Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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M. Steen

School of Economics and Business Administration, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway.

Key words: Flower markets, flower production and trade, volatility, Dutch flower auctions, price analysis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 113-121.

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of international flower production, consumption and trade, focusing on the Dutch flower auctions in Aalsmeer, the world's leading flower trading centre. Data on prices and traded volumes for three important species of cut flowers (roses, chrysanthemums and carnations) for the period 1993-2008 are analyzed. Flower prices and traded volumes are extremely volatile. Although part of this volatility is predictable, because of regular seasonal variations in demand, a large proportion of the observed volatility is due to sudden shifts in supply. The real prices of cut flowers declined during this period, and there was a clear shift in consumer preferences toward roses and away from carnations. In addition, consumption of roses and carnations shifted from clearly seasonal toward more year-round consumption, while consumption of chrysanthemums followed consistent seasonal cycles throughout the period. During this period, non-European producers increased their market shares. This development can be traced to a significant decrease in cut flower prices relative to energy prices, especially after 2003.
Esfandiyari, G.H. Davary Nejad, F.A. Shahriyariand M. Kiani

Horticulture Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Plant Research In

Key words: Pistcia spp, sex identification, SCAR- PCR, juvenile stage.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 122-124.

Abstract: Sex identification in Pistacia species are economically desirable. Regarding long juvenile stage in Pistacia species and lack of morphological method to identify sex in this stage, molecular marker could facilitate breeding program. Aim of the study was to identify a marker, closely linked to sex locus in Pistacia atlantica Desf mutica, P. khinjuk and P. vera var. Sarakhs. For this purpose, samples were collected from male and female individual trees from each species and their band patterns were analysed according to band specific presence or absence. Twenty Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a pair Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR) primer were tested to determine sex in wild Pistacia species. Among RAPD primers, only BC1200 amplified a specific sex band which was present in female plant. The results indicated that all individual samples amplified an approximately 300 base pairs fragment in female trees which was absent in male samples. Although sex determination mechanism in Pistacia is unknown, it might be controlled by single locus acting as a trigger. However, SCAR technique is a reliable technique to identify gender genotypes in seedling stage of Pistacia species, that would help to save time and expanses in breeding program.
Edi Santosa, Yoko Mine, Miki Nakata, Chunlan Lian and Nobuo Sugiyama

Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia. Facutly of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako 1737, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tok

Key words: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, clonal propagation, cluster analysis, genet, genetic diversity, Indonesia, SSR

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 125-128.

Abstract: Ten microsatellite markers were used to clarify the genetic diversity of cultivated elephant foot yams collected in 13 villages in the Kuningan District, West Java, Indonesia. Each pair of primers generated four to five alleles, with an observed heterozygosity of 0.000-1.000 and an expected heterozygosity of 0.064-0.551. These markers identified seven likely genets (clonal individuals) in the Kuningan population. Of 61 individual plants surveyed in this study, 55 plants distributed throughout the Kuningan District belonged to the same genet, while the another genet represented by a plant (ramet). These ramets were restricted to the villages located on the main road between Kuningan City and Central Java. Cluster analysis shows that the seven genets can be classified into three groups, with two groups showing a restricted distribution in the villages located on the road leading to Central Java. Elephant foot yam plants with berries were rarely observed in the Kuningan District. It is likely that a single genet has become the dominated local cultivar, possibly because of the limited genetic diversity of elephant foot yam in the Kuningan District, its reproduction by clonal propagation and the selection of a specific cultivar by farmers.
A. Radhouani and A. Ferchichi

Dry Lands and Oasian Cropping Laboratory, Institute of Arid Regions, El Jorf 4119, Medenine, Tunisia.

Key words: Muskmelon, grafting, vegetative growth, indexes of growth, quantitative production

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 129-134.

Abstract: Plants of muskmelon variety "Calypso" were used as scion and non grafted control while two hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita mushata), TZ148 and Ferro as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown under a monotunnel heated and irrigated by geothermic water in the South of Tunisia. Plants were grown in soilless culture on sand and compost. This trial has revealed that, on sand as well as on compost, grafted plants were more vigorous than self-rooted ones. This vigor was highlighted by values of length and volume of roots, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and fresh and dry matter of leaves. Indexes of growth represented by LAI, SLA, RGR and NAR were strongly improved by grafting particularly by TZ148. This improvement implied a hasty vegetative growth. Moreover, precocity of production was greater for grafted plants. In addition to their early production, grafted plants produced more fruits on sand and compost. The average weight of fruits was enhanced, too, by this agricultural practice. Thus, the major part of fruits produced by grafted plants had a weight superior to 600g.
XiaoLong Li,, JianWen Tian, Mark A. Ritenour, JiaZheng Li, ShuYa Song, HuiLing Ma

College of Life Science, Northwestern A & F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Germplasm resources institute of Ningxia Agricultural Sciences Academy, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia Autonomous region, China. Ningxia Science and Technology Agency, Y

Key words: Polyolefin film, scald, core browning, respiration rate, ethylene production, modified atmosphere packaging.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 135-139.

Abstract: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with polyolefin bags made of modified polyvinyl chloride (mPVC), micro-perforated polyethylene (mpPE), modified polyethylene (mPE), plastic film mulch (control-1), and polyvinyl chloride with holes (control-2) were evaluated for their ability to preserve quality of Fuji apple during storage at 0 to 1oC. The results showed that atmosphere in mPVC bag was adjusted to 2.73%~2.38% CO2 and 15.70%~18.13% O2 while in mpPE, mPE and control-1 bag CO2 levels were elevated and O2 level declined to 0.10-0.72%, 20.53~20.9%, respectively. In mPE bag, fruits recorded significantly less weight loss than other packagings throughout the storage, while fruit in mPVC, fresh weight loss was same as in control-1. The overall fruit quality of flesh firmness (FFF), soluble solid content (SSC) and ascorbic acid remained at almost the same level in each packaging during the first 40 days of storage, and changed thereafter. Control-1 resulted in significantly lower FFF than other packagings till day 220 and SSC showed the same trend as in control-2. Respiration rate of fruit in mPVC, control-1 and control-2 peaked on day 220 and those in mpPE and mPE peaked on day 240. Ethylene production of fruit in each packaging increased since day 40 and peaked on day 80 for mPE and control-1, day 100 for mpPE and control-2, on day 120 for mPVC. A second peak for mPE appeared on day 120. Each packaging resulted a dramatic increase and drop of SOD activity in fruit in the first 40 days. After about 220 days of storage, superficial scald and core browning occurred on fruit in mpPE, mPE, control-1, control-2 by 2.4-6.0% and 1.2-1.6%, 6.3-7.9% and 15.8-17.3%, 0-1.6% and 4.4-4.6%, 15.4-16.1% and 3.2-4.5%, respectively while no such incidence was observed in mPVC. Decay and disorder developed faster when storage duration increased.
Damianos Neocleous, Charalambos Kaittanis, Nicos Seraphides and Polycarpos Polycarpou

Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia, Cyprus.

Key words: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), horizontal system, vertical system, hydroponics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 140-144.

Abstract: Under the impact of new cultivation and socioeconomic trends, and the aspiration for agricultural sustainability, a research study was conducted under Cyprus conditions. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cvs. 'Paris island', 'Lollo rosa', and 'Oakleaf') and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Camarosa') plants were used to evaluate horizontal and vertical growing setups in a 'closed' soilless system. For lettuce, the vertical system provided more marketable lettuce per system's surface area compared to the horizontal setup. However, the horizontal system provided greater lettuce mass and higher percentage marketable yield than the vertical one. The nitrate content of all lettuce cultivars was not significantly different between the two systems and remained lower than the European standards all over the experiment. For strawberry, the vertical setup offered higher yield compared to the horizontal one. The quality characteristics were not different between the two systems. These results suggest that the studied setups and the 'closed' soilless system can be used as a tool for the improvement of Cyprus greenhouse production, water use efficiency and prevention of environmental damage from regular' disposal of hydroponics solution. The possibility of an improved greenhouse production system could be considered as technique of choice under semi-arid Cyprus and E. Mediterranean conditions using such materials.
H.A. Kassem and H.A. Marzouk

Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Key words: Organic, inorganic, fertilization, quality, Zaghloul dates, yield, poultry manure, cow dung, town refuse compost

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 145-150.

Abstract: A field study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 seasons on twenty-six years old Zaghloul cultivar of date palm growing in clay silt soil. One level of nitrogen alone or plus P and K from mineral (ammonium nitrate alone or ammonium nitrate + calcium superphosphate + potassium sulphate, NPK) and organic sources [poultry /chicken manure (CM), cow dung (CD) and town refuse compost (TR)] were applied either alone or in combinations to study their influence on the yield and fruit physico-chemical quality. The results revealed that applying organic manure either alone or combined with mineral fertilizers increased palm yield and enhanced fruit colour as compared with mineral fertilization alone. CM and CD resulted in the best fruit weight, fruit flesh weight and length. Fruit TSS, anthocyanin and sugars content increased while, tannins content was decreased by CM and CD as compared with combining organic manure with NPK or mineral alone. However, fruit acidity was not affected by any of the treatments when compared among each others. In general, micronutrients contents were significantly higher in fruits by applying organic manure alone than organic manure combined with NPK or mineral fertilization alone. Organic manure fertilization alone (especially CM and CD) resulted in decreasing lead, cadmium, nitrate and nitrite content than mineral fertilization.
R.K. Singh and P. Gogoi

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar - 791112. India.

Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal, Piper longum, total biomass, chlorophyll content, Glomus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: A green house study was carried out to investigate the effect of inoculation with four native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme on growth performance of a medicinally important plant "Long pepper" (Piper longum L.). Inoculation with all AMF species enhanced plant growth, however, significant variation in effectiveness of the four AMF species was observed in relation to both root and shoot growth. A significantly higher total biomass (0.84g/plant) was observed in G. fasciculatum and G. clarum inoculated plants. The performance of G. fasciculatum, G. clarum and G. versiforme were statistically on par to each other in increasing the chlorophyll content over the control plants. The root colonizing capacity of G. fasciculatum was found to be significantly higher, the next being G. versiforme.
Verdianrizi Mohammadreza

Department of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Key words: Laurus nobilis L., essential oil, hydro distillation, larvicidal activity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 155-157.

Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Laurus nobilis L., was examined by GC and GC/MS. The main components of the oil were identified. 1,8-cineole was the major component in the oil together with a - terpinyl acetate, terpinene - 4 - ol, a - pinene, P - pinene, p - cymene, linalool and terpinene - 4 - yl - acetate. The essential oil was tested against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens larvae. The results obtained show that the essential oil could be considered as natural larvicidal agents.
Muhtaseb Jalal

The National centre for Agricultural Research and Extension, PO Box-93. Postal code: 11623, Jordan..

Key words: Tuff, sand, soil, sweet pepper, soilless, fruit quality, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 158-160.

Abstract: This study was conducted at Jordan Valley to evaluate the use of locally available tuff and sand substrates in comparison with soil for growing sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Reehan) using an open soilless culture. Treatments were randomly distributed according to RCBD with three replications. Sweet pepper plants, grown in soil or tuff gave higher total yield (6.0, 5.5 and 8.7, 6.5 ton/1000m2, respectively) and yield/plant (2.0, 1.58 and 1.3, 1.38 kg/plant, respectively) in both the years, while those grown in sand produced the least. Fruit weight of plants grown in soil was the highest in the first season (200.6 g) followed by tuff and lastly the sand (177.0 and 169.4 g, respectively), however, it was not affected by the substrates in the second season. Substrates had little effect on fruit length in both seasons and fruit diameter in the first season, but, in the second season those grown in soil gave the highest diameter (74.4 mm) followed by those in tuff and sand (70.6 and 70.3 mm, respectively). This study indicated that open soilless system using tuff as a substrate may be suitable for sweet pepper production without dramatic changes in yield or fruit quality and it saved about 65-70% of water applied by conventional farmers for sweet pepper production under plastic house.
H.E. Palmucci, Z. Premuzic, L. Mascarini, C. Campetella and V. L?pez

Cdtedra Fitopatologia. Cdtedra Quimica Analitica. Cdtedra Floricultura. Intensificando. Cdtedra Estadistica. Fac-ultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (FAUBA) Av. San Martin 4453. Capital Federal (1416) TE: 4524-8063. PROYECTO UBACyT G005, Argen

Key words: Chlorination, Zinnia elegans, phytotoxicity, soil-less culture, disinfection, chemical treatment.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 161-164.

Abstract: Chlorination constitutes a practical and economical chemical control method for the disinfection of recycled nutrient solutions in soil?less growing systems. Although the chlorination can prevent the development of pathogenic organisms, the use of inadequate doses of chlorine could produce damages to the culture and environment. It is necessary to select doses for each plant species that do not cause damages nor produce undesirable effects on the productivity and quality. Zinnia sp. in South America has large potential for cultivation as an ornamental potted or vase flower. Tests for disinfection of the recycled nutrient solution were performed with different chlorine quantities (control, 11, 22, 44 and 88 mg L-1) to evaluate the potential phytotoxicity and effects on the flower production (weight and number) of Zinnia elegans var. Enana. The production and phytotoxicity were analyzed in relations with the contents of macronutrients (N, P, Ca, and K), sodium and chlorides levels in leaves and related chemical changes (pH, EC and chlorides) in the nutrient solution. The results showed improvement of the development of foliage, roots and the production of flowers with the doses of 11 and 22 ppm, associated to a minor toxicity. The larger doses did not surpass the toxicity levels, although affected the productivity and quality of plants. These results enabled us to select doses under the value of 22 ppm for futures effectiveness test to control pathogens.
N. Bumgarner and S. Verlinden

Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV26506-6057, USA.

Key words: Slitted polyethylene low tunnel, spun-bonded row cover, water tubes, organic vegetable production, tomato (Solanum lycopersicon), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 87-92.

Abstract: Four microclimate modification methods including spun-bonded and slitted low tunnels both with and without the addition of water-filled plastic tubes were tested for their effect on early and total yields of warm and cool season vegetable crops in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Peppers, tomatoes, radishes, and lettuce were organically grown in 2006 and 2007. Early season pepper yields were higher when water tubes were included with low tunnels while early tomato yields did not differ. Total yields for warm season crops in some microclimate modification treatments were higher than the control, and harvests started up to four weeks earlier in the spring. Cool season crop yields in the four treatments showed no increase over the control despite one to three weeks earlier harvests for radish and lettuce. These results show potential for earlier safe planting dates and increased yield, especially in warm season vegetable crops using low tunnels and water tubes. Additionally, economic analysis demonstrated a potential for increased profits over control plots using these microclimate modification techniques.
T Ban, A. Nakatsuka, K. Akaura, S. Matsumoto, M. Ishimaru and H. Itamura

Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; BFaculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504, Japan; Department of

Key words: Flesh firmness, 'Kyoho' grape, magnetic resonance imaging, ripening, sugar contents

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 93-96.

Abstract: The grape berry morphologically consists of epidermis, an outer wall, an inner wall and placenta. The inner contents such as soluble solids, organic acids and moisture distribution of grape berries are dramatically changed during the veraison between the growth and ripening period. However, we know little about the changes in the inner contents of the outer wall, inner wall and placenta. Our purpose of the study is to clarify the tissue specificity of the total soluble solids content, sugar composition, flesh firmness and moisture distribution of 'Kyoho' grape berry during growth and ripening period. The moisture distribution of the grape berries was analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The total soluble solids contents of the outer wall were higher than those of the inner wall during the investigation period. In this study, fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in the berries. The concentrations of these sugars in the outer wall were higher than those in the inner wall; however, the components of these sugars were not different between the outer wall and inner wall. Even within the same berry, the flesh firmness and the moisture distribution were different from one part of the tissue to another. These results indicate that the growth rate of grape berry varies considerably among the different parts of the berry.
Mohd Zahid, C.S. Cheow, A.R. Norizzah, Z.M.S. Halimahton and M.S. Adi

Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.

Key words: Response surface methodology (RSM), guava, stearin, olein, beeswax, weight loss

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 2, pages 97-101.

Abstract: Application of edible coating represents a method that can extend the shelf life of picked guava by minimizing the loss of weight mainly due to natural migration process of moisture and gases. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to search for best composition of edible coating which comprised of three variables namely palm stearin, palm olein and beeswax. Based on central composite rotatable designs of RSM and weight loss as response, 15 coating compositions were established involving 8 factorial points, 6 axial points and 1 centre point. From the RSM-generated model, optimum coating composition for minimizing guava weight loss was identified as palm stearin 4.5% (w/v), palm olein 1% (v/v) and beeswax 1% (w/v). Under this optimum composition, the predicted weight loss of coated guava was 7.18%, whereas, the experimental weight loss of coated guava was 7.51% after tenth days of storage period. The RSM-predicted and experimental weight loss were not significantly different from each other. The weight loss of uncoated guava was 3 times higher (25%) after 8 days of storage as compared to coated guava. Thus, the use of optimum composition of edible coating provides acceptable alternative for post harvest control of weight loss of guava during storage.
JalalUdDin Baloch, M. Qasim Khan, M. Munir and M. Zubair

Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK; University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Key words: Ornamental annuals, short day plants, flowering, photoperiod, facultative short day plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2010, volume 12, issue 1, pages 10-15.

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to study flowering response of six facultative short day plants (zinnia cv. Lilliput, sunflower cv. Elf, French marigold cv. Orange Gate, African marigold cv. Crush, cockscomb cv. Bombay and cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) under four distinct controlled photoperiods (8, 11, 14 and 17 h d-1). A curvilinear facultative response was observed in almost all cultivars studied. zinnia, sunflower, French marigold, African marigold, cockscomb and cosmos took minimum time to flower when grown under 8 h d-1 photoperiods however it was significantly (P<0.05) increased when photoperiod was increased to 17 h d-1. These findings revealed plant scheduling prospect that is, the flowering time of facultative SDPs grown under long day photoperiod can be extended in order to continue supply of these plants in the market

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Journal of Applied Horticulture