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M.H. Abdul Sattar, A. Rashid Yassin Ibrahim and Watheq A. Aulaqi

Plant Protection Section, Horticulture and Food Technology Section, El Kod Agricultural Research Station(AREA), Abyan Governorate, Republic of Yemen.

Key words: Date palm, Graphiola phaenicis, Southern coastal plain, Yemen.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 139-143.

Abstract: Twelve date palm cultivars were evaluated for field resistance to Graphiola leaf spot caused by Graphiola phaenicis (Moug) Poit. The disease incidence and number of sori were compared on both surface of leaf, pinnae position on leaves and plant age. Cultivars, Gizaz, Tha'al and Khodari showed negligable infection and fewer number of sori on the leaf surface and rachis. Symptom of disease was absent on leaves and rachis in cultivar Sagaee. These cultivars differed significantly from susceptible cultivars viz., Shahree, Soqotree and Khalas (P= 0.01). Abundant distribution of sori caused a drastic reduction of the leaf area covered by the fungus. Adaxial leaf surface trapped more number of sporidia and significant differences were detected among test cultivars (P=0.05). The temperature ranging between 32-38? C in summer and humidity accompanied by heavy dew in the night and early morning favored the development of infection. Correlation of age of cultivar "Shahree" and disease incidence revealed that older trees are more susceptible to disease.
Jyoti Kachroo, Anil Bhat and Dileep Kachroo

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology - Jammu, Chatha - 180009, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Orange, kinnow, resource use efficiency, regression coefficient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 144-145.

Abstract: Orange and kinnow occupy an important place in the horticultural industry of the country as well as in J&K state. In the present study, resource use efficiency of orange and kinnow was analysed. The regression coefficient values of selected inputs under orange orchards, mainly human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning varied significantly at the five age groups of five years from 5th to 28th years, corresponded to overall values as 0.955, 0.012, -0.012, 0.013 and -0.050, respectively. Out of which human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection with positive sign indicated that with one per cent increase in the use of these inputs, the output could be increased by 0.96 per cent in case of human labour and 0.01 per cent each in other two inputs. The regression coefficient of training/ pruning was statistically significant but negative indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on training/ pruning could decrease the output to the extent of 0.05 per cent. The marginal value productivities of human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection were positive with their values at 0.185, 110.452, 0.076, respectively, whereas that of training/ pruning (-0.638) and irrigation (-0.054) were negative thereby indicated that there still existed scope of investing on human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection. The overall regression coefficient values obtained from kinnow cultivation were 0.029, -0.024, 0.016, 0.015 and 0.138 for human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning, respectively, out of which human labour and training/ pruning were statistically significant, indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on these two inputs could increase the output to the extent of 0.03 per cent and 0.14 per cent, respectively. The regression coefficients of irrigation, plant protection and manures + fertilizers were non significant. The marginal value productivities of human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning were positive with their values at 0.031, 0.025, 0.014 and 0.175, respectively, whereas that of manures + fertilizers (-0.027) was negative thereby indicating that there still existed scope in the investment on human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning.
R. Kumar, N. Ahmed, D.B. Singh and O.C. Sharma

Laboratory of Post Harvest Technology, Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar-190 007, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Floral preservatives, sucrose, aluminium sulphate, 8-HQS, Tulipa gesneriana, water relations, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 146-151.

Abstract: The influence of different floral preservatives were assessed to determine their effect on the water relations and vase life of cut tulip cv. Yellow Purissima. Uniform size scapes of tulip at bud colour break stage were kept in ten different treatments of floral preservatives comprised of sucrose-(2, 4 and 6%), aluminium sulphate (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and 8-HQS (100, 200 and 300 ppm) along with control (distilled water). All the preservatives improved water relations and vase life of cut tulip significantly in comparison to control. The greatest cumulative water balance and maximum vase life were recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (10.5 g/scape and 10.1 days) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (9.67 g/scape and 8.9 days) over control (2.53 g/scape and 5.4 days), respectively. Maximum fresh weight change (10th day) was recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (105.13%) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (103.75%) in comparison to control (89.91%). The floral preservatives delayed the senescence of cut tulip by improving water uptake and post harvest physiology, thereby maintained better water balance leading to improved fresh weight and vase life.
Kurt O. Taylor, Muchha R. Reddy, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Mary M. Peet and Godfrey Gayle

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411

Key words: Solanum esculentum, vermicompost, feather meal, kelp meal, seedlings, root media.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 83-87.

Abstract: In two experiments, seeds of tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) cultivar 'Celebrity' were planted in four root substrates (Grower's Mix 20, Fafard 4P, Johnny's 512 Select and Sunshine Planter's) in 72-cell plastic plugs trays using different cover materials. In physical property evaluations, the four substrates had similar total porosity. However, Johnny's 512 Select had the highest container capacity and bulk density while Fafard 4P and Sunshine Planter's had the largest air space. There was some seasonal variation between the germination and growth results of the two studies. The use of root substrate, coir, or vermiculite resulted in better germination than leaving the seeds uncovered, with the exception of the seeds germinated in Johnny's 512 Select in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 1, tomato seedlings were the tallest and heaviest when grown in Grower's Mix 20. Using newspaper to cover seeds reduced germination in Experiment 2. Tomato seedlings grown in Grower's Mix 20 and Johnny's 512 Select were equal or greater in shoot height or weight as compared to those grown in the conventional substrate Fafard 4P.
K. Bodhipadma, S. Noichinda, P. Luangsriumporn, C. Meenapa, K. Nathalang, and D.W.M. Leung

Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 Thailand.

Key words: Acclimatization, aromatic chilli, ginger juice, root elongation, root induction

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 88-91.

Abstract: Stem explants excised from seedlings of aromatic chilli (Capsicum frutescens L) grown under aseptic conditions were cultured on basal medium alone (control), and basal medium supplemented with 5, 10 or 20 mL/L juice of ginger rhizome of 6 or 10 months old (herein referred to as YGE and OGE, respectively). At the end of 6 weeks of culture, the average number of roots formed per stem explant was higher when cultured on media supplemented with the three different levels of YGE or OGE (except 5 mL/L) compared to the control. Roots, formed in stem explants cultured on media containing the different levels of YGE (except 20 mL/L) and OGE, were longer than those cultured on basal medium. Particularly notable was that the average length of roots formed in stem explants cultured on medium supplemented with 5 mL/L OGE was more than double that of the control. Prior culture on media containing the different levels of YGE had no promotive effect on the number of leaves per exflasked plantlet compared to the control at the end of three weeks of acclimatization but the plantlets cultured previously on 5 or 10 mL/L YGE were taller than the control. The best performance of plantlets regarding leaf number and stem height after acclimatization was exhibited by those cultured previously on medium containing 10 mL/L OGE as they had at least 20% more leaves and were taller than the control.
S.S. Kukal, Debasish Saha, Arnab Bhowmik and R.K. Dubey

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, India.

Key words: Bio-amendments, growing media, bulk density, water retention, air filled porosity, easily available water, water buffering capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 92-97.

Abstract: The efficacy of the natural bio-amendments in improving physical condition as well as water retention characteristics of the growing media in pot culture was studied on ten different compositions of growing media. The treatments comprised of (i) soil as sole medium; (ii) soil + sewage sludge (SS) in the ratio of 1:1; (iii) soil + SS + coir (CP) in the ratio of 1:1:1; (iv) soil + vermicompost (VC) in the ratio of 1:1; (v) soil + VC + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (vi) soil + farmyard manure (FYM) in the ratio of 1:1; (vii) soil + FYM + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (viii) soil + SS + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1; (ix) soil + SS + FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 and (x) soil + FYM + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1. The bulk density of media composition soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP was 24.2, 27.5 and 27.5% lower than the media containing only soils (1.32 mg m-3), respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) was lowest (45.4%) in sole soil treatment and it was 6.3, 5.6 and 6.1 times higher in soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP, respectively. The volumetric water retention at various suctions was significantly improved by addition of the organic amendments with soil. The magnitude of the differences in water retention among the treatments became wider at the higher suctions. The combination of soil+VC+CP showed the highest amount of water retention among all the treatments at all the suctions. The air filled porosity was highest (190.7%) in soil+FYM+CP media and lowest (25.3%) in sole soil media. Significant increase in easily available water was observed with the incorporation of coir with sewage sludge, vermicompost and FYM. The water buffering capacity was lowest in media with only soil (7.56%) and the media containing soil+VC+CP recorded the highest (24.7%) water buffering capacity.
P. Gayathri and P. Govindaraju

Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Garcinia indica, methanol, ethylacetate, chloroform, hexane, FRAP, antioxidant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 98-101.

Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to study the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of the fruit of Garcinia indica using FRAP assay and to separate the compounds in the potential extract through TLC, HPLC and analyse using GC-MS. The study revealed that methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed a higher antioxidant value than the other extracts. The compounds present in the methanol extracts were separated by TLC, HPLC and analysed using GC-MS. The results of TLC revealed the separation of two different spots in case of phenols and a single spot in case of alkaloids. The eluted compounds, subjected to HPLC, separated into 8 peaks in case of phenolics and 8 peaks in case of alkaloids with varying retention time. The HPLC fractions were subjected to GC-MS to identify the compounds in comparison with the Wilcon-NIST library. The study is useful in identifying the bioactive compound for anticancer activity using cell lines.
R. Scott Veitch, Rajasekaran R. Lada and Mason T MacDonald

Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Department of Environmental Science, P. O. Box 550, B2N5E3, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Key words: Abscission, Abies balsamea, balsam fir, conifer, light emitting diode, needle retention, postharvest, senescence

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 13-17.

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to understand the effect of light emitting diodes on postharvest abscission in balsam fir (Abies balsamea L.) branches. In one experiment, branches were pre-exposed to the fluorescent light, LEDs, or darkness for 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 h. In a second experiment, branches were constantly exposed to fluorescent lights, LEDs, or darkness. The response variable was needle retention duration (NRD). A 48-hour exposure time to red, white, or blue LEDs significantly (P < 0.001) increased NRD by approximately 75, 118, or 127%, respectively, compared to a cool white fluorescent lighting or darkness. Constant exposure to any LED significantly (P < 0.001) improved NRD compared to fluorescent lights or darkness, though white and red LEDs were most effective. It is speculated that LED-promoted needle retention could possibly be due to changes in carbohydrate synthesis similar to those observed during cold acclimation.
YuanYeu Yau and Kevin Yueju Wang

USDA-ARS Vegetable Research Crops Unit and Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI53706, USA. Present address: Department of Natural Resources, Northeastern State University, Broken Arrow, OK 74014, USA.

Key words: Agrobacterium, carrot, callus, genetic transformation, regeneration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 152-156.

Abstract: The in vitro development of a whole plant from a single cell is a characteristic feature of plants. Successful embryogenesis and regeneration during in vitro tissue culture are influenced by different factors including medium components. In this study, we compared two regeneration media (MSIII, B5) and a mixture of these media (MSIII+B5) for the regeneration of plants from putative transgenic carrot calli. Seventeen times more plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium than on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. A total of 432 plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium, compared to only 24 and 28 plantlets on MSIII and MSIII+B5, respectively. Plantlets regenerated on B5 medium were generally healthier and bigger than those regenerated on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. Fifty-two plantlets, 7-9 cm in length, were observed on the B5 regeneration medium, while no plants having 7-9 cm length were observed on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium after 4 months. This study demonstrated that B5 is a better medium than MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium for carrot callus regeneration and can be used routinely and efficiently for carrot genetic transformation experiments. The transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by both GUS staining assay and Southern hybridization analysis.
K. Nagaz, M.M. Masmoudi and N. Ben Mechlia

Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. INAT, 43 avenue Charles Nicolle, 2083 Tunis, Tunisia.

Key words: Arid, salinity, drip irrigation, irrigation scheduling, deficit irrigation, pepper, yield, water productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 18-24.

Abstract: A two-year study was carried out to assess the effect of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Four irrigation treatments were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB) to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI), 80% (DI-80) and 60% (DI-60). FI was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-MDI60) was also used. Farmer method consisted of applying the producer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are consistent between the two-year experiments and showed significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments also resulted in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha) although we didn't find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60). However, DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m2 and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP) values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provided significant advantage on yield and water productivity, compared to FM in pepper production under experimental conditions. For water-saving purposes, the FI irrigation scheduling is recommended for drip irrigated pepper grown under field conditions and can be used by farmers to optimize the use of saline water and to control soil salinity. In case of limited water supply, adopting deficit irrigation strategies (FI-DI60 and DI-80) could be an alternative for irrigation scheduling of pepper crop under the arid Mediterranean conditions of Tunisia.
W. Liu, M. Yang and H. Liang

College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.

Key words: Actinidia chinensis, gender identification, leaf, morphology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: Differences of leaf morphology between male and female plants of Actinidia chinensis were observed by means of microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The experimental results showed that ratios of guard cell length to width were significantly different between male and female plants, which were greater than 3 in male plants and lower than 3 in female plants. Leaf shapes and petiole appearance were slightly different among different cultivars, however, the special parameter related to gender could not be found. Male seedlings and female seedlings germinated from seeds in the same fruit could be identified according to ratio of guard cell length to width. It is suggested that ratio of guard cell length to width may be used as a good marker to distinguish male plants from female plants in A. chinensis.
Karen I. Davis, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Brian E. Whipker and Muchha R. Reddy

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, Departments of Biology and Environmental Studies, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244, Department of Horticultural Scie

Key words: Bleeding glory-bower, glory tree, fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 29-32.

Abstract: The growth response, root substrate environment, and foliar nutrient concentrations of clerodendrum were evaluated in a range of fertilizer concentrations. A green-leaf selection of clerodendrum was grown for 129 days using a complete fertilizer containing micronutrients at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1 N. Shoot length and dry weight; root substrate electrical conductivity (EC); and foliar N, P, K, Cu, and Mn levels increased with increasing fertilizer concentration, while root substrate pH and foliar Mg and S decreased. The response of foliar Ca, Fe, Zn, and B concentrations to fertilizer concentration was not significant. Although clerodendrum grown with 100 to 400 mg L-1 N had similar foliar N, P, and K concentrations by mean separation, foliage was lighter green at <100 mg L-1 N; thus 200 mg L-1 N is recommended because it provided adequate fertility without excessive shoot growth.
Kazem Barzegar, Abbas Yadollahi, Ali Imani and Noorollah Ahmadi

Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Department of Horticultural Science, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran.

Key words: Drought tolerance, Pn, WUE, RWC, Proline, Prunus dulcis Mill.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 33-39.

Abstract: Using drought tolerant almond cultivars under arid and semiarid regions such as Iran is important factor affecting production yield, especially in rainfed orchards. To evaluate responses of almond cultivars to drought stress under field condition, the experiment was carried out on six commercial cultivars namely 'Azar', 'Marcona', 'Mission', 'Nonpareil', 'Sahand', and 'Supernova'. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) data during three stress periods indicated that Pn decreased in stress treatments, but WUE increased under stress treatments. The highest Pn occured in 'Azar' in July and August, and the highest WUE was recorded in 'Sahand' and 'Supernova'. Leaf abscission in 'Sahand' was very high and Supernova had no significant abscission. Leaf relative water content (RWC) showed a downward trend from June to August. In 'Azar', 'Nonpareil' and 'Supernova'cultivars, RWC resulted from severe stress treatment had close relationship with RWC in well-watered treatment. This result may be due to osmoregulation in leaves of stressed plants. So these cultivars could keep high water content in their leaves and tolerate severe drought stress conditions than other investigated cultivars. The highest and lowest proline accumulation was observed in the leaves of 'Marcona' and 'Sahand', respectively; both 'Marcona' and 'Sahand' were sensitive to drought stress than 'Supernova' which showed medium proline accumulation. In almond, accumulation of proline in response to longer interval between irrigation is a general trait and cannot be used as indicator for defining the tolerant trees. In general, 'Supernova' and 'Azar' showed best response under drought stress.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, Major Singh, R.P. Singh, Smita Singh and Satyandra Singh

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, P.B.- 5002, P.O.-BHU, Varanasi, (U.P.) India - 221005, 1Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, (U.P.) India- 221005

Key words: Early blight, Alternaria solani, Solanum habrochaites, resistant, AUDPC

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 40-46.

Abstract: Resistance to early blight (EB) disease of tomato caused by Alternaria solani was assessed by examining various parameters of the disease progress. For this study twenty three diverse tomato genotypes were screened under replicated trials for over three years (2007-2009) using artificial inoculation under controlled conditions as well as under natural epidemics at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, UP, India. Tested genotypes showed significant difference in their response to A. solani and disease severity. Area under disease progress curve (AUPDC) was positively correlated with percent disease index (PDI) and negatively with resistance. Of the 23 genotypes, only two i.e. EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites) and H-88-78-1 (S. lycopersicum) were highly resistant (PDI < 5.0; AUDPC < 200 and r value > 0.12) for EB disease under field and glasshouse environments. Characterization using molecular markers also indicated their resistance. It was concluded that there are significant differences between resistant and susceptible tomato lines against EB disease and some of the lines should be considered resistant rather than tolerant. Hence, the choice of resistant lines can be utilized in future breeding programmes for development of early blight resistant/tolerant cultivars of tomato.
D.T. Meshram, S.D. Gorantiwar, H.K. Mittal, N.V. Singh and A.S. Lohkare

National Research Center on Pomegranate, Shelgi Bypass, NH-9, Solapur-413 006. Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Pomegranate, reference crop evapotranspiration (ETr), actual evapotranspiration (ET), crop coefficient (kc), area factor (Fa)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 1, pages 47-50.

Abstract: The study was carried out to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration, develop crop coefficient, area factors and estimates of pomegranate evapotranspiration for Pune region of Maharashtra. The crop coefficient values were estimated on weekly basis from the concept of shaded area approach that is widely used for the deciduous crops. Shaded area was estimated at 12.00-13.00 h with the help of specially prepared plywood board of different sizes with grid marking of size 20 x 20 cm for 5 randomly selected pomegranate trees each from 2 orchards of different ages. The values of water to be applied to pomegranate plantation spaced at 4.5 x 3 m and irrigated by the drip irrigation system of 90 % efficiency were estimated for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th year of pomegranate orchard for Ambe Bahar, Mrig Bahar and Hasta Bahar. The values of water to be applied presented in this paper would be useful for the appropriate irrigation water management of pomegranate.

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