Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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J.D. Mantec?n

Facultadde Ciencias Agrarias, UNMDPy Estacion ExperimentalAgropecuaria, INTA. CC 276, 7620Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Key words: Rhizoctonia, scurf, soil inoculum, Kennebec, sclerotia, fludioxinil, pencycuron

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: During 2008 to 2010 growing seasons, three trials were conducted on fungicide treatment of soil and seed tuber for control of potato black scurf at INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina in randomized complete block design. Before planting, fungicides Monceren 25SC (pencycuron 25%) at 1.25 L/t and Celest 25FS (fludioxinil 2.5%) at 0.5 L/t were sprayed on potato whole seeds. After planting, the same fungicides were sprayed on each row at 2.5 and 1.0 L ha-1, respectively. Whole healthy (no symptons) and diseased (15-20% surface covered by sclerotia) seeds of Kennebec cultivar were used. Artificial inoculations to the soil were made with Rhizoctonia solani AG3 anastomosys group. Disease incidence was registered every year. Yields were recorded and each tuber was goruped according to health. Fungicides showed better results than both checks and reduced plant disease incidence in the field. Inoculated check showed 50% of unhealthy plants while the fungicides reduced it to 10%. Yield increase of marketable tubers was 42% better in fungicide treatments than in the inoculated check. Both fungicides produced more healthy tubers than the inoculated check or uninoculated check. Yield increase of healthy tubers was 45% higher when compared with the inoculated check. Fungicide seed treatment was better when disease seeds were used and fungicide soil treatment was better than healthy seeds.
Gurteg Singh and Sat Pal Saini

Krishi Vigyan Kendra (PAU), Haveli Kalan, Ropar -140 001, Punjab, India.

Key words: Key words: Prunus persica, pruning, fruit thinning, fruit yield, fruit weight, farmer practice

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2013, volume 15, issue 1, pages 65-68.

Abstract: Fruit and shoot management in peaches (Prunus persica L.) is an important intervention to improve fruit quality and its yield . Studies were conducted through on-farm trials at farmer's fields in Ropar (Punjab) district during 2006-2009 to evaluate the technology of pruning and fruit thinning and its effects on crop yield and fruit quality in six-year-old peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab trees with three treatments viz., T1=50% pruning of fruitful shoots + cutting of dead and diseased wood in early-January, T2=T1+ Fruit thinning during mid-March and T3=No pruning and no fruit thinning (Farmer Practice-FP). The pruning treatments caused the development of an abundant number of long shoots, which are valuable for fruiting. Mean fruit yield was 50 kg per plant in T1; 48 kg per plant in T2 and 32 kg per plant in T3 (FP). Mean fruit yield was 56.25 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and by 50.00% higher in T2 over T3 (FP). Results revealed that mean fruit weights were 55.10, 70.10 and 41.00 grams in T1, T2 and T3 respectively during 2006-07. Mean fruit weight was 34.39 % higher in T1 over T3 (FP) and it was 70.97 % higher in T2 over T3 . Similar trend was observed during the following years 2008 & 2009 at all the locations except in 2009 where non-significant reduction in fruit yield was noticed in T2 over T3 . The highest benefit cost ratio was obtained in T2 (3.31) followed by T1 (3.20) and T3 (2.32). It was concluded that economic fruit yield can significantly be obtained by imposing 50% pruning of fruited shoots and cutting of dead and diseased wood during early January followed by fruit thinning in mid- March in peaches cv. Shan-i- Punjab in sub mountain zone of Punjab.
S.N. Jha, Pranita Jaiswal, K. Narsaiah, Rishi Bhardwaj, Poonam Preet Kaur, Ashish Kumar Singh, Rajiv Sharma and R. Kumar

Agricultural Structures and Environmental Control Division, Central Institute of Postharvest Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana 141004, India.

Key words: Bacteria, biochemical, diversity, filamentous fungi, mango, relative abundance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 102-109.

Abstract: Microbial diversity on fruit surface of nine mango cultivars (Alphonso, Banganapalli, Chausa, Dashehri, Kesar, Langra, Mallika, Maldah and Neelam) harvested from orchards of nine Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh) were studied using standard methods. A total of 47 fungal and 123 bacterial isolates were purified from 761 mango samples, which included 63 Gram positive and 60 Gram negative bacterial isolates. The relative abundance of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and different filamentous fungi varied among cultivars. Gram positive bacteria dominated on Langra of Uttar Pradesh, while Dashehri from Punjab showed dominance of Gram negative bacteria. Among total fungal isolates, the common genera were Aspergillus and Fusarium, while among bacterial isolates, the most common genera were Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Citrobacter, Mycobacterium and Serratia. Alphonso and Kesar variety from Maharashtra showed maximum and minimum fungal diversity, respectively. Genera and species identified include members known for spoilage of fruits; having all types of pectinase and cellulase activities and those used in biocontrol of plant pathogens.
M.P. Singh, H.S. Sodhi, A. Singh and P.K. Khanna

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Agaricus bisporus, cabinet drying, microwave-oven drying, color index, texture index, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 110-113.

Abstract: White button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (strains U3 and S11) were dried in cabinet at two temperatures (45 and 55?C) and microwave oven at 380W for 30 minutes. Dried mushrooms were subjected to physical (color, texture, rehydration ratio, dehydration ratio), biochemical (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) and microbiological (total bacterial count) parameters after three months of storage period. In strain U3, carbohydrate content was highest in 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms dried at 45?C, protein ranged between 3.43 to 3.89 g/100 g of fresh mushrooms, lipid content ranged between 0.06 to 0.30 g/100 g of mushrooms and the total bacterial count ranged between 1.48 to 2.07 log cfu/g which was within the permissible limits of dried fruit products while in microwave oven dried mushrooms there was no significant difference in two strains in terms of carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents. Bacterial count was found to be within the permissible limit of dried fruit products (1.85-2.17 log cfu/g). The weight of dried mushrooms remained almost constant throughout the storage period of 3 months. However, cabinet drying was preferred for most of the color and texture index parameters. Springiness was maximum for microwave oven dried mushrooms of S11 strain treated with 0.1% KMS, followed by the unwashed mushrooms. Resilience ranged between 0.23 to 0.33 in all the treatments. Cohesiveness was maximum in unwashed mushrooms of U3 dried at 55?C, followed by cabinet dried mushrooms of S11 strain (55?C) both unwashed and 0.1% KMS treated. Chewiness and gumminess were also maximum for cabinet dried unwashed mushrooms of U3, followed by microwave oven dried 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms. A. bisporus was most acceptable in cabinet drying for 0.1% KMS treated U3 strain at both 45?C and 55?C while in case of microwave oven drying, total color difference (2.88 for U3 and 2.58 in S11) was minimum and rehydration ratio (1.91 to 3.06) was found to be maximum for U3 strain.
Jagdev Sharma, A.K. Upadhyay, Indu S. Sawant and S.D. Sawant

National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune (MS)-412307, India.

Key words: Powdery mildew, nutritional status, grapevines, potassium, disease incidence

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 114-117.

Abstract: Relationship between nutritional status of open field grown Thompson Seedless grapevines and powdery mildew incidence was studied for two years at two growth stages. Amongst different nutrients, potassium showed highest degree of significant and negative correlation with the powdery mildew disease rating (r= -0.817 and -0.875) at two growth stages. Regression analysis also revealed the importance of potassium nutrition in powdery mildew incidence. During the first year of the study, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 82.7 % (R2 = 0.826) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 66.8 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.667). During the second year N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 85.7 % (R2 = 0.857) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 76.6 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.765).
B.L. Attri, Hare Krishna, B. Das, N. Ahmed and Akhilesh Kumar

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station, Mukteshwar - 263 138, Uttarakhand, India.

Key words: Apple varieties, salicylic acid, Ca-EDTA, physico-chemical characters, ambient storage, anti-oxidants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 118-123.

Abstract: For extending the shelf life, a study was carried out on the effect of bio-regulators viz., salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA on three apple varieties viz., Fanny, Golden Delicious and Vance Delicious. The selected fruits were dipped for 30 minutes in aqueous solution of salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, Ca-EDTA @ 0.4% ppm and control (distilled water dip). The treated fruits were stored in CFB boxes at ambient temperature (18-20oC) for 60 days. During storage, the effect of bio-regulators on various physico-chemical characteristics such as TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidants of apple fruits were studied at 10 days interval. The results revealed that the fruits treated with bio-regulators had significantly better retention of firmness and low PLW (12.10, 12.80 and 13.69%) as compared to control (20.26, 18.75 and 19.35%) during storage for 60 days. The TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidant contents in the treated fruits were stable, whereas in untreated ones the conversion rate was faster. During storage, salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA slowed down respiration rate resulting better shelf life of apple. The treated fruits of Golden Delicious had a shelf life of 60 days as compared to 40 days in control. The study revealed that the shelf life of the apple fruits could be increased with better physico-chemical characteristics using bio-regulators like salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA.
Muzaffar Mir and Som Dev Sharma

Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P), India-173230.

Key words: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), azotobacter, mycorrhizal fungi, PSB, soil enzymes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 124-128.

Abstract: The present study represents the positive response of biofertilizers in pomegranate cuttings followed by their transplantation in field conditions. Nursery and field experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of selected N2-fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and AM fungi alone or in combination, on the growth and biomass production of Punica granatum. In both experiments, the combined treatment of Azotobacter chroococcum + Glomus mosseae was found to be the most effective. Besides enhancing the rhizosphere microbial activity and concentration of various metabolites and nutrients, these bioinoculants helped in better establishment of pomegranate plants under field conditions. A significant improvement in the plant height, plant canopy, pruned material and fruit yield was evident in 6-year-old pomegranate plants in field conditions. In view of the above results, use of biofertilizer technology may be adopted for the establishment and development of other horticultural plant species in rainfed agroecosystem..
Mehrdad Madani, Ahmad Akhiani, Mahmoud Damadzadeh and Ahmad Kheiri

University of Tarbiat Modares, College of Agriculture, Plant Pathology Department, Tehran, Iran. Present address: Uni?versity of Manitoba, Soil Science Department, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute. Ministry of Agriculture an

Key words: Pistachio vera, root knot nematodes, gall index, eggmass index, cultivar

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 129-133.

Abstract: Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a edible nut native to Iran, the country that ranks first in worldwide pistachio production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne species, are among the most important pathogens that restrict the cultivation of pistachio in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance of native pistachio rootstocks for resistance to isolates of M. incognita. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the reaction of eleven cultivars of P. vera and six accessions of wild pistachio viz P. mutica, P. khinjuk, P. terebintus, P. atlantica, P. atlantica sub sp mutica and P atlantica sub sp cabilica, against five selected populations of RKN. Meloidogyne incognita andM. javanica were identified based on the morphological characters, and esterase isozyme phenotype. Resistance was characterized based on root gall and egg mass indices and nematode reproduction. Resistance to M. incognita was detected among the cultivars and wild accessions of pistachio. There was a significant interaction among nematode populations and host genotypes, suggesting the presence of virulent pathotypes among the M. incognita isolates. These data suggest that it will be possible to development cultivars with resistance as a means of suppressing damage to pistachio that is caused by RKN.
L. Saravanan and Vipin Chaudhary

Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi-534 450, Andhra Pradesh, India. Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi-387 310, Gujarat, India.

Key words: Dichromia orosia, Tylophora asthmatica, biology, seasonal activity, longevity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 134-138.

Abstract: Dichromia orosia (Cramer), a near monophagus pest was observed to cause severe defoliation to its host plant, anthmool (Tylophora asthmatica Wight and Am), an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic formulations to treat asthma world over. Biology and seasonal activity of the pest was studied during 2009-10 at Anand, Gujarat. Though incidence was observed throughout the year, however, the pest activity was more during July, August, December, January and February months. The pest completed its life cycle in 24.53?0.40 days (Eggs 3-4, larvae 10-14 and pupae 6-7 days). The longevity of the male and female was 15.70?0.68 and 19.70?0.42 days, respectively. Each female laid an average of 178.5?17.66 eggs, mostly on the under surface of the leaves in 12.20?0.49 days of oviposition period. The larvae developed through five instars in 12.9?0.35 days and pupal period lasted for about 6.8?0.11 days. Correlation of peak pest population periods with corresponding and previous Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) revealed that prevalence of maximum temperature (27.5-30.20C) mean temperature 29.31 0C, high RH and low rainfall recorded in increase of larval population.
M.H. Abdul Sattar, A. Rashid Yassin Ibrahim and Watheq A. Aulaqi

Plant Protection Section, Horticulture and Food Technology Section, El Kod Agricultural Research Station(AREA), Abyan Governorate, Republic of Yemen.

Key words: Date palm, Graphiola phaenicis, Southern coastal plain, Yemen.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 139-143.

Abstract: Twelve date palm cultivars were evaluated for field resistance to Graphiola leaf spot caused by Graphiola phaenicis (Moug) Poit. The disease incidence and number of sori were compared on both surface of leaf, pinnae position on leaves and plant age. Cultivars, Gizaz, Tha'al and Khodari showed negligable infection and fewer number of sori on the leaf surface and rachis. Symptom of disease was absent on leaves and rachis in cultivar Sagaee. These cultivars differed significantly from susceptible cultivars viz., Shahree, Soqotree and Khalas (P= 0.01). Abundant distribution of sori caused a drastic reduction of the leaf area covered by the fungus. Adaxial leaf surface trapped more number of sporidia and significant differences were detected among test cultivars (P=0.05). The temperature ranging between 32-38? C in summer and humidity accompanied by heavy dew in the night and early morning favored the development of infection. Correlation of age of cultivar "Shahree" and disease incidence revealed that older trees are more susceptible to disease.
Jyoti Kachroo, Anil Bhat and Dileep Kachroo

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology - Jammu, Chatha - 180009, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Orange, kinnow, resource use efficiency, regression coefficient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 144-145.

Abstract: Orange and kinnow occupy an important place in the horticultural industry of the country as well as in J&K state. In the present study, resource use efficiency of orange and kinnow was analysed. The regression coefficient values of selected inputs under orange orchards, mainly human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning varied significantly at the five age groups of five years from 5th to 28th years, corresponded to overall values as 0.955, 0.012, -0.012, 0.013 and -0.050, respectively. Out of which human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection with positive sign indicated that with one per cent increase in the use of these inputs, the output could be increased by 0.96 per cent in case of human labour and 0.01 per cent each in other two inputs. The regression coefficient of training/ pruning was statistically significant but negative indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on training/ pruning could decrease the output to the extent of 0.05 per cent. The marginal value productivities of human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection were positive with their values at 0.185, 110.452, 0.076, respectively, whereas that of training/ pruning (-0.638) and irrigation (-0.054) were negative thereby indicated that there still existed scope of investing on human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection. The overall regression coefficient values obtained from kinnow cultivation were 0.029, -0.024, 0.016, 0.015 and 0.138 for human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning, respectively, out of which human labour and training/ pruning were statistically significant, indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on these two inputs could increase the output to the extent of 0.03 per cent and 0.14 per cent, respectively. The regression coefficients of irrigation, plant protection and manures + fertilizers were non significant. The marginal value productivities of human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning were positive with their values at 0.031, 0.025, 0.014 and 0.175, respectively, whereas that of manures + fertilizers (-0.027) was negative thereby indicating that there still existed scope in the investment on human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning.
R. Kumar, N. Ahmed, D.B. Singh and O.C. Sharma

Laboratory of Post Harvest Technology, Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar-190 007, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Floral preservatives, sucrose, aluminium sulphate, 8-HQS, Tulipa gesneriana, water relations, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 146-151.

Abstract: The influence of different floral preservatives were assessed to determine their effect on the water relations and vase life of cut tulip cv. Yellow Purissima. Uniform size scapes of tulip at bud colour break stage were kept in ten different treatments of floral preservatives comprised of sucrose-(2, 4 and 6%), aluminium sulphate (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and 8-HQS (100, 200 and 300 ppm) along with control (distilled water). All the preservatives improved water relations and vase life of cut tulip significantly in comparison to control. The greatest cumulative water balance and maximum vase life were recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (10.5 g/scape and 10.1 days) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (9.67 g/scape and 8.9 days) over control (2.53 g/scape and 5.4 days), respectively. Maximum fresh weight change (10th day) was recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (105.13%) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (103.75%) in comparison to control (89.91%). The floral preservatives delayed the senescence of cut tulip by improving water uptake and post harvest physiology, thereby maintained better water balance leading to improved fresh weight and vase life.
Kurt O. Taylor, Muchha R. Reddy, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Mary M. Peet and Godfrey Gayle

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411

Key words: Solanum esculentum, vermicompost, feather meal, kelp meal, seedlings, root media.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 83-87.

Abstract: In two experiments, seeds of tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) cultivar 'Celebrity' were planted in four root substrates (Grower's Mix 20, Fafard 4P, Johnny's 512 Select and Sunshine Planter's) in 72-cell plastic plugs trays using different cover materials. In physical property evaluations, the four substrates had similar total porosity. However, Johnny's 512 Select had the highest container capacity and bulk density while Fafard 4P and Sunshine Planter's had the largest air space. There was some seasonal variation between the germination and growth results of the two studies. The use of root substrate, coir, or vermiculite resulted in better germination than leaving the seeds uncovered, with the exception of the seeds germinated in Johnny's 512 Select in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 1, tomato seedlings were the tallest and heaviest when grown in Grower's Mix 20. Using newspaper to cover seeds reduced germination in Experiment 2. Tomato seedlings grown in Grower's Mix 20 and Johnny's 512 Select were equal or greater in shoot height or weight as compared to those grown in the conventional substrate Fafard 4P.
K. Bodhipadma, S. Noichinda, P. Luangsriumporn, C. Meenapa, K. Nathalang, and D.W.M. Leung

Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 Thailand.

Key words: Acclimatization, aromatic chilli, ginger juice, root elongation, root induction

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 88-91.

Abstract: Stem explants excised from seedlings of aromatic chilli (Capsicum frutescens L) grown under aseptic conditions were cultured on basal medium alone (control), and basal medium supplemented with 5, 10 or 20 mL/L juice of ginger rhizome of 6 or 10 months old (herein referred to as YGE and OGE, respectively). At the end of 6 weeks of culture, the average number of roots formed per stem explant was higher when cultured on media supplemented with the three different levels of YGE or OGE (except 5 mL/L) compared to the control. Roots, formed in stem explants cultured on media containing the different levels of YGE (except 20 mL/L) and OGE, were longer than those cultured on basal medium. Particularly notable was that the average length of roots formed in stem explants cultured on medium supplemented with 5 mL/L OGE was more than double that of the control. Prior culture on media containing the different levels of YGE had no promotive effect on the number of leaves per exflasked plantlet compared to the control at the end of three weeks of acclimatization but the plantlets cultured previously on 5 or 10 mL/L YGE were taller than the control. The best performance of plantlets regarding leaf number and stem height after acclimatization was exhibited by those cultured previously on medium containing 10 mL/L OGE as they had at least 20% more leaves and were taller than the control.
S.S. Kukal, Debasish Saha, Arnab Bhowmik and R.K. Dubey

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, India.

Key words: Bio-amendments, growing media, bulk density, water retention, air filled porosity, easily available water, water buffering capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2012, volume 14, issue 2, pages 92-97.

Abstract: The efficacy of the natural bio-amendments in improving physical condition as well as water retention characteristics of the growing media in pot culture was studied on ten different compositions of growing media. The treatments comprised of (i) soil as sole medium; (ii) soil + sewage sludge (SS) in the ratio of 1:1; (iii) soil + SS + coir (CP) in the ratio of 1:1:1; (iv) soil + vermicompost (VC) in the ratio of 1:1; (v) soil + VC + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (vi) soil + farmyard manure (FYM) in the ratio of 1:1; (vii) soil + FYM + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (viii) soil + SS + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1; (ix) soil + SS + FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 and (x) soil + FYM + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1. The bulk density of media composition soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP was 24.2, 27.5 and 27.5% lower than the media containing only soils (1.32 mg m-3), respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) was lowest (45.4%) in sole soil treatment and it was 6.3, 5.6 and 6.1 times higher in soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP, respectively. The volumetric water retention at various suctions was significantly improved by addition of the organic amendments with soil. The magnitude of the differences in water retention among the treatments became wider at the higher suctions. The combination of soil+VC+CP showed the highest amount of water retention among all the treatments at all the suctions. The air filled porosity was highest (190.7%) in soil+FYM+CP media and lowest (25.3%) in sole soil media. Significant increase in easily available water was observed with the incorporation of coir with sewage sludge, vermicompost and FYM. The water buffering capacity was lowest in media with only soil (7.56%) and the media containing soil+VC+CP recorded the highest (24.7%) water buffering capacity.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture