of pods of weeded and unweeded control plots; the weeded plot produced average value of 23.0?0.1 pods/plant while the unweeded plot produced average of 12.0?0.15 pods/plant. The results obtained showed that mulches especially plastic are effective in controling okra mosaic virus.
H.A. Kassem, H.A. Marzouk and R.S. AlObeed
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia., department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Abstract: The present study was conducted in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons in order to extend harvest season and maintain fruit quality for better marketability of Washington navel oranges growing in clay soil by preharvest foliar sprays of GA3, 2,4-D, putrescine and calcium either alone or in combinations. Fruits were harvested on two different harvest dates, the first was at the estimated commercial harvest date (middle December), and the second was late in the harvest season (during February). At both harvesting dates, all spray treatments delayed fruit softening, peel ageing and fruit color break and decreased creasing and fruit drop. Also, fruit TSS, sugars and vitamin C contents increased. The treatments had positive influence on extending harvest season without any deterioration in fruit characteristics. Spraying the different substances in combinations gave better results, especially with putrescine.
S. Haripriya, E. Vadivel, R. Venkatachalam and P. Gayathri
Horticultural College and Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology & Bioinformatics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to assess the free radical scavenging activity of aonla (Emblica officinalis)varieties viz., BSR-1, Chakaiya, Krishna and NA-7 at various stages of fruit development viz., initial stage, one-fourth maturity stage, half maturity stage, three-fourth maturity stage and full maturity stage using DPPH assay to identify the variety and stage of fruit development for maximum antioxidant activity. The experimental DPPH assay revealed that the free radical scavenging activity was significantly different among the aonla varieties and also at various stages of fruit development in each variety. It was also found that the DPPH free radical scavenging activities of fresh aonla fruit extracts were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the radical scavenging activity of the standard ascorbic acid at varying concentrations. The pattern of total soluble sugars accumulation and free radical scavenging activity at various stages of fruit development in each aonla variety studied were discussed in detail.
Vegetable Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
Abstract: Drought is a wide-spread problem, seriously influencing sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. Aegyptiacus L.) production and quality. Therefore, identification or development of tolerant genotypes is of immense importance for sweet melon production in drought prone areas. Two field experiments were conducted in clay loam soil at Baramoon Experimental Farm, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt during the two summer seasons of 2008 and 2009, to evaluate five sweet melon cultivars (Shahd El-Dokki, Ananas El-Dokki, Ismaelawi, Kahera-6 Improved, Albasosi) under regular irrigation and stress conditions (drought conditions were imposed after first irrigation and created by reducing the frequency of irrigation by one half to that of irrigated crop, i.e., missing alternate irrigation) using a split plot design with three replicates. Drought susceptibility index, relative yield reduction and relative yield values were used to describe yield stability and yield potential. Results indicated that exposure of sweet melon cultivars to water stress lead to significant decrease in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit flesh thickness and total yield per plant. Whereas, water deficit caused significant increase in total soluble solids. The tested cultivars markedly varied among them in all estimated characters. The interaction between irrigation levels and cultivars had significant effects on all traits under study in both seasons. Cultivars with the highest yield and yield components under non-stress conditions had the highest yield and yield components under stress conditions. On the basis of the drought resistance indices, Kahera-6 Improved was relatively stress susceptible, whereas Albasosi was more tolerant and stable cultivar therefore detailed studies are warrented for validating its drought tolerance characterstic.
Department of Plant Production and Protection, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (NEIKER-Tecnalia), Parque Tecnoldgico de Bizkaia, P. 812, E-48160 Derio, Spain.
Key words: Daminozide, Pelargonium peltatum, water stress.
Abstract: Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are commonly used in ornamental plant production to improve the decorative value of the plants and to meet marketable targets. The PGRs mostly used in ornamental plant culture are chemical growth retardants that control the size of plants, improve compactness and enhance flowering. However, the use of PGRs has been restricted under current legislation, and modified culture practices should be implemented to produce the desired quality of plants. Ornamental plant quality traits are determined by the genetic background of the plant and environmental conditions such as water availability. In the present study, the responses of growth and flower production in geranium (Pelargonium peltatum L.) subjected to cyclic deficit irrigation (CDI) were characterized to evaluate the technique as an alternative to the application of a plant growth regulator (daminozide). The leaf water potential of plants under CDI was lower than in control and PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the aerial dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf number, leaf blade area, specific leaf area and stem number of plants under CDI and PGR-treated plants were similar. However, the percentage of plants with at least one opened flower and the number of inflorescences per plant were increased by CDI. The marketable quality of the plants subjected to CDI was higher than that of the PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the water use efficiency of plants under CDI was 21% higher than that of PGR-treated plants, leading to a 10% reduction in the total water consumption during production.
R. Rekha, Pallavi Mandave and Neelambika Meti
Department of Plant Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune- 4110046, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: A protocol for micropropagation of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie was standardized through axillary shoot proliferation from runner tips. Medium supplemented with TDZ (1 mg/L) alone was favourable for the induction of multiple shoots and daughter runners from runner tips. Such shoots were successfully multiplied for four times on MS incorporated with 0.5mg/L each of BAP, IBA and 1.0 mg/L of GA3. Rooting of subcultured shoots was achieved on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L of kinetin alone and along with 0.5 mg/L of IBA. Ex agar plants were harvested regularly after three weeks of growth period for their acclimatization in both cocopeat and soil. The survival rate of tissue cultured plants was 85%.