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 Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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Yun-wen Wang, Bruce L. Dunn, Li Jiang and Daryl B. Arnall

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, The People�s Republic of China. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 740

Key words: Euphorbia pulcherrima, NDVI, bract colour, greenhouse

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 205-209 .

Abstract: Normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) values are vegetative indices, calculated from active canopy sensor measurements using the reflectance values for red and near-infrared. Use of NDVI sensors offers the possibility of rapid, non-destructive readings that correlate with plant properties such as plant biomass and plant nutrition when plants are green, however, the affects of color on NDVI sensor readings has not be investigated. Poinsettia cultivars �Enduring Marble�, �Ice Punch�, �Winter Rose Early Red�, �Prestige Red�, �Prestige Maroon�, �Peterstar White�, �Maren�, and �Orange Spice� were analyzed by an NDVI sensor starting four weeks after transplanting and through bract color development. The results indicated that cultivar effect, time effect and the interaction of cultivar and time on NDVI value were significant (P < 0.0001). An increase of NDVI value occurred from initial measuring date, and reached the greatest value (ranged from 0.718 to 0.837) between week 6 and week 7 for all cultivars except �Orange Spice� and �Winter Rose Early Red�. From the peak readings, all NDVI values in tested cultivars declined significantly, especially after bract coloration. This result demonstrated an inverse relationship with increased bract coloration and reduced NDVI readings, so use of NDVI readings to detect N deficiencies should be before bract coloration in poinsettias. However, the NDVI sensor could be used to monitor bract colour development. Because the effects of cultivar, time, and the interaction between cultivar and time were significant, standards using a pocket NDVI sensor in specific cultivars during determined growth stages may need to be established at each growing facility.
F. Koohkan, N. Ahmadi and S.J. Ahmadi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Jaber Ibne Hayyan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Key words: Chlorophyll, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), vase solution, ethylene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 210-214 .

Abstract: Most of the carnation cultivars are sensitive to exogenous ethylene and their petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production during senescence. Compounds containing silver have been shown to act as anti-ethylene agent in improving postharvest characteristics of cut flowers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications by applying four concentration of silver nano-particles in vase solution of cut carnation cultivar �Miledy�. ICP-AES analyses revealed that the higher amount of silver was absorbed in various tissues of plants treated with 5 mg L-1, compared to other concentrations. Cut stems of �Miledy� cultivar receiving 5 mg L-1 of silver nano-particles showed the highest vase life and the lowest rate of ethylene production. The tissue accumulation of Ag element was generally higher in basal stem ends and leaves treated with 5 mg L-1 than other concentrations. The results of ICP and ethylene measurement showed that silver nano-particles reduced ethylene production as well as bacterial growth in vase solution and resulted improved vase life of carnation.
R. Dasmohapatra, S. Rath, B. Pradhan and G.R. Rout

Department of Fruit Science, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 003, Odisha, India,

Key words: Cashew, genetic similarity, molecular marker, genetic variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 215-221 .

Abstract: Morphological and PCR based molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of cashew (Anacardium occidentales L.) genotypes of India. Wide genetic variation was observed in respect to nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage, plant height, trunk girth of the potentially superior genotypes. A wide variation was noticed with regards to fruit quality, colour of fruits, nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage and apple weight. Twenty RAPD primers and 14 ISSR primers were used to detect the genetic variability among and between the genotypes. One hundred eighty-eight polymorphic bands and 31 monomorphic bands were observed by using both RAPD and ISSR primers. Twenty RAPD primers yielded 19 monomorphic and 84 polymorphic bands with percent of polymorphism was 81.55%. Of a total 116 ISSR bands generated by using 14 ISSR primers, 104 bands (89.65 %) were found to be polymorphic. Cumulative data generated from these two markers precisely arranged genotypes into 14 clusters. It was also noted that the var. BBSR-1 and Vengurla-7 were grouped into a single cluster and phenotypically they are similar with each other. Two dimensional scaling by principal component analysis indicates that some of the genotypes are out grouped. The major bands having 300 - 600 bp generated with PCR based markers can be used for identification of genotypes. This information will be useful for cashew improvement program as well as to assess the variety purity certification program.
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering-Regional Centre, Coimbatore-641 003.

Key words: Curry leaf, drying, temperature, air velocity, rehydration ratio, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 222-224 .

Abstract: In the present investigation, the effect of drying temperature and air velocity on the quality of Murraya koenigii leaves was studied. Freshly harvested, washed and stripped M. koenigii leaf (curry leaf) was dried at different air temperature of 40, 45 and 50 oC temperature and at 2, 3 and 4 m/s air velocity in a fluidised bed dryer from an initial moisture content of 184.5 % (dry basis) to a final moisture of around 5% (dry basis). The drying rate decreased with the decrease in the moisture content at all drying temperatures. Drying studies revealed that fluidised bed drying at 45 oC and 4 m/s air velocity was found to maintain the quality of dried curry leaf in terms of rehydration ratio and volatile oil content. The dried leaves packed in 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient condition (30.2 oC) for a period of one month resulted in better product as seen from the volatile oil content and overall acceptability for 4m/s fluidised bed dried sample at 45 oC.
S. Muthu Kumar, V. Ponnuswami and M. Jawaharlal

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Pulsing, 1-MCP (1-methyl cyclo propene), packaging, physiology, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 225-230 .

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of different pulsing, pre packaging (1-Methyl Cyclo Propene) and packaging treatments on postharvest physiology, quality and vase life of cut rose flowers cv. First Red. Among the treatments, W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) was found superior and it was associated with the highest values for appearance (score 5 - excellent), stem strength (900 angle), relative water content (92.95 per cent), water uptake (11.53 g stalk-1), freshness of flowers (100 per cent) and vase life (6.3 days). The same treatment W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) exhibited the lowest values for physiological loss in weight (3.58 per cent), transpirational loss of water (2.01 g stalk-1), loss of membrane integrity (7.48 per cent) and peroxidase activity (0.016 units g-1 of fresh weight of flowers).
P. Chaturvedi, D. Bisht and S. Tiwari Pandey

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Agronomy, G.B.P.U.A.&T., Pantnagar-263145, India.

Key words: Artemisia annua, artemisinin, seed germination, moisture stress, salinity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 231-234 .

Abstract: Each plant species has its own set of germination requirements consisting of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of various extrinsic factors viz., temperature, moisture and salt concentrations affecting ex situ seed germination of different populations of Artemisia annua growing in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. All the populations were susceptible to changes in abiotic conditions viz., moisture and salinity levels in dose dependent manner. All, invariably, showed maximum germination at alternate day/night temperature (25/20 oC) than under constant temperatures. Among the different populations, V-IV, a non-pigmented, early flowering population was the most tolerant one as it showed broader range of germination percentage ranging from 66�6.1 at -5 bar to 40.0�7.6 at -15 bars and 62.7�7.0 at 0.2% NaCl to 9.3�1.3 at 0.8% NaCl, respectively.
Vinod Kumar, Ajit Kumar Dubedi Anal and Vishal Nath

National Research Centre for Litchi, Mushahari, Muzaffarpur, Bihar-842002, India.

Key words: Litchi, red weevil, looper, leaf folder, bagworm, leaf and twig blight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 235-240 .

Abstract: Studies were conducted to assess the prevalence and damage caused by four threatening pests viz., red weevil (Apoderus blandus), looper (Perixera illepidaria), leaf roller (Dudua aprobola), bagworm (Eumeta crameri) and one disease, leaf and twig blight (caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., and Gloeosporium sp.) at National Research Centre for Litchi (NRCL) that were hitherto either unnoticed or of minor importance. Fixed plot surveys at the NRCL Experimental Farm and scouting surveys in farmers litchi orchard in major litchi growing areas of Bihar state were conducted during 2011-2012. The studies revealed the damaging potential and period of occurrence of these pests and disease in the major litchi growing areas. A. blandus was prevalent round the year except during extreme cool and hot weather months whereas P. illepidaria was prevalent from September-November and E. crameri during November-February. Peak infestation of D. aprobola was during July-February. Infestation of A. blandus, D. aprobola, and E. crameri drastically affected the growth of tree whereas P. illepidaria damaged the September flush that bears panicle in the ensuing season. The leaf and twig blight disease was prevelent from the beginning of August to the end of February. These pests and disease are now important not only in Bihar but also other litchi growing states of India. Considering their importance, there is a need for continuous surveillance particularly during the likely period of occurrence so that effective management strategies can be adopted. This paper reports occurrence of E. crameri on litchi for the first time from India.
V. Vijayalakshmi, S. Poonguzhali, K. Ramamoorthy and N. Natarajan

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

Key words: Tomato hybrid CO-3, accelerated ageing, physiological parameters, correlation, germination

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 241-244 .

Abstract: The effect of physiological and biochemical changes were studied in seeds of TNAU tomato hybrid (CO-3) exposed to accelerated ageing for a period of 10 days and investigated for speed of germination, per cent germination, shoot, root length, dry matter production and biochemical attributes viz., free amino acids (FAA), electrical conductivity (EC), volatile aldehydes production - seedling length bio assay (BA), dehydrogenase (DH) and peroxidase (POD) activity against untreated control (fresh) seeds. E.C., FAA and BA were negatively correlated with speed and percentage germination, root/shoot lengths, dry matter production, DH and POD activity. Speed of germination was highly and positively correlated with per cent germination (0.923), root length (0.971), dry matter production (0.940), dehydrogenase (0.776) and peroxidase activity (0.676) and it was negatively correlated with free amino acid content (-0.990) and electrical conductivity (-0.936).
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester and Thomas M. Elias

Pomology and Viticulture Program, University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA

Key words: cultivar performance, fruit flavor, nectarine selection, stone fruit adaptability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 103-106 .

Abstract: White-fleshed nectarines have gained popularity in recent years but there is limited information on their adaptability. Thus, the objective of this trial was to investigate growing degree-days (GDD; base temperature of 4.4 oC), full bloom and harvest dates, fruit quality, and yield of five white-fleshed nectarines [(Prunus persica var. nectarine)] under conditions of southwest Idaho in the Intermountain Region of the United States during 2003-07. The average response analyses over these years indicated that Arctic Jay and Arctic Pride bloomed earlier, while Arctic Mist bloomed later than other cultivars. Arctic Jay was the earliest and Arctic Snow was the latest cultivar to harvest and needed 136 days and 181 days between full bloom and harvest, respectively. On average, Arctic Pride, Arctic Mist, and Arctic Snow were harvested after the second half of September, and the periods between bloom and harvest for these cultivars were 166, 180, and 181 days, respectively. The difference between the earliest and latest cultivar for full bloom dates was only 2 days or 14 oC GDD, while the range for harvest dates was 16 days or 608.2 oC GDD. Arctic Jay had excellent fruit quality attributers and on average, was harvested on 21 August. Arctic Pride had moderately large fruit size and high SSC and extremely attractive skin and flesh color, but had moderately low yield. Considering all factors evaluated in this project, Arctic Jay, Arctic Queen, and Arctic Pride were suitable choices for early, mid, and late season cultivars, respectively. Arctic Mist could have some potential for planting in this study. The growing season was not sufficient to mature Arctic Snow and thus not recommended for the region.
Neeraj Dwivedi, Rajesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Major Singh

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Bag-01, PO- Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221 305, India. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

Key words: Carotenoids, pepper, Simple Sequence Repeats, Quantitative Trait Loci

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 107-111.

Abstract: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for oleoresin content were mapped in intraspecific advance recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of chilli derived from cross between two contrasting parents California Wonder and LCA235. Oleoresin content of each RILs were estimated for 2 years (F8 and F9) along with parents. Three classes of molecular markers; simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to generate linkage maps. A total of two QTLs for oleoresin content were mapped on two linkage group (LG). QTL Qole.iivr-2.1 and QTL Qole.iivr-3.3 contributed a minimum and maximum phenotypic variation of 8.74 and 32.4%, respectively over the years. The results of this investigation may be useful in improving the nutritional quality of pepper. The genomic regions of stable QTLs identified may serve as potential target regions for fine mapping and development of molecular markers for manipulation of yield and morphological traits in pepper.
A.K. Harit, M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry 605014, India.

Key words: Vermicast properties, vermicast storage, Eudrilus eugeniae, neem leaf litter, nutrient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 112-116.

Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that vermicast has beneficial effect on plant growth but little is known on how the manner and duration of storage affect the vermicast quality. In an attempt to cover this knowledge-gap we have carried out a study on changes in physical and chemical properties of vermicast as function of ageing when it is stored. The study revealed that most of the characteristics of the castings were retained during the first 60 days of storage. Further as storage was continued, the physical properties such as total and water filled pore space were reduced by 11 and 40%, respectively. The water holding capacity of castings also reduced about 82% and exhibited high degree of water repellency. Whereas, the bulk density and particle density of castings increased two-fold. These changes may impede the water availability, oxygen diffusion and plant root penetration in the field. The nitrogen loss of 49% was recorded due to intense ammonia volatilization. There was more than 75% loss in potassium and phosphorus content and a significant reduction in the concentration of minor and trace nutrients. These changes in the properties of castings reduced the beneficial impact of vermicast on plant growth.
C. Krishnamoorthy and K. Rajamani

Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Theobroma cacao L., fertigation, drip, micro sprinkler, water soluble fertilizer, straight fertilizer, pod characters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 117-121.

Abstract: A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler of N, P and K fertilizers on pod characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at Coimbatore, India during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. The study revealed that, fertigation with 125 per cent RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) as water soluble fertilizer by drip irrigation (T4) recorded the highest pod length (17.72 cm), pod girth (28.69 cm), pod weight (541.88 g), husk weight (387.83 g), pod volume (610.55 cc) and number of pods per tree per year (59.49) as against 12.98, 12.76, 31.69, 29.51, 34.66 and 21.05 % increase over the control (T1), respectively. The same treatment (T4) recorded the lowest number of cherelles per tree (9.59) and pod value (16.11).
Gurpreet Singh, N.K. Arora and M.I.S. Gill

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India.

Key words: Grape, Vitis vinifera, pruning, fruitful buds, anthocyanin, H-516, Punjab Purple.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 122-125.

Abstract: The present study was conducted to standardize the pruning technique in recently released grape hybrid H-516 for processing purpose. The grapevines trained on bower system of training were pruned at 2, 3, 4 and 5-bud level during last week of January. The maximum per cent fruitful buds were recorded at 2-bud level followed by 3, 4 and 5-bud pruning level. The significantly higher number of bunches per fruitful bud (2.23 at 4th node) were observed in pruning done at 4-bud level. The yield per vine was highest (15.2 kg yield per vine) in pruning treatments where 4-buds were retained. Bunch weight and size did not differ significantly with various pruning levels. Anthocyanin (52.24 mg/100g) and total soluble solids content (18.13%) was maximum whereas, acid content (0.53%) was minimum with 4-bud pruning treatment. Present study suggested that in grape hybrid H-516, at the time of pruning, 4-buds per cane should be retained for better yield and improved fruit quality.
M. Dayarani, M.S. Dhanarajan, K. Arun, S. Uma and Padma Narayani

Sathyabama University, Chennai, Jaya College of Arts & Science, Chennai. National Research Centre for Banana, Trichy, India.

Key words: Banana, M. ornata, seed germination, embryo rescue, in vitro germination, Rhodochlamys.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 126-130.

Abstract: Seed set in Musa spp. is known to vary greatly among seed-fertile cultivars, but germinate at an intractably low rate in soil thus making breeding of plantains and bananas difficult. Hence, there is an increased interest in in vitro germination of both intact seeds and excised zygotic embryos. The present work deals with the influence of maturity and hormonal factors on germination and regeneration of Musa ornata seeds through embryo culture and embryo rescue. Embryos extracted from seeds harvested at various maturity stages were cultured in MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Good embryo recovery was seen in seeds from 80 and 100% mature fruits. Maturity status of embryos played a key role in direct and indirect regeneration. Medium rich in auxins led to callus (M8) formation at all maturity levels, leading to indirect regeneration. Good direct regeneration was observed from 100% mature embryos, in media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (M4). Study revealed that zygotic embryos of M. ornata could be rescued and regenerated through callus when harvested at 80% maturity and media augmented with Kinetin (M6) gave the best regeneration. In general, medium rich in auxins led to callus formation at all maturity levels. Therefore, in vitro embryo culture and embryo rescue provide a potential tool for recovery and perpetuation of wild Musa species.
Anjali Chauhan, Praveen Pal Balgir and Chand Karan Shirkot

Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (HP), Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab).

Key words: Bacillus, Aneurinibacillus, PGPR, antifungal, antibiotic resistance, Valeriana jatamansi

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 131-135.

Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are commonly used as inoculants for improving the growth and yield of agricultural crops. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Thus the present study focuses on the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of potent PGPR isolates with multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits and antifungal potential against different phytopathogenic fungi. Biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of four effective PGPR isolates (CKMV1, CKMV2, CKMV3 and CKMV4) of Valeriana jatamansi demonstrated that three strains belonged to genus Bacillus spp. and one belonged to Aneurinibacillus spp. The strain CKMV1 identified as (Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus) on the basis of 16S rDNA homology showed a considerable antifungal potential against different phytopathogens along with multiple PGP traits like phosphate solubilization, IAA production, HCN production, siderophore production. Significant growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by CKMV1 was obtained in the order Sclerotium rolfsii > Rhizoctonia solani > Phytopthora cactorum > Alternaria spp. > Fusarium oxysporum. Thus, the secondary metabolite producing A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 exhibited innate potential of plant growth promotion and biocontrol activities in vitro which can further be used as biofertilizer as well as biocontrol agent.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture