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Divender Gupta; Ranjeet Bhatia

Regional Horticultural Research Station, Jachh (Nurpur) - 176 201, India.

Key words: fluctuations, guavas, insect pests, mangoes, monitoring, plant pests, ripening, temperature, traps

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 47-49.

Abstract: The fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata) population was monitored with the help of bottle traps containing 100 ml aqueous solution of 0.1% methyl eugenol and 0.25% malathion per trap, in mango and guava orchards of submountainous region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The maximum catch of 98.6 and 62.6 males/trap for mixed population was recorded during 30th and 27th standard weeks in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in mango orchard. The corresponding catch in guava orchard was 427.2 and 517.0 during the 37th and 39th standard weeks. There was a significant positive correlation between the trap catch and maximum and minimum temperatures during both the years for both the hosts. The maximum catch coincided with the ripening period of fruits.
Arora, P K; Sharma, J N; Thind, S K; Monga, P K

Regional Fruit Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Abohar - 152 116, India.

Key words: cultivars, germplasm, grapefruits, insect pests, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, pest resistance, plant pests, tangelos, varietal resistance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 50-51.

Abstract: Some 8, 18, 3, 9, 5, 7, 3 and 7 cultivars of sweet oranges, mandarins, limes, lemons, grapefruits, trifoliates [Poncirus trifoliata], tangelos and other related species (such as C. taiwanica) were evaluated for resistance to citrus leafminer (P. citrella) under field conditions at Abohar, Punjab, India, during 1995-97. None of the citrus species was found to be free from leafminer infestation. Two cultivars of sweet orange (Campbell Valencia and Heavy Sweet), 1 of mandarin (Kara), 1 of lime (Sweet lime), 1 of lemon (Galgal), 4 of grapefruits (Davis, Marsh Prolific, Redblush and Star Ruby), 6 of trifoliates (Carrizo, Citrumelo, Pomeroy, Rubidoux, Sacaton Citrumelo and Savage) and 1 of related species (Sadaphal) were found to be least susceptible to leafminer, while 3 cultivars of mandarin (Italian mandarin, Kondanarum and Willow Leaf), 1 of lime (Kagzi lime), 1 of lemon (Jullundhiri Khatti) and 2 of related species (Box orange and Karna Khatta) were found highly susceptible.
Pankaj Srivastava; Srivastava, B K; Singh, M P

Department of Vegetable Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, India.

Key words: cauliflowers, crop yield, earliness, growth, maturity, planting, ridges, seedlings, survival

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 52-53.

Abstract: Four planting methods, i.e. flat planting, flat planting-earthing up, ridge planting and raised bed double row planting, were tested to study the performance of early cauliflower cv. Pant Gobhi-2 grown during rainy season under Tarai conditions of Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. The cauliflower seedling of 40 days age were planted at 60x45 cm spacing. Earthing up operation was done after one month of transplanting (27 July 1995). The results indicated that the mortality of seedling was significantly lesser in ridge planting compared to flat planting at all the stages of plant growth. The ridge planting resulted in healthy and early plant growth compared to other methods and also showed earliness in curd maturity besides giving higher net curd yield.
Singh, K P; Sangama

Floriculture Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Lake, PO, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: crop density, crop quality, crop yield, cut flowers, flowering, growth, plant height, spacing, spikes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 54-55.

Abstract: The effect of seven plant spacing, viz. 30x30, 30x20, 30x10, 20x20, 20x12.5, 20x10 and 20x8.5 cm, on vegetative growth, flowering and postharvest quality of cut spikes in tuberose cv. 'Single' was investigated at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, during 1997-98. Wider spacing resulted in longer rachis and heavier individual florets. Closer spacing produced higher yield of cut flower and loose flower per plot basis. Wider and closer spacing have vice versa effect on above floral parameters. Rest of the studied parameters namely, plant height, number of leaves per clump, spike length, diameter of second floret, flowering duration under field condition and number of florets per spike and their corresponding weight and postharvest quality of cut flower were not influenced significantly by the plant densities.
Janakiram, T; Rao, T M; Bhatt, R M

Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, dry matter accumulation, growth, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 56-57.

Abstract: Plant growth, dry matter accumulation and its partitioning to different plant parts were studied in two cultivars of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) and three cultivars of French marigold (Tagetes patula). The cultivars of both African and French types differed significantly in dry matter production. In the African type, Golden Age recorded higher dry matter, while in the French type the maximum dry matter was accumulated by the Harvest Moon cultivar. The difference in the total yield is attributed to the variation in the growth components.
Dahiya, P S; Saraswat, S P

Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla - 171 001, H.P., India.

Key words: apples, constraints, marketing, marketing margins, price support, prices

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 58-61.

Abstract: Analysis of the marketing of apples in Himachal Pradesh, India, shows that despite the price support for apples announced since 1981, the marketing system is riddled with myriad problems. Farmers had marketing margins of 41% in 1984-85 and 42% in 1995-96. It is suggested that multipronged strategies should be explored for the future development of horticultural crops in the state in order to achieve better returns for the growers.
Murti, G S R; Upreti, K K; Kurien, R M; Reddy, Y T N

Plant Hormones Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.

Key words: abscisic acid, auxins, chemical composition, cultivars, cytokinins, endogenous growth regulators, growth, IAA, leaves, mangoes, phenols, phloem, plant composition, plant growth regulators, rootstock scion relationships, rootstocks, sap, scions, seedlings,

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 6-9.

Abstract: Changes in the levels of endogenous hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (t-zeatin riboside (t-ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR)) in xylem sap and leaves and indole acetic acid (IAA) and total phenols in the leaves were determined in seven polyembryonic mango cultivars (Bappakai, Chandrakaran, Furukan, Muvandan, Mylepelian, Olour and Vellaikolamban), which are commonly used as rootstocks. Simultaneously morphological characters were recorded on mango cv. Alphonso of similar age raised on these cultivars as rootstocks to examine whether the hormones and phenols produced by these bear any relationship to the growth and development of scion. Also the stem anatomical features of the shoots of current and previous year growth were studied in Alphonso grafted on two rootstocks imparting contrasting effects on shoot vigour. The morphological attributes such as tree girth and tree volume of Alphonso were generally higher on rootstocks Muvandan, Bappakai and Olour and least on Vellaikolamban followed by Kuruk
Shailendra Rajan

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, PO Kakori, Rehmankhera, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: growth, malformations, mangoes, mathematical models, panicles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: Logistic, Gompertz and Richards functions were used for examining their suitability in fitting growth data of malformed and normal mango panicles. The functional analysis of data indicated that Richards function was a suitable model for summarizing panicle growth data. The model was found to be superior to logistic and Gompertz because of its greater flexibility. The study revealed that Richards function can be successfully used for simulating panicle growth under different treatments and conditions.
Junthasri, R; Nartvaranant, P; Subhadrabandhu, S; Tongumpai, P

Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Key words: application methods, application rates, buds, canopy, climatic factors, cultivars, flowering, foliar spraying, fruit drop, fruit set, inflorescences, mangoes, orchards, paclobutrazol, thiourea

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2000, volume 2, issue 1, pages 65-70.

Abstract: The technique in producing off-season mango has been adopted in Thailand since 1986. Paclobutrazol, a plant growth retardant, was used in combination with thiourea for producing as well as breaking of flower buds. The studies on application methods showed that soil drenching of paclobutrazol is more effective for the induction of flowering in mango as compared to foliar spray. The rate of paclobutrazol application depended on the size of tree canopy as well as on mango cultivars. For most cultivars, the rate of paclobutrazol applied is generally determined by multiplying the diameter of tree canopy (expressed in meter) with 1.0-1.5 g of active ingredients of paclobutrazol. At 120 days after the application of paclobutrazol, 0.5% thiourea is usually sprayed to some cultivars for breaking of buds. Using this method, inflorescences are visible within 2.5 to 4 months after the paclobutrazol application depending on cultivar. However, the success in producing off-season mango is also dependent on other factors suc
Arora, P K; Nirmal Kaur; Batra, R C; Mehrotra, N K

Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar 152116, India.

Key words: varieties, cultivars, fruits, phenols, sugars, quality, insect pests, pest resistance, ascorbic acid, fruit crops, control, agricultural entomology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 101-102.

Abstract: Physicochemical characteristics of fruits of eight ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) varieties, Chhuhara, Gola, Elaichi, Kaithli, Nazuk, Sanaur 2, Umran and ZG-2 in relation to fruit fly infestation were studied at Abohar. Fruit fly (Carpomya vesuviana) infestation was positively correlated with fruit weight, pulp-stone ratio, total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars, whereas, it was negatively correlated to acidity, vitamin C [ascorbic acid] and total phenols. The varieties high in pulp content, TSS, total sugars, low acidity, vitamin C and total phenols were highly susceptible to fruit fly attack. The most resistance varieties were Umran (49% incidence), Gola (40%) and ZG-2 (33%).
Sharma, J N; Josan, J S; Thind, S K; Arora, P K

Regional Fruit Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Abohar 152116, India.

Key words: cultivars, mangoes, evaluation, fruits, quality, yields, yield components, variety trials, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 103-104.

Abstract: Four mango cultivars, Dashehari, Langra, Mallika and Amrapali, were introduced from different sources and grown at the Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar (Punjab), during 1982-83 to allow evaluation under arid-irrigated conditions. Langra was most vigorous followed by Mallika, Dashehari and Amrapali. Dashehari fruits had the highest total soluble solids content (TSS; 20.04%), reducing sugar content (3.87%), TSS/acid ratio (75.42) and sugar/acid ratio (14.33) with an average fruit yield of 60.22 kg/tree. Fruits of Dashehari and Langra matured during the second week of July whereas those of Mallika and Amrapali matured in the third week of July. On the basis of yield and quality observed under Abohar conditions, cultivation of Dashehari, Langra, Mallika and Amrapali cultivars are recommended for cultivation in the arid-irrigated region of Punjab.
Mohammed, M; Wickham, L

Department of Food Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Key words: modified atmosphere storage, ethanol, packing, fruits, storage, ethephon, ripening, quality, plant growth regulators, responses, keeping quality, storage life, fruit crops, ethylene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: S. cuminii [S. cumini] fruits were dipped in Ethrel [ethephon] or ethanol and stored at 10 or 30 degrees C for up to 12 days in either sealed low density (LDPE) or high density polyethylene bags (HDPE) or paper bags (PB). Fruits were evaluated for degrees of deastringency and other quality related changes. Ethanol-treated fruits stored in polyethylene bags at 10 degrees C were completely deastringent after 9 days compared with Ethrel-treated fruits over the same period which remained astringent throughout. Untreated control fruits stored at 10 degrees C in paper bags or polyethylene bags showed no changes in astringency and senesced rapidly after 3 and 6 days, respectively. Fruits stored at 30 degrees C, regardless of the packaging or dip treatments, succumbed to 100% decay after 3 days. Despite having the same astringency ratings, ethanol-treated fruits stored in LDPE bags at 10 degrees C were preferred to those stored in HDPE bags based on the lower incidence of decay in the former compared with the latter.
Pal, R K; Thomas, R J; Sangeeta Gupta; Lal, B; Singh, N M

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.

Key words: hydrogen peroxide, mangoes, carotenoids, fruits, heat treatment, quarantine, reducing sugars, ripening, sugars, toxicity, quality, plant physiology, colour, treatment, organoleptic traits, plant composition, chemical composition, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 108-111.

Abstract: Physiological and physico-chemical changes in mango cv. Baneshan fruits in response to vapour heat treatment (VHT) were compared to those observed after treatment with a hydrogen peroxide based chemical (Virosil-Agro; VS). VHT is the accepted quarantine treatment for export of mangoes. VS is an eco-friendly and biodegradable chemical having little residual toxicity containing H2O2 and Ag2+. VST had antisenescence effects. VHT enhanced ripening during 14 days of storage compared with the control. VHT resulted in better marketability of fruits due to uniform peel colour development.
Verma, A K; Singh, M D

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow 227107, India.

Key words: mangoes, mechanical properties, deformation, fruits, quality, ripening, plant development, fruit crops

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 112-114.

Abstract: An experiment on force deformation was conducted on mature fruits of mango cv. Dashehari (collected from India). The first yield point in a sample was observed at 0.30 kN with a rupture point at 0.48 kN. Results indicated elastic behaviour up to 0.30 kN force, plastic beyond 0.48 kN and elastoplastic in between 0.30 and 0.48 kN. Strain energy required for first yield point was calculated using E = F*D/2, where E = strain energy, F = force applied and D = deformation. The energy required for the first yield point was calculated as 0.084 Nm and second rupture point was at 0.25 Nm strain energy.
Yadav, V K; Singh, H K

Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj 224229, U.P., India.

Key words: fruits, triadimefon, fungicides, disease control, storage decay, thiophanate methyl, quality, storage life, keeping quality, calcium nitrate, calcium, nitrogen, plant composition, chemical composition, plant diseases, plant pathogens, plant pathogenic fun

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 1999, volume 1, issue 2, pages 118-121.

Abstract: The effects of preharvest sprays of 1% calcium nitrate, 0.1% Topsin-M [thiophanate-methyl], 0.1% Bayleton [triadimefon] and their combinations on the storage quality of fruits of E. officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica] cv. NA-6 were investigated. Treatment with 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Topsin-M was the best followed by 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Bayleton and 1% calcium nitrate. The lowest weight loss (11.09%) and decay loss (14.43%) were observed in fruits given 2 pre-harvest sprays of 1% calcium nitrate + 0.1% Topsin-M; this treatment prolonged shelf-life to up to 20 days compared with 10 days in the control at ambient temperature. Calcium nitrate-treated fruits had higher concentrations of Ca than control fruits. Treatment with Topsin-M and Bayleton controlled Penicillium oxalicum for 10 days and Aspergillus niger for 20 days and extended shelf life.

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