Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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Sharmistha Naik and Vishal Rana

Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry. Nauni, Solan-173230.

Key words: Artificial pollination, liquid pollen extenders, kiwifruit, agar, gelatin, arrowroot powder, sago powder, gum Acacia, fruit set, fruit weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 202-206.

Abstract: Artificial pollination using liquid pollen extenders is a labour saving method as well as it also increases the efficiency of pollination. An attempt was made to develop effective and relatively cheap pollen extenders for spray pollination and also to compare different pollination methods. Different liquid pollen extenders containing basal sucrose solution (BSS) (0.2M sucrose) plus 0.1% agar/0.01% gelrite/0.9% sago powder/1.4% arrowroot powder/1.0% gelatin/0.005% gum Acacia were evaluated for spray pollination. Quantity of pollen used in all these extenders was 0.25 g per 50 mL of extender. Maximum fruit set (89.63%) and A-grade fruits weighing > 80g (10.22%) were recorded in BSS + 1.4% arrowroot powder. Positive correlations were observed between fruit weight x fruit length (r=0.882), fruit weight x fruit diameter (r =0.852) and fruit weight x number of seeds/fruit (r=0.980). Regression equations showing relationships between fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter and number of seeds/fruit were computed and were found to be highly reliable. Spray pollination using automizer was observed to be more than two times efficient as compared to hand pollination. The pollination efficiency would further be improved using pressure sprayers and/or tractor mounted sprayers.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, R.P. Singh and Vineeta Singh

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Box No. 01, P.O. Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221305, Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi-221002, Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science

Key words: Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, early blight, Alternaria solani, percent disease incidence (PDI), area under disease progress curve (AUDPC)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 207-210.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted for three years to study the interaction between tomato genotypes and environment against early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani. Fifty one genetically diverse genotypes of tomato were screened in field conditions against early blight in Rabi season of 2006-09 at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India. Results revealed that genotype LA-3980 was resistant while, EC-520058, EC-520060, EC-520061, EC-520070, EC-521080, WIR-3928 and H-88-78-1 were highly resistant. All the resistant and highly resistant lines belong to wild species except H-88-78-1 and LA-3980. Only three genotypes, EC-520061, EC-520070 and H-88-78-1 were stable in each environment for resistance to early blight disease in tomato. Relationship of environment with resistant genotypes indicated that EC-520061, EC-520070, WIR-3928 and H-88-78-1 had low regression coefficient (b<1) and low deviation from regression (sd2=<1) than others (b= >1and sd2=>1) indicating stable and adaptive genotypic resistance to early blight. Hence these genotypes may be used as donor parent for development of early blight resistant/ tolerant varieties / lines.
K. Habib, N. Ahmad, P.A. Sofi, S.H. Khan and T. Shafi

Division of Vegetable Sciences, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, 191121, J&K. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Old Airport Road, Srinagar, J&K. Regional Research Station, SKUAST-K, Wadura Sopore, 193201, J&K, India

Key words: Broccoli, genetic variability, genetic advance, diallel

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 211-214.

Abstract: Ten diverse broccoli genotypes selected from germplasm collection maintained at SKUAST-K, Shalimar were crossed in all possible combinations excluding reciprocals. Forty five F1 crosses (excluding reciprocals) were generated through a 10 x 10 diallel mating design. Each genotype was represented by two rows of ten plants each at spacing 60 x 45 cm in a Randomized Block Design with 3 replications in Rabi 2008 and 2009. Data was recorded on five randomly selected competitive plants from each replication for 16 metric traits. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was moderate to high in lateral head yield, lateral head number, main head yield and total carotenoids and low for days to central head harvest, days to central head initiation, plant height and plant spread. Broad sense heritability was comparatively moderate to higher in plant height, head length, days to central head initiation, lateral head yield, main head yield,. total head yield and total carotenoids content but low for ascorbic acid content, plant spread and dry matter content. Genetic advance was high (> 20.%) for lateral head yield and total carotenoids content while it was low (<5%) for ascorbic acid, peduncle length and dry matter content. Among various traits, the plant spread, head diameter, leaf number, leaf area, lateral head number, main head yield and lateral head yield possessed positive correlation with total yield at genotypic level while plant height, head length, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids had negative correlation with total yield at genotypic level. However, main head yield, lateral head yield, head diameter and lateral head number had highly significant positive correlation with total head yield.
A. Venkatram and A. Bhagwan

College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Hyderabad - 500030, A.P, India. Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, Medak - 502110, A.P, India.

Key words: Antioxidants, custard apple, firmness, ripening, storage life, total soluble solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 215-219.

Abstract: The effect of postharvest application of various concentrations of antioxidants [500, 1000 ppm of sodium benzoate (SB) and ascorbic acid (AA) and 50, 100 ppm of benzyl adenine (BA)] on storage life of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) fruits of cv ?Balanagar?, stored at 15?1?C, was studied at Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, A.P., India. Various physico-chemical parameters like physiological loss in weight (PLW), firmness, spoilage, ripening, days taken for ripening, storage life, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid were estimated at an interval of 2 days during storage. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) recorded the lower PLW than untreated fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas maximum days taken for ripening was recorded with BA (50 and 100 ppm) and SB 500 ppm. Fruits treated with BA (100 ppm) or SB (500 ppm) or AA (1000 ppm) recorded lower spoilage and correspondingly increased the storage life up to 11, 10.5 and 10 days, respectively, whereas, untreated fruits recorded a storage life of 8.5 days only. The lowest TSS and the highest ascorbic acid were recorded with fruits treated with BA (100 ppm), whereas untreated fruits recorded highest TSS and the lowest ascorbic acid. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that postharvest application of BA (100 or 50 ppm) increases the storage life of custard apple by 29.41 per cent (2.5 days) over untreated fruits.
P. Suresh Kumar, V.K. Choudhary, M. Kanwat and A. Sangeetha

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, AP Centre, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh-791 101. India

Key words: Citrus, mandarin, organic manure, pig manure, poultry manure, fruit quality, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 220-223.

Abstract: A field trial was laid out on 11 year old Khasi mandarin trees with 12 different doses organic sources (20, 40, 60, 80 kg each of FYM, pig manure and poultry manure) and three different doses (200, 100, 100; 400, 200, 200; and 600, 400, 400 g NPK / tree ) of inorganic fertilizers to evaluate the effect of different nutrient sources on growth and yield performance of Khasi mandarin. Highest number of fruits per plant was recorded with 600, 400, 400 g NPK application. Plant height (6.96 m), crop canopy (5.7 x 5.6 m) and yield were also highest with full dose of NPK. However, stem diameter (86.8 cm) was highest with the application of 80 kg pig manure. The physico-chemical characteristics of fruits showed that peel weight (32.14 g) and thickness (4.2 mm) were more with full dose application of NPK, while segment weight (87.52 g) and fruit weight (120.4 g) were highest with 80 kg application of FYM. Inorganic fertilizers other than reducing TSS have profound effect on the increase in acidity which in turn reduced the TSS: acid ratio. It can be concluded that 80 kg FYM or 80 kg pig manure application would replenish the depleted nutrients on the khasi mandarin growing soils and maintain soil health.
Reza Farzinebrahimi, Rosna Mat Taha and Kamaludin A Rashid

Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia.

Key words: Curculigo latifolia Dryand, lemba, soil media, light intensity, leaf growth, plant height

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 224-226.

Abstract: Growth and survival percentage of Curculigo latifolia Dryand under different light intensity and various soil media was studied to work out suitable growing conditions for the species. Three light intensity (25, 50 and 100%) and soil media consisting topsoil, organic manure and sand as 1:1:1 (T1), 2:3:1 (T2) and 3:2:1 (T3) were used as treatments for planting C. latifolia. When multiplied by rhizomes, the survival rates in all treatments were 100%, however the leaf growth and number were influenced by light intensity and soil media. There were no significant differences of leaf growth between T1 and T3 under 50% light and T2 under 100 % light. However, in T2 under 25% light higher leaf number and in T1 (1:1:1) under 50% light higher plant height was observed. The species was successfully regenerated by rhizomes for the present study. The study revealed that light intensity has significant effect on plant height and leaf number of C. latifolia. Soil media influenced the height and leaf number with different effect under varying light intensities.
R.S. Negi, B.S. Baghel and U.S.Gautam

Deendayal Research Institute Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Satna (MP)-485331, India. College of Horticulture, JNKVV, Mansour (MP), India. Zonal Project Directorate, Zone- VII(ICAR), Jabalpur (MP), India.

Key words: Aonla, in situ, ex situ, method of orchard establishment, method of propagation, budlings/graft

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 3, pages 227-231.

Abstract: To standardize the rehabilitation technology for degraded pasture/grazing lands through aonla (Emblica officinalis), an experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deendayal Research Institute, Satna for two consecutive years with 5 methods of orchard establishment (in situ raising of seedlings/rootstocks, transplanting of one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags, transplanting of one year old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly tubes, transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in poly bags and transplanting of ex situ raised grafts/budlings in nursery) and 5 methods of propagation, i.e. patch, shield, chip, forkert budding and wedge grafting. Growth parameters were higher in the plants raised by transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling method for orchard establishment. The in situ raising of seedlings was found to be next suitable method in respect of growth parameters. Among the different methods of propagation, chip budding recorded the maximum growth of budlings closely followed by patch budding. The interaction between method of orchard establishment and propagation registered better growth of budlings under transplanting of one month old polythene raised seedling and performing chip budding next year. Based on these results, transplanting one month old seedlings/rootstocks raised in poly bags and performing chip budding next year during last week of June can be recommended for the rehabilitation of wastelands on a commercial scale for the economic utilization of such wastelands through aonla cultivation.
R.A. Patil, D.V. Sudhakar Rao and B. Manasa

Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru-560 065. Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru-560 089. India.

Key words: MAP, custard apple, Annona squamosa, ripening rate, chilling injury, firmness, TSS, packaging film, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 100-105.

Abstract: Laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of modified atmospheric packaging on chilling injury and shelf-life of custard apple fruits at the division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru, during September-October, 2009. The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. Three different kinds of flexible films viz. low density polyethylene (LDPE), Cryovac Opti 300 and Cryovac PD-961 of 30 x 25 cm size were used for packaging of fruits as main treatment. Eight fruits were packed in each film bag and these packs were further master packed in ventilated CFB boxes. The boxes were then stored in "Walk-in" cold rooms maintained at 8, 12 and 15 oC (85-90 % RH), respectively. The observations were recorded at weekly intervals. Results of the study revealed that MAP of custard apple fruits with LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film could alleviate the chilling injury at 8 ?C to considerable extent, besides extending the storage life. The non-packed control fruits could be stored up to three weeks at 8 oC, but these fruits lacked desirable appearance due to development of chilling injury. At 12 oC, the fruits could be kept in unripe condition up to two weeks, when the fruits were packed either in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film, when compared to four days in non-packed fruits at room temperature. These fruits ripened normally without chilling injury (CI) in three days when they were shifted to RT after unpacking. It can be concluded that the storage life of custard apple fruits could be extended at 12 oC without any CI by packing the fruits in LDPE or Cryovac PD-961 film.
Manoj Kundu, Ritu Joshi, P.N. Rai and L.D. Bist

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), India

Key words: Pear, plant bio-regulators (PBRs), trunk soil line pore (TSLP), productivity, total sugar content, TSS to acid ratio.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 106-109.

Abstract: Pear (Pyrus spp.) mainly cultivated in the temperate Himalayan region of India, is an important fruit crop. Although, it is a temperate fruit but tarai region of northern India have great potential for growing different low chilling cultivars of this fruit. But the main problem of these low chill cultivars in this area is vigorous growth with shy bearing habit with heavy fruit drop and poor fruit growth resulting very low yield with much inferior fruit quality as compared to fruits produced in temperate region. Plant bio-regulators have the great potential to boost up reproductive growth resulting higher yield with better quality fruits under tarai region. Hence, a field experiment was conducted to study the role of different plant bio-regulators (PBRs) to prevent fruit drop and to improve fruit growth, quality and the productivity of low chill pear cv Gola. Fifteen years old Gola trees were foliar sprayed or soil drenched with different PBRs viz., gibberellin (GA3), benzyl adenine (BA) and paclobutrazol (PP333) at petal fall (PF) stage followed by two and four weeks after PF or at late fall stage. The results indicate that different treatments had significant effect on all the parameters studied. Minimum fruit drop and maximum productivity was depicted in foliar and soil application of PP333 followed by foliar spray of GA3. However, fruit growth (length and width) and volume at maturity and total sugar content was recorded maximum in combined application of GA3 and BA. Foliar as well as soil application of PP333 was also found effective for increasing the sugar content of the fruit while maximum TSS to acid ratio was also recorded in these two treatments. Based on results, it could be said that the foliar as well as the soil application of PP333 is highly effective for controlling shy bearing problem with minimal fruit drop and improved fruit quality resulting higher productivity of marketable fruits of better quality.
K. Swathi, Tejaswini and K.V. Jayaprasad

Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesserghatta, Bangaluru-560089, India

Key words: Bagging, hybrids, inbreds, inbreeding depression, petunia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 110-113.

Abstract: Petunia is one of the important bedding plants and occupies an ever increasing demand in flower seed industry. The present study was carried out to evaluate various selfing techniques to identify the efficient one for the production of large quantity of seeds in short duration to facilitate inbred development. Different selfing techniques like threading, manual pollination, bagging of single bud and bagging of multiple buds were tried in three inbred lines and also their interactions were studied. The results indicated that bagging of multiple buds took minimum days to seed set, higher pod weight and highest number of seeds/mg. Seed germination percentage was high in manual pollination followed by bagging of multiple buds. Inbred lines IIHRP-WT gave best results as compared to other inbred lines. Interaction of this inbred line with bagging of multiple buds gave good seed quality results like higher pod weight and number of seeds/mg.
Durga Singh, R.P.S. Shaktawat and I.S. Naruka

Krishi Vigyan Kendra and Department of Plantation and Spice Crops, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (MP)-458001 India

Key words: Thrips tabaci, onion, fipronil, lambda-cyhalothrin, thiacloprid, deltamethrin, malathion

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 114-116.

Abstract: Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci L.) is a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.) of family Alliaceae in India and widely spread in summer season. For the control of its infestation, the crop is sprayed intensively with insecticides. In order to find out the most efficient and eco-friendly method of thrips control, an experiment was conducted at Shajapur (M.P.) during the year 2007 and 2008 to assess the thrips population. Thrips population was counted at 15 days interval. Thrips population was peaked in February when they reached the maximum mean values ranging between 15.30 and 153.45 thrips per plant. The seven treatments of insecticides i.e. fipronil 5 % SC, lambda-cyhalothrin 5 % EC, lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS, thiacloprid 21.7 % SC, deltamethrin 11 % w/w EC, malathion 50 % EC were applied at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting of onion crop for management of onion thrips. Among all the insecticides applied fipronil 5 % SC and lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9 % CS was the most effective insecticide in reducing the thrips population and increasing the weight of exportable bulb and yield of onion as compare to control and other insecticides. Fipronil 5 % SC treatment reduced the thrips population by 98.56 percent over control and increased the bulb yield by 124.90 percent compared with control.
U. Amala, D.S. Yadav and A.M. Bhosale

Department of Entomology, National Research Centre of Grapes, Solapur Road, P.B. No. 3, Manjri Farm, Pune - 412 307, Maharashtra, India

Key words: Maconellicoccus hirsutus, parasitization, Leptomastix dactylopii, Encyrtidae, Anagyrus dactylopii, mummies, Planococcus citri, Coccidoxenoides perminutus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 117-119.

Abstract: Survey was conducted to investigate the parasitoid complex of mealybug infesting grapes in the vineyards during 2012 to 2013. The parasitized mummies of mealybugs were collected and held in the test tubes until the parasitoid emerged out. The emerged parasitoids were identified and preserved. Three encyrtid parasitoids viz., Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault, Anagyrus dactylopii Howard, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard were found to effect parasitization of the mealybugs. A. dactylopii was found specific to pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. L. dacylopii and C. perminutus were found parasitizing Planococcus citri. Percent parasitization of mealybug by C. perminutus, A. dactylopii andL. dactylopii was 56.25, 72.72 and 81.81 per cent, respectively during the peak incidence of mealybugs. Mean population of C. perminutus A. dactylopii and L. dactylopii were 6.3, 5.4 and 5.9 individuals per vine.
Sheikh Khursheed, Desh Raj and Nisar A. Ganie

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University Palampur-176 062 (H.P.) India.

Key words: Red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis, cucumber, population dynamics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 120-123.

Abstract: The population dynamics of Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas in relation to abiotic factors was studied on cucumber (Cucumis sativus), var. 'Khira-90' during 2009 and 2010. Incidence of red pumpkin beetle in field indicated that its initial activity and peak period varied with the locations and prevailing weather conditions. At Palampur, the insect was found active from second fortnight of April with three peaks during 2nd and 4th weeks of May and 3rd week of July, 2009 whereas, one major peak during 2nd week of May was recorded in 2010. At farmer's field, Bara (Hamirpur) the insect first appearance was noticed during first fortnight of March and reached to its peak during 3rd and 2nd weeks of April, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The highest plant infestation (100 %) was observed when the crop was at its early growing stage. The correlation studies revealed that average minimum temperature showed significant negative correlation at farmer's field whereas other weather parameters had no significant effect on the beetle population at Palampur as well as Bara.
Hassan A. Hamouda, A.A. El-Sayed, Mohamed M. El-Fouly, A.A. Fawzi, B.M. Mansour and H.A. Bosila

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki-Egypt

Key words: Ocimum canum, nutrient film technique (NFT), nitrogen utilization, uptake

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 124-127.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate which nitrogen source gives the highest vegetative growth, nutrient uptake and highest nitrogen use efficiency of Ocimum canum plant. Nutrient film technique was used to grow O. canum using different nitrogen sources; Nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate) (N), urea (U) and Ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Results showed that in general, growth parameters and nutrient uptake by whole plant and different plant organs were significantly higher in nitrate treatment in comparison with the other sources. The nutrient solution containing ammonium nitrate gave the highest number of leaves, number of branches, height and leaf area per plant, as well as fresh and dry weights. Nitrogen use efficiency of N treatment (57 %) was a little bit higher than of AN (53 %), while U nitrogen utilization was much lower (NUE = 31). In conclusion, when growing O. canum using NFT, it is recommended that N should be supplied as ammonium nitrate.
Sharmistha Naik, Poonam and Vishal Rana

Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230, India.

Key words: Kiwifruit, pollen storage, pollen viability, in vitro pollen germination, absolute pollen viability, TTC staining.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 2, pages 128-132.

Abstract: Insufficient pollination due to asynchrony between staminate and pistillate blossoms in kiwifruit and unfavourable environmental conditions results in reduced fruit size and unequal fruit shape. In the present investigation an attempt was made to develop a simple and reliable method for storage of kiwifruit pollen and their utilization in hand pollination in following year. Pollen were stored at different temperatures [room temperature (25 ? 2 0C), 4, 0 and -20 0C] for a period of one year. Pollen viability was determined at monthly intervals using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and percent in vitro germination using 14 % sucrose,1.7 mM calcium nitrate and 3mM Boric acid. Initial TTC stainability (78.83 %), in vitro germination (65.55%) and absolute viability (51.72 %) of fresh pollen went on reducing with storage periods. -20 0C was the best temperature at which maximum viability of kiwifruit pollen can be retained up to one year. Pollination using pollen stored for one year showed that pollen stored at -20 0C were able to set 100 % fruits, pollen stored at 0 0C could set 36 % fruits, while there was no fruit setting with pollen stored at room temperature and 4 0C. These findings have practical implications for kiwifruit production in India. Artificial pollination with stored pollen can circumvent several uncertainties of natural pollination and guarantee adequate pollination in kiwifruit.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture