SELECTED CONTENTS

 Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year 2005

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Jiang YueMing; Su XinGuo; Jiang YueLin; Li YueBiao; Lin WenBin

South China Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou LeYiJu 510650, China.

Key words: bagging, crop quality, fruits, storage disorders, storage life, storage quality, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest. To determine the potential of fruit bagging for extending storage life, litchi fruits were enclosed in 0.05 mm white polyethylene bags at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days before normal harvest. At commercial maturity, bagged and unbagged litchi fruits were picked and then held individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days at 20 degrees C and 95-100% relative humidity in the dark. Bagging of fruits before normal harvest markedly delayed skin browning and reduced rot development of litchi fruit during storage. The best inhibition of the browning and disease development of litchi fruit was observed when the fruit was bagged 3 days before normal harvest. Bagged fruits had lower levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA), but no significant differences in the TS and TA between bagged and unbagged fruits after 6 days of storage were recorded for flesh tissues. Thus, bagging fruit before normal harvest had the potential to reduce rots, main
Venkataramana, C; Reddy, K M; Sadashiva, A T; Reddy, M K

Division of Horticulture, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: chillies, crop yield, crosses, diallel analysis, disease resistance, flowering date, fruits, general combining ability, genetic effects, genetic variance, genotypes, maternal effects, plant height, plant pathogens, reciprocal effects, ripening, specific c

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 108-112.

Abstract: Combining ability analysis of 8x8 diallel cross (including reciprocals) was carried out during kharif 2001 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India involving Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant and susceptible lines of chilli. The variances for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) were highly significant for all the characters, suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The sca variance played an important role in the genetic control of days to 50% flowering, days to 50% ripening, fruit width, plant height, plant spread, number of fruits per plant, green fruit yield per plant and percent CMV incidence. On the contrary, additive gene action was observed for fruit length. The genotype VR-27 was judged to be the best general combiner for fruit yield per plant and Perennial, Punjab Lal, Punjab Gucchedar and Pant C-1 proved to be good general combiners for percent CMV incidence. The crosses Punjab Gucchedar x Pant C-1 and Tiwari x EG-174 had greater sca effect
Sabir, S M; Riaz, K

University College of Agriculture, Rawalakot - 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Key words: ascorbic acid, branches, calcium, canopy, chemical composition, chlorophyll, essential oil plants, fruits, iron, leaf area, leaves, magnesium, medicinal plants, multipurpose trees, nonreducing sugars, phosphorus, plant composition, plant height, plant mor

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 113-116.

Abstract: Elaeagnus umbellata is a native multipurpose plant from Himalayan regions of Pakistan. The berries of the plant are rich in vitamins, flavonoids, essential oil, lycopene and other bioactive compounds. To compare various populations of E. umbellata for morphology and chemical composition, five populations from different areas of district Bagh were compared using plant and fruit characters. Chemical analysis of berries showed variation in vitamin C (13.8-16.9 mg/100 g), seed oil (5.7-6.1%), oil in pulp (7.6-8.1%), reducing sugar (6.8-8.4%), non-reducing sugar (1.4-2.2%), protein (2.5-5.1%) and chlorophyll content (5.3-6.8%) in leaves, while the mineral element composition revealed high contents of potassium (175-375 ppm), sodium (20-40 ppm), calcium (70-110 ppm), magnesium (70-86.6 ppm), iron (78.5-95 ppm) and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). Significant variation in morphological characters including plant height, number of branches per plant, number and size of thorns, number of leaves, leaf area, plant canopy, stem
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; El Shereif, A R; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Hattanji, Matsuyama 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: bark, buds, crop quality, fruit set, fruits, growth, peaches, ringing, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 117-120.

Abstract: A study was conducted in southern Japan to investigate the effects of partial ringing (bark removal) on peach (Prunus persica cv. Hikawahakuho). The bark was cut once at 2 cm length x 2 mm width and 8 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 1, and cut once or weekly at 2 cm length x 2 mm width of bark in experiment 2. Control plants were not subjected to partial ringing. Ringing reduced shoot and bark growth and increased flower bud and fruit set in comparison to the unringed control. Tree circumference was higher above the ringed portion than the lower part of partially ringed trees. Fruit weight and maturity degree were also higher in ringed trees than unringed ones. The results indicate that partial ringing can be used for dwarfing peach trees and enhancing fruit quality.
Biswajit Panda; Singh, Y V; Ram, H H

Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, India.

Key words: aubergines, crop yield, diallel analysis, fruits, heterosis, hybrids, maturity, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 121-123.

Abstract: Hybrid advantages as consequences of fruit yield and its component characters were studied in 10 round-fruited aubergine hybrids along with their 5 genetically diverse parents in half-diallel manner during 2002-03 in Uttaranchal, India. Appreciable heterosis was recorded over mid, better and standard parents for all the characters. Heterosis to the extent of 8.8, 18.6, 28.0, 41.1 and 59.5% over standard parent (Pant Rituraj) was recorded for fruit length, fruit diameter, total number of fruits per plant, total weight of fruits per plant and early yield, respectively. Heterosis for yield was the cumulative effect of heterosis for most yield attributing characters. The highest yielding hybrid was PB-62 x T-3 (4.5 kg per plant), followed by PR x PB-61 (4.2 kg per plant), with 41.1 and 32% standard heterosis, respectively. The hybrid PR x PB-61 combination was also earliest in maturity with 59.5%, followed by PR x PB-60 showing 41.3% standard heterosis. These two crosses could be exploited as commercial hybrids i
Mishra, S K; Singh, R P

Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.

Key words: crop quality, edible fungi, hemp, Indian mustard, limes, linseed, mushrooms, non wood forest products, plant extracts, storage quality, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 124-126.

Abstract: Water-diluted extracts of 23 plants (Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Azadirachta indica, Callistemon lanceolatus [Callistemon citrinus], Calotropis gigantea, Cannabis sativa, Chrysanthemum indica [Chrysanthemum indicum], Citrus aurantiifolia, Cleome viscosa, Clerodendrum indicum, Dahlia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Dombeya spectabilis, Erigeron canadensis [Conyza canadensis], Eucalyptus citriodora, Evolvulus alsinoides, Juniperus chinensis, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Thuja orientalis [Platycladus orientalis] and Tridax procumbens) and 2 cakes (linseed and mustard [? Indian mustard]) were used as washing agents to improve the weight, whiteness and toughness of harvested sporophores of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 5 and 25 degrees C. The weight of sporophores increased by 6.66% just after washing them with water diluted extracts of plants and cakes. At the end of the experiment (12th day), the weight declined by 1.87-4.38% among th
Amit Kumar; Kumar, K; Sharma, S D

Department of Fruit Breeding & Genetic Resources, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan (H.P.) 173 230, India.

Key words: abscission, cross pollination, flowers, genotypes, open pollination, self pollination, walnuts

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 127-129.

Abstract: Pistillate flower abscission (PFA) was investigated in 18- to 20-year-old trees of 13 indigenous selections and 7 exotic cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) subjected to different modes of pollination, i.e. natural (open) pollination, self (hand) pollination and cross pollination, during 1999 and 2000 in Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. PFA ranged from 12.40 to 100.00% under natural pollination, 8.47 to 62.36% under self pollination and 12.33 to 100.00% under cross pollination in the first year. The corresponding values of PFA were 13.22 to 97.66, 9.11 to 60.40 and 13.50 to 96.67%, respectively, in the following year. In unpollinated flowers, PFA ranged from 0 to 100.00% in 1999 and from 5.33 to 94.33% in 2000. The results indicate no clear trend towards this economically important phenomenon and suggest that PFA is neither exactly due to genetic differences nor entirely due to mode of pollination.
Paramjeet Kaur; Cheema, D S; Neena Chawla

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: carotenes, carrots, dry matter, genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic variation, sugar content, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 130-132.

Abstract: Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for different quality characters, i.e. total soluble solids (TSS), dry matter, carotene, juice yield and total sugars, were studied in 28 carrot genotypes grown during 2002/03 and 2003/04 in Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Analysis revealed the existence of considerable amount of genetic variability for all characters studied. Carotene content exhibited the highest value of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability (broad sense) and genetic advance as percentage of mean, indicating that this character can be effectively improved through selection.
Oyetunji, O J; Osonubi, O

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: abscission, biomass production, chillies, crop yield, endomycorrhizas, flowering, flowers, fruiting, fruits, inoculation, mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizas

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 133-136.

Abstract: A semi-controlled experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizas (Glomus mosseae, G. etunicatum or both) on chilli pepper (tatase) production in sub-humid soils of the tropics. The mycorrhizas were inoculated by placing 10 g of inoculum in each hole opening made in a container in which 4-week-old seedlings were transplanted. G. etunicatum was effective in improving the biomass production of tatase as well as its flowering and fruiting potential. Mycorrhizal inoculation also reduced the number of abscised flowers and fruits. Dual inoculation with both mycorrhizas did not improve its performance in comparison to the single inoculation with G. etunicatum.
Jagdev Sharma; Upadhyay, A K; Adsule, P G

National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm P.O., Pune - 413 307, India.

Key words: application methods, crop yield, grapes, plant water relations, subsurface irrigation, trickle irrigation, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 137-138.

Abstract: To minimize the expenditure on irrigation water, the efficiency of sub-surface application of drip water was evaluated for one year (from April 2003 to April 2004) on a 6.475-ha drip-irrigated commercial vineyard at Ghuli Garden in Shohale, Solapur district, Maharashtra, India. The vines had suffered from moisture stress during the year preceding the experimentation. In the present study, 3-year-old Y-trellis-trained and drip-irrigated Thompson Seedless vines were used to compare the efficiency of the two methods of irrigation. The vineyard had a shallow soil with a high infiltration rate. For the subsurface method, the irrigation water from drippers was applied below the soil surface at 4 inches depth. The sub-surface method of irrigation produced a higher yield than the surface drip irrigation (12.49 and 8.16 t/ha, respectively). The water use efficiency of sub-surface method was 28.91 kg grapes/mm irrigation compared to only 18.88 kg grapes/mm irrigation with surface drip irrigation. The results of this st
Ratan Kumar; Rai, R M; Singh, R B; Pant, N

Horticultural Experiments and Training Centre, Chaubattia (Ranikhet), Almora - 263 651, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: acidity, application rates, chlormequat, crop quality, firmness, fruiting, fruits, growth, growth retardants, internodes, paclobutrazol, peaches, plant growth regulators, plant height, shoots, total solids

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 139-141.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the effects of foliar spraying with cycocel [chlormequat] (CCC; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) and cultar (paclobutrazol; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) on the growth, yield and fruit quality of peach cv. Paradelux growing in high-density orchards in Chaubattia, Uttaranchal, India. Cultar at 1500 ppm was most effective in reducing the plant height, extension growth and shoot internode length. Both cycocel at 1500 ppm and cultar at 1000 ppm increased the fruit number and yield, but had no significant effect on fruit weight. Fruit firmness increased under 1000 and 1500 ppm cultar treatment in the second year. However, total soluble solids and acidity were not affected by both growth retardants. Cultar at 1000 ppm was the best treatment in terms of controlling vegetative growth and fruiting of young peach trees.
Kahl, H; Krug, A

School of Horticulture, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 540, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Key words: bentonite, blood, bones, cabbages, growing media, lettuces, plant development, seed germination, slow release fertilizers, tomatoes, weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 142-144.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dried blood or blood and bone and bentonite, as a slow release fertilizer, on germination rate of lettuce, tomato, and white and red cabbages, plant yield and the attraction of sciarid flies (Sciaridae) and whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). The potting mixes comprised: standard mix (60 litres compost + 20 litres sand + 20 litres composted bark + 300 g gypsum + 200 g kelp powder) + 250 g dried blood, 250 g blood and bone, 125 g bentonite (a); standard mix + 250 dried blood, 250 g blood and bone (b); standard mix + 125 g bentonite (c); and standard mix (d). The germination rate for lettuce and tomato was similar for the mixes with and without blood and bone. The germination of red and white cabbages was strongly affected by the presence of blood and bone. Only 13 seeds out of 80 germinated in the samples with blood and bone compared with a total number of 80 germinated seeds out of 80 in the samples without blood and bone. In the mixes with bentonite, 113
Ferrini, F; Mancuso, S; Nicese, F P

Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, University of Florence, Viale delle Idee, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.

Key words: chlorophyll, gas exchange, growth, leaves, light intensity, ornamental plants, ornamental woody plants, plant morphology, plant physiology, shading, woody plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 63-66.

Abstract: To verify the effects of reduced light intensity on plant growth and on selected morphological and physiological characteristics of the leaves, 50 uniform two-year-old, asexually propagated plants of Viburnum sargentii 'Onondaga' were subjected to two shading levels (52 and 14% of the full solar radiation) for the entire growing season. A third group of 25 plants was grown in full sun and used as control. No differences were found in terms of leaf gas exchange, while leaf chlorophyll content was lower in the full sun-grown plants. A significantly higher chlorophyll a/b ratio was also found in this plants. Leaves were smaller in the heavy-shaded plants, which also showed a lower weight and specific leaf weight (leaf weight/area ratio). These plants also showed a reduced growth for all the parameters considered, while no differences were found between the full sun-grown plants and the mid-shaded ones. Based on our results, V. sargentii, though classified as a facultative shade species, can also be used in full
Duong Tan Nhut; Nguyen Trinh Don; Truong Thi Thuy An; Tran Pham Thanh Van; Nguyen Hong Vu; Phan Xuan Huyen; Dinh Van Khiem

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam.

Key words: chrysanthemums, hydroponics, in vitro culture, leaves, micropropagation, NAA, plant growth regulators, roots, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 67-71.

Abstract: Microponic and hydroponic systems for the production of disease-free chrysanthemums are described. Cuttings (3 cm in length), excised from shoot clusters multiplied in vitro, were pre-treated with NAA and grown for 28 days in microponic culture system. NAA at 500 ppm for 20 min was the optimum pre-treatment, resulting in fresh weight, shoot length, root length and survival rate of 0.31 g, 5.99 cm, 3.08 cm and 100%, respectively. Cuttings were grown in hydroponic culture system to avoid mass contamination in soil. The cuttings (10 cm in length), excised from shoots multiplied in vitro, were pre-treated with 500 ppm NAA for 20 min and grown for 28 days. Half-strength MS medium was optimum for hydroponic culture, resulting in shoot length, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf diameter, number of roots, root length and fresh weight of 14.85 cm, 7.0, 6.46 cm, 4.82 cm, 28.6, 2.47 cm and 2.24 g, respectively. This medium also resulted in 100% survival rate after 14 days of culture.
Al Humaid, A I; Moftah, A E

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (PO Box: 1482), King Saud University, Al-Qassim Branch, Saudi Arabia.

Key words: antitranspirants, biomass, bulbs, calcium, carbohydrates, chemical composition, crop yield, drought, flowering, growth, inflorescences, kaolin, leaves, mineral content, nitrogen, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutr

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 72-78.

Abstract: The effects of different types of antitranspirants (ATs) on vegetative growth, flowering, marketable inflorescences, bulb production, elemental content, soluble sugars, and total carbohydrate concentrations of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa cv. "Double"), grown under the irrigation regimes of 100, 80 and 60% of total evapo-transpiration (ET) value, were investigated. Plant biomass, number of leaves, length and weight of marketable inflorescences and bulb yield were significantly reduced by water deficit, particularly at 60% ET. The flowering period was markedly shortened under stress conditions. Under water deficit, N, P, K, Ca and total carbohydrates decreased, while soluble sugars increased in treated leaves compared to the control plants. Both types of ATs effectively enhanced plant performance, flower formation, bulb production, nutrient uptake and carbohydrate synthesis at the 80% ET treatment. The particle type AT, Kaolin, was more effective than the emulsion type AT, Vapour Gard (VG), due to its mechani
Sunitha Bhaskaran; Ganeshan, S; Krishnappa, M; Lalitha, A

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: genetic analysis, genetic mapping, plant morphology, polymerase chain reaction, quantitative traits, random amplified polymorphic DNA

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 79-82.

Abstract: Cuttings of Adhatoda beddomei were collected from Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, India, while A. vasica [Justicia adhatoda] was collected from Bangalore, Karnataka. Morphological characterization was conducted for 25 qualitative and 20 quantitative traits. The 3 A. beddomei accessions showed similar growth patterns while A. vasica showed significant difference in morphological characters. Among the quantitative traits, there was a tendency among the 3 A. beddomei accessions to be at par while A. vasica showed distinct dissimilarity. All the 25 qualitative traits observed showed similarity in A. beddomei accessions. In A. vasica, 19 traits were similar to that of A. beddomei while 6 differed. In A. beddomei, there was no incidence of fruit set inspite of considerable inflorescence development. Good quality DNA was obtained from all the 4 accessions based on the A260/A280 ratio obtained. Yield was similar in all the lines, i.e. ranging from 0.67 to 2.33 micro g/mg of DNA was obtained. The banding pattern of
Hossain, M A; Kamaluddin, M

Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh.

Key words: buds, guavas, light intensity, rooting, roots, shading, shoots, topping, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 83-86.

Abstract: Two-year-old stockplants of guava were topped leaving 25-cm-tall stumps. Shoots were allowed to develop at three light levels, i.e. open sun (100% daylight), lateral shade (50% daylight) and overhead shade (12% daylight). Bud activity, shoot growth and morphology, and rooting ability were studied. Active bud percentages were higher in shaded stockplants, leading to as many shoots as in 100% daylight. Although number of nodes per shoot tended to increase in shaded stockplants, estimates of cutting yield did not largely vary with the light regimes. Light intensity had no significant effect on the rooting success of cuttings. However, shade cuttings produced significantly higher number of roots and root dry mass per cutting than those from 100% daylight. The benefits of shading on rooting performance of cuttings was more pronounced in shoots developed in 50% daylight than those in 12% daylight. Lateral shade had a positive shade effect on shoot development likely by improving physiological conditions conducive f
Asao, T; Kitazawa, H; Washizu, K; Ban, T; Pramanik, M H R

Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 2059 Kamihonjo, Matsue, Shimane, 690-1102, Japan.

Key words: anthocyanins, application rates, hydroponics, leaves, nitrate, nutrient solutions, plant nutrition, roots, soilless culture, turnips

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 87-89.

Abstract: Seedlings of Japanese turnip (Brassica rapa [B. campestris var. rapa] cv. 'Tsudakabu') that were in the first-leaf stage were grown hydroponically in plastic containers containing 25, 50 and 75% of Enshi nutrient solution with either full or half dose of NO3-N. The nutrient solutions were renewed at 2-week intervals until harvest. The experiment was conducted from 19 September (transplanting in containers) to 21 November 2002 (harvesting). The size and colour of roots from hydroponic culture were similar to that of turnip grown in soil culture, while the size of leaves was larger in the former than that in the latter. Leaf number, leaf length and width, and leaf dry and fresh weights all decreased significantly at the lowest concentration of the nutrient solution. The presence of full and half dose of NO3-N in the 75 and 50% nutrient solution did not show significant difference in growth. Root dry and fresh weights also significantly decreased at the lowest concentration of the nutrient solution. Anthocyanin
Downer, A J; Faber, B

University of California Cooperative Extension, 669 County Square Drive, Suite 100 Ventura, CA 93003, USA.

Key words: composts, establishment, mulches, mulching, photosynthesis, plant residues, roots, soil water retention, stems, temperature, weed control, weeds

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 90-94.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the suitability of mulches made from Eucalyptus cladocalyx trimmings for the establishment of young California sycamore (Platanus racemosa) trees and whether composting reduced any phytotoxicity symptoms that might be associated with fresh E. cladocalyx. The mulches prepared from fresh and composted E. cladocalyx prevented the growth of annual weeds, increased soil moisture retention, reduced diffusive resistance of California sycamore and increased stem diameter compared to unmulched sycamores. The root length of sycamores was higher in soil profiles under mulched trees than in soil under unmulched ones. E. cladocalyx mulches reflected more photosynthetically active radiation and maintained lower surface temperature than biosolids mulch or unmulched soils. Both freshly chopped and composted eucalyptus branches were effective in promoting growth of sycamore.
Adebooye, O C; Adeoye, G O; Tijani Eniola, H

Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Key words: ascorbic acid, cracking, crop quality, crude fibre, cultivars, fruits, harvesting date, lycopene, moisture content, polyethylene, ripening, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 95-98.

Abstract: Studies were conducted during the early and late seasons of 2001/02 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, to examine the postharvest quality of fruits of three tomato cultivars (Roma VF, Ibadan Local and NHLe 158-13) ripened on the parent plant, transparent polyethylene, black polyethylene and laboratory tabletop. Cracking resistance was tested by dropping the fruits on a concrete floor from different vertical heights (50 to 275 cm). The height at which 50% of the fruits cracker (CH50) was 100-125 cm for Ibadan Local, 150 cm for Roma VF and 220 cm for NHLe 158-13. Ripening method and harvesting season had no significant effect on the cracking tendency of the tomato cultivars. Lycopene, crude fibre and ascorbic acid contents were significantly higher in fruits harvested during the late season than the early season. All three quality parameters as well as moisture content were significantly higher in fruits ripened on the parent plant than the other ripening methods. Ether extract content was neither affected by cultivar nor se
Razmovski Naumovski, V; Li Qian [Li, Q G]; Duke, C C

Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre (HMREC), Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, N.S.W., 2006, Australia.

Key words: chemical composition, crop yield, cultivation, medicinal plants, plant composition, plant extracts, quality controls, saponins, thin layer chromatography, traditional medicines

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 2, pages 99-104.

Abstract: This paper describes the cultivation, harvesting, processing and storage of G. pentaphyllum in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in comparison to its native China. The dry weight yield of Sydney-grown plants (0.50 kg/m2) was in the range of the yield obtained in China (0.4-0.5 kg/m2). The percentage of extracted material was also higher for the locally grown material (28.5%) in comparison to G. pentaphyllum products grown in China (10.3-18.1%). Thin layer chromatography revealed a different saponin profile for the local material compared with commercially available products, indicating its potential for use in quality control. These results suggest that Australia may be a new growing location for this traditional Chinese medicine.
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498, Hattaji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: buds, chlorophyll, climatic seasons, crop quality, crop yield, fruit set, fruits, peaches, plant development, pruning, regrowth, shoots, summer, winter

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 11-15.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted in Japan, to compare regenerated shoot growth, pruned shoot weight, chlorophyll content, bud formation, fruit set, fruit yield and quality in summer- and winter-pruned peach (cv. AB-1) trees. Summer pruning comprised heading cut, removal of vigorous and current season shoots on 24 July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 after harvest. Winter pruning was conducted in February-March 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The weight of shoots removed by summer pruning was smaller than winter pruning. The pruned shoot weight gradually decreased both in summer-pruned and winter-pruned trees. The regenerated shoot number was less and regrowth stopped within 2 months after summer pruning. Regenerated shoot length after summer pruning increased until October. Chlorophyll was higher in summer- than in winter-pruned trees in November. Leaf drop was 2 months earlier in winter- than in summer-pruned trees. The flowers were less in summer- than in winter-pruned trees. Fruit set was recorded in 2003 and 2004, and wa
Hossain, A B M S; Mizutani, F; Onguso, J M; Yamada, H

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498, Hattaji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799-2424, Japan.

Key words: buds, chlorophyll, climatic seasons, crop quality, crop yield, fruit set, fruits, peaches, plant development, pruning, regrowth, shoots, summer, winter

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 11-15.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted in Japan, to compare regenerated shoot growth, pruned shoot weight, chlorophyll content, bud formation, fruit set, fruit yield and quality in summer- and winter-pruned peach (cv. AB-1) trees. Summer pruning comprised heading cut, removal of vigorous and current season shoots on 24 July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 after harvest. Winter pruning was conducted in February-March 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The weight of shoots removed by summer pruning was smaller than winter pruning. The pruned shoot weight gradually decreased both in summer-pruned and winter-pruned trees. The regenerated shoot number was less and regrowth stopped within 2 months after summer pruning. Regenerated shoot length after summer pruning increased until October. Chlorophyll was higher in summer- than in winter-pruned trees in November. Leaf drop was 2 months earlier in winter- than in summer-pruned trees. The flowers were less in summer- than in winter-pruned trees. Fruit set was recorded in 2003 and 2004, and wa
Cole, J T; Cole, J C; Conway, K E

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Key words: chemical control, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, cultivars, disease resistance, fungal diseases, fungicides, mancozeb, myclobutanil, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens, surfactants, varietal susceptibility

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 16-19.

Abstract: Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA, from May to August 2000, to determine the effectiveness of different fungicides applied with and without the surfactant Hyper-ActiveTM in controlling anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata] on Euonymus fortunei cultivars Emerald Gaiety, Emerald 'n Gold and Emerald Surprise. The fungicides tested were mancozeb, copper hydroxide, trifloxystrobin, chlorothalonil, myclobutanil and azoxystrobin. These fungicides were also incorporated into potato dextrose agar to determine the effective concentration to obtain 50% inhibition (EC50) of C. gloeosporioides mycelial growth. In the field, chlorothalonil and mancozeb were the most efficacious of the fungicides tested. The presence or absence of the surfactant Hyper-ActiveTM in fungicide spray solutions did not affect control of anthracnose symptoms. Cultivars varied in susceptibility to anthracnose. At Fayetteville, less anthracnos
Cole, J T; Cole, J C; Conway, K E

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Key words: chemical control, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, cultivars, disease resistance, fungal diseases, fungicides, mancozeb, myclobutanil, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens, surfactants, varietal susceptibility

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 16-19.

Abstract: Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA, from May to August 2000, to determine the effectiveness of different fungicides applied with and without the surfactant Hyper-ActiveTM in controlling anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata] on Euonymus fortunei cultivars Emerald Gaiety, Emerald 'n Gold and Emerald Surprise. The fungicides tested were mancozeb, copper hydroxide, trifloxystrobin, chlorothalonil, myclobutanil and azoxystrobin. These fungicides were also incorporated into potato dextrose agar to determine the effective concentration to obtain 50% inhibition (EC50) of C. gloeosporioides mycelial growth. In the field, chlorothalonil and mancozeb were the most efficacious of the fungicides tested. The presence or absence of the surfactant Hyper-ActiveTM in fungicide spray solutions did not affect control of anthracnose symptoms. Cultivars varied in susceptibility to anthracnose. At Fayetteville, less anthracnos
Dunford, N T; Silva Vazquez, R

Food and Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Room 103, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Key words: chemical composition, crop growth stage, crop yield, essential oil plants, essential oils, growth, monoterpenoids, plant composition, plant water relations, thymol, water stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 20-22.

Abstract: A greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture on the growth and thymol and carvacrol contents of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri) under controlled conditions. There were 4 watering schemes (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 l water per pot per 15 days) and 3 growth phases, i.e. seedling (30 days after transplant (DAT)), full flowering (60 DAT) and maturity (90 DAT). The crop yield increased significantly with increasing moisture and age of the plant. Although on an average, the older plants contained less oil than the younger plants, the differences were not statistically significant. The total thymol and carvacrol contents of oregano oils obtained from younger plants were higher than that of the mature plants. The amount of water received by the plants did not have a significant effect on the thymol and carvacrol contents of the oil.
Dunford, N T; Silva Vazquez, R

Food and Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Room 103, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Key words: chemical composition, crop growth stage, crop yield, essential oil plants, essential oils, growth, monoterpenoids, plant composition, plant water relations, thymol, water stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 20-22.

Abstract: A greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture on the growth and thymol and carvacrol contents of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri) under controlled conditions. There were 4 watering schemes (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 l water per pot per 15 days) and 3 growth phases, i.e. seedling (30 days after transplant (DAT)), full flowering (60 DAT) and maturity (90 DAT). The crop yield increased significantly with increasing moisture and age of the plant. Although on an average, the older plants contained less oil than the younger plants, the differences were not statistically significant. The total thymol and carvacrol contents of oregano oils obtained from younger plants were higher than that of the mature plants. The amount of water received by the plants did not have a significant effect on the thymol and carvacrol contents of the oil.
Kalesh, K S; Shareef, S M; Mathew, S P; Chemburkar, M S

Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 562, Kerala, India.

Key words: crop quality, crop yield, fruits, grafting, rootstocks, sapodillas, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 23-24.

Abstract: Propagation experiments were carried out in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, during 1999-2002 with C. lanceolatum as a new rootstock for sapota (A. zapota [Manilkara zapota]). Grafted plants were grown in different agro-climatic conditions of the Kerala State and had good fruit quality and yield. C. lanceolatum proved one of the best rootstocks for sapota.
Kalesh, K S; Shareef, S M; Mathew, S P; Chemburkar, M S

Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 562, Kerala, India.

Key words: crop quality, crop yield, fruits, grafting, rootstocks, sapodillas, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 23-24.

Abstract: Propagation experiments were carried out in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, during 1999-2002 with C. lanceolatum as a new rootstock for sapota (A. zapota [Manilkara zapota]). Grafted plants were grown in different agro-climatic conditions of the Kerala State and had good fruit quality and yield. C. lanceolatum proved one of the best rootstocks for sapota.
Altintas, S; Bal, U

Department of Horticulture, Tekirdag Faculty of Agriculture, Trakya University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: application rates, crop yield, cucumbers, cultivars, fruits, fungal antagonists, seedlings, seeds, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of Trichoderma harzianum applications on yield and fruit characteristics of the cucumber cultivars Y-43-F1, Y-44-F1 and Y-135-F1. T. harzianum, obtained as a commercially available product (Trichoflow WP; 108 cfu/g) was applied to the soil root zone at 4, 10 and 24 g/m2. Observations were made on total yield (g/plant), early yield (g/plant), fruit weight (g/fruit), number of fruits per plant, number of early fruits per plant, mean fruit length (cm) and mean fruit diameter (mm). The main effect of dosage was significant only for total yield for which the 4 g/m rate resulted in the highest total yield per plant (2162.44 g) followed by 24 g/m, 10 g/m and control (1931.67, 1859.11 and 1499.67 g/plant, respectively). Early yield was also positively affected by T. harzianum at 10 g/m2, with an early yield of 1130.56 g/plant. The cultivar main effect, except for the mean fruit diameter, was significant. Interaction between application rates and cultivars was
Altintas, S; Bal, U

Department of Horticulture, Tekirdag Faculty of Agriculture, Trakya University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: application rates, crop yield, cucumbers, cultivars, fruits, fungal antagonists, seedlings, seeds, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of Trichoderma harzianum applications on yield and fruit characteristics of the cucumber cultivars Y-43-F1, Y-44-F1 and Y-135-F1. T. harzianum, obtained as a commercially available product (Trichoflow WP; 108 cfu/g) was applied to the soil root zone at 4, 10 and 24 g/m2. Observations were made on total yield (g/plant), early yield (g/plant), fruit weight (g/fruit), number of fruits per plant, number of early fruits per plant, mean fruit length (cm) and mean fruit diameter (mm). The main effect of dosage was significant only for total yield for which the 4 g/m rate resulted in the highest total yield per plant (2162.44 g) followed by 24 g/m, 10 g/m and control (1931.67, 1859.11 and 1499.67 g/plant, respectively). Early yield was also positively affected by T. harzianum at 10 g/m2, with an early yield of 1130.56 g/plant. The cultivar main effect, except for the mean fruit diameter, was significant. Interaction between application rates and cultivars was
Satisha, J; Prakash, G S

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghata, Bangalore - 560 089, Karnataka, India.

Key words: budding, cultivars, genetic variation, grapes, plant water relations, rootstocks, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 29-33.

Abstract: Results are presented of 3 separate experiments conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, during 2002-03 and 2003-04 to investigate the occurrence of variability in grape cultivars (Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Sharad Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh), rootstocks (Dog Ridge, 1613 C, Salt Creek, St. George and VC clone) and buddings in respect of physiological behaviour and carbon isotope discrimination (CID). There was genetic variability in water use efficiency (WUE) with respect to CID. The behaviour of genotypes differed significantly in CID before and after budding on different rootstocks. Dog Ridge rootstock was known to increase WUE of Flame Seedless and Sharad Seedless when CID and other physiological parameters were compared. However, Thompson Seedless increased its WUE when budded on Dog Ridge, which is confirmed by the least CID in this combination at 50% stress.
Satisha, J; Prakash, G S

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghata, Bangalore - 560 089, Karnataka, India.

Key words: budding, cultivars, genetic variation, grapes, plant water relations, rootstocks, water use efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 29-33.

Abstract: Results are presented of 3 separate experiments conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, during 2002-03 and 2003-04 to investigate the occurrence of variability in grape cultivars (Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Sharad Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh), rootstocks (Dog Ridge, 1613 C, Salt Creek, St. George and VC clone) and buddings in respect of physiological behaviour and carbon isotope discrimination (CID). There was genetic variability in water use efficiency (WUE) with respect to CID. The behaviour of genotypes differed significantly in CID before and after budding on different rootstocks. Dog Ridge rootstock was known to increase WUE of Flame Seedless and Sharad Seedless when CID and other physiological parameters were compared. However, Thompson Seedless increased its WUE when budded on Dog Ridge, which is confirmed by the least CID in this combination at 50% stress.
Esmaeil Chamani; Ahmad Khalighi; Joyce, D C; Irving, D E; Zamani, Z A; Younes Mostofi; Mohsen Kafi

Centre for Native Floriculture, School of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton Queensland 4343, Australia.

Key words: cut flowers, ethylene, ethylene production, plant growth regulators, roses, senescence, silver thiosulfate, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of ethylene and anti-ethylene treatments on the postharvest life of cut rose cv. First Red flowers. The treatments comprised: exogenous ethylene applied at 1, 10 and 100 micro l/litre for 48 h at 22 degrees C. Ethylene at different concentrations reduced postharvest life, with 100 micro l/litre having the greatest effect. Ethylene production measurements suggested that First Red is climacteric during senescence. Pre-treatment of First Red flowers with 0.5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 2 h at 22 degrees C increased vase life, but pre-treatment with 1 micro l/litre 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) did not. Pre-treatment of First Red with 0.5 mM STS and, to a lesser extent, 1 micro l/litre 1-MCP for 2 h at 22 degrees C, protected flowers from subsequent exposure to 10 micro l/litre ethylene. Maximum vase life in both ethylene-treated and non-ethylene-treated First Red flowers was obtained with 0.5 mM STS.
Esmaeil Chamani; Ahmad Khalighi; Joyce, D C; Irving, D E; Zamani, Z A; Younes Mostofi; Mohsen Kafi

Centre for Native Floriculture, School of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton Queensland 4343, Australia.

Key words: cut flowers, ethylene, ethylene production, plant growth regulators, roses, senescence, silver thiosulfate, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of ethylene and anti-ethylene treatments on the postharvest life of cut rose cv. First Red flowers. The treatments comprised: exogenous ethylene applied at 1, 10 and 100 micro l/litre for 48 h at 22 degrees C. Ethylene at different concentrations reduced postharvest life, with 100 micro l/litre having the greatest effect. Ethylene production measurements suggested that First Red is climacteric during senescence. Pre-treatment of First Red flowers with 0.5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 2 h at 22 degrees C increased vase life, but pre-treatment with 1 micro l/litre 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) did not. Pre-treatment of First Red with 0.5 mM STS and, to a lesser extent, 1 micro l/litre 1-MCP for 2 h at 22 degrees C, protected flowers from subsequent exposure to 10 micro l/litre ethylene. Maximum vase life in both ethylene-treated and non-ethylene-treated First Red flowers was obtained with 0.5 mM STS.
Mishra, D K; Mishra, H R; Yadava, L P

K.A. Post Graduate Degree College, Allahabad (UP), India.

Key words: application methods, application rates, branches, flowering, growth, growth retardants, paclobutrazol, plant development, plant growth regulators, plant height, root shoot ratio, roots, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 34-37.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2002-03 in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, to determine the optimum dose (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) and method of application (root dip, soil drench and foliar spray) of paclobutrazol to improve the growth, flowering and aesthetic value of China aster (Callistephus chinensis) cv. Poornima. Paclobutrazol at 200 ppm as soil drench was the most effective in retarding plant height. The highest number of branches per plant was observed with 25 ppm paclobutrazol as soil drench while lower number of branches per plant was observed with 200 ppm as soil drench. The number of leaves and total leaf area per plant significantly decreased with increased concentration of paclobutrazol irrespective of the methods of application. The soil drench method registered maximum enhancement of root:shoot ratio than foliar spray and root dip at all levels of paclobutrazol. Maximum enhancement of root:shoot length ratio was observed due to 200 ppm paclobutrazol as soil drench method. The maximum d
Mishra, D K; Mishra, H R; Yadava, L P

K.A. Post Graduate Degree College, Allahabad (UP), India.

Key words: application methods, application rates, branches, flowering, growth, growth retardants, paclobutrazol, plant development, plant growth regulators, plant height, root shoot ratio, roots, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 34-37.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2002-03 in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, to determine the optimum dose (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) and method of application (root dip, soil drench and foliar spray) of paclobutrazol to improve the growth, flowering and aesthetic value of China aster (Callistephus chinensis) cv. Poornima. Paclobutrazol at 200 ppm as soil drench was the most effective in retarding plant height. The highest number of branches per plant was observed with 25 ppm paclobutrazol as soil drench while lower number of branches per plant was observed with 200 ppm as soil drench. The number of leaves and total leaf area per plant significantly decreased with increased concentration of paclobutrazol irrespective of the methods of application. The soil drench method registered maximum enhancement of root:shoot ratio than foliar spray and root dip at all levels of paclobutrazol. Maximum enhancement of root:shoot length ratio was observed due to 200 ppm paclobutrazol as soil drench method. The maximum d
Mishra, S K; Singh, R P

Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, India.

Key words: biological control agents, edible fungi, fungal antagonists, mushrooms, plant extracts, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 38-42.

Abstract: Botanical biocides in forms of water, methanol and glycerol diluted plant extracts (WDPEs, MDPEs and GDPEs, respectively) of 27 botanicals, 10 fluorescent pseudomonad isolates (FPIs) and an actinomycete isolate (AI), were evaluated in vitro against Trichoderma viride and Agaricus bisporus. Among these, the water diluted extract (5%) of Lantana camara (WDELc) reduced the radial growth of T. viride by 28.57% along with a 38.61% growth promotion of A. bisporus. However, glycerol diluted extract (1%) of Cleome viscosa (GDECv) inhibited the growth of T. viride and A. bisporus completely. In the case of bacterial biocides, fluorescent pseudomonad isolate II (FPI-II) was effective and reduced the linear growth of T. viride by approximately 73.68% and enhanced the growth of A. bisporus by 27.59%. An actinomycete isolate showed antagonistic effect against T. viride and A. bisporus as it reduced the growth of both the fungi by approximately 7.10 and 20%, respectively. Under crop conditions, the combination of FPI-II +
Mishra, S K; Singh, R P

Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, India.

Key words: biological control agents, edible fungi, fungal antagonists, mushrooms, plant extracts, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 38-42.

Abstract: Botanical biocides in forms of water, methanol and glycerol diluted plant extracts (WDPEs, MDPEs and GDPEs, respectively) of 27 botanicals, 10 fluorescent pseudomonad isolates (FPIs) and an actinomycete isolate (AI), were evaluated in vitro against Trichoderma viride and Agaricus bisporus. Among these, the water diluted extract (5%) of Lantana camara (WDELc) reduced the radial growth of T. viride by 28.57% along with a 38.61% growth promotion of A. bisporus. However, glycerol diluted extract (1%) of Cleome viscosa (GDECv) inhibited the growth of T. viride and A. bisporus completely. In the case of bacterial biocides, fluorescent pseudomonad isolate II (FPI-II) was effective and reduced the linear growth of T. viride by approximately 73.68% and enhanced the growth of A. bisporus by 27.59%. An actinomycete isolate showed antagonistic effect against T. viride and A. bisporus as it reduced the growth of both the fungi by approximately 7.10 and 20%, respectively. Under crop conditions, the combination of FPI-II +
Paramesh, T H; Sona Chowdhury

Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghata, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: benzyladenine, callus, carnations, culture media, explants, gamma radiation, gibberellic acid, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, irradiation, leaves, micropropagation, mutagenesis, NAA, plant growth regulators, survival, thidiazuron

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 43-45.

Abstract: In vitro shootlets of carnation (cv. IIHRS-1) were subjected to irradiation with gamma dosage of 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy. In vitro shootlets required for the irradiation were generated on MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg BAP [benzyladenine], 0.1 mg NAA and 0.25 gibberellic acid/l. From irradiated shootlets, leaves were excised and used as explants for further culturing. Leaves were horizontally cut into half. The region adhering to stem was considered as the leaf base and the region that is away from the stem was considered as the leaf tip. The leaf tip and leaf base were incubated on MS media supplemented with (1) 1.0 mg thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.1 mg NAA/l (M5) and (2) 0.3 mg TDZ, 1.0 mg BAP and 0.1 mg NAA/l (M6). Weekly observations were recorded for survival percentage, callus formation, regenerated shootlets and expansion of leaf area. The results indicated gamma-radiation at 40 Gy to be the ideal dosage for mutagenesis when mutagenesis was used in combination with regeneration. Survival percentage decrease
Paramesh, T H; Sona Chowdhury

Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghata, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: benzyladenine, callus, carnations, culture media, explants, gamma radiation, gibberellic acid, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, irradiation, leaves, micropropagation, mutagenesis, NAA, plant growth regulators, survival, thidiazuron

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 43-45.

Abstract: In vitro shootlets of carnation (cv. IIHRS-1) were subjected to irradiation with gamma dosage of 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy. In vitro shootlets required for the irradiation were generated on MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg BAP [benzyladenine], 0.1 mg NAA and 0.25 gibberellic acid/l. From irradiated shootlets, leaves were excised and used as explants for further culturing. Leaves were horizontally cut into half. The region adhering to stem was considered as the leaf base and the region that is away from the stem was considered as the leaf tip. The leaf tip and leaf base were incubated on MS media supplemented with (1) 1.0 mg thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.1 mg NAA/l (M5) and (2) 0.3 mg TDZ, 1.0 mg BAP and 0.1 mg NAA/l (M6). Weekly observations were recorded for survival percentage, callus formation, regenerated shootlets and expansion of leaf area. The results indicated gamma-radiation at 40 Gy to be the ideal dosage for mutagenesis when mutagenesis was used in combination with regeneration. Survival percentage decrease
Singla, M L; Jain, S C; Shweta Sharma; Angra, S K

Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Sector 30-C, Chandigarh - 30, India.

Key words: absorbance, apples, cultivars, monitoring, nondestructive testing, plant disorders, techniques, transmission, water core

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 46-48.

Abstract: This paper presents the transmission technique, which has been designed and developed for the study of water core in apple cultivars Red Delicious and Golden Delicious of Himachal Pradesh, India. The principle of this method is to measure the optical density of the sample at 2 selected wavelengths and computation of the optical density difference. It has been observed that Golden Delicious is more prone to water core than Red Delicious. The technique is simple and can be conveniently implemented to develop an on-line instrument to monitor water core in apples.
Singla, M L; Jain, S C; Shweta Sharma; Angra, S K

Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Sector 30-C, Chandigarh - 30, India.

Key words: absorbance, apples, cultivars, monitoring, nondestructive testing, plant disorders, techniques, transmission, water core

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 46-48.

Abstract: This paper presents the transmission technique, which has been designed and developed for the study of water core in apple cultivars Red Delicious and Golden Delicious of Himachal Pradesh, India. The principle of this method is to measure the optical density of the sample at 2 selected wavelengths and computation of the optical density difference. It has been observed that Golden Delicious is more prone to water core than Red Delicious. The technique is simple and can be conveniently implemented to develop an on-line instrument to monitor water core in apples.
Rathinakumari, A C; Kumaran, G S; Mandhar, S C

Section of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 089, India.

Key words: cabbages, cauliflowers, containers, design, drilling, drills, equipment performance, mechanization, performance tests, vegetable growing, vegetables, work capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 49-51.

Abstract: A tray type dibbler with capacity of 100 portrays/h and a vacuum seeder with capacity of 50 portrays/h were designed and developed. The tray type dibbler is made out of wooden board with 98 nylon pegs to dibble in the media. The tray type vacuum seeder is made of acrylic sheet and it consists of a vacuum chamber, seed plate with 98 holes to pick the seeds, vacuum pump and necessary control valves. It was observed that the seeder picked and dropped the round shaped seeds like cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol perfectly, i.e., 100% singles. For other vegetable seeds, the metering performance of the seeder was good with singles in the range of 93-97%, doubles between 3-7% and no missing was recorded. It is suggested that these handy and low cost tray type dibbler and tray type vacuum seeder are very much useful for small vegetable nursery growers.
Rathinakumari, A C; Kumaran, G S; Mandhar, S C

Section of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 089, India.

Key words: cabbages, cauliflowers, containers, design, drilling, drills, equipment performance, mechanization, performance tests, vegetable growing, vegetables, work capacity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 49-51.

Abstract: A tray type dibbler with capacity of 100 portrays/h and a vacuum seeder with capacity of 50 portrays/h were designed and developed. The tray type dibbler is made out of wooden board with 98 nylon pegs to dibble in the media. The tray type vacuum seeder is made of acrylic sheet and it consists of a vacuum chamber, seed plate with 98 holes to pick the seeds, vacuum pump and necessary control valves. It was observed that the seeder picked and dropped the round shaped seeds like cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol perfectly, i.e., 100% singles. For other vegetable seeds, the metering performance of the seeder was good with singles in the range of 93-97%, doubles between 3-7% and no missing was recorded. It is suggested that these handy and low cost tray type dibbler and tray type vacuum seeder are very much useful for small vegetable nursery growers.
Rajan, S; Yadava, L P; Ram Kumar; Saxena, S K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: crop quality, fruits, genetic variation, guavas, heritability, phenotypic variation, seed characteristics, seed weight, seeds, selection criteria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 52-54.

Abstract: A total of 68 guava accessions were studied to determine the genetic variability and heritability for fruit weight and associated seed characteristics. Data were recorded for fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, number of seeds per 100 g fruit and seed content. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation were observed for all the traits. However, GCV was maximum for pulp:seed weight ratio followed by number of seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per 100 g fruit. The estimates of PCV ranged from 33.85 (average fruit weight) to 609.75% (pulp:seed weight ratio). The number of seeds per 100 g fruit, number of seeds per fruit and 100-seed weight also exhibited high levels of PCV. The estimates of heritability in the broad sense ranged from 0.558 (seed content) to 0.843 (pulp:seed weight ratio) suggesting that all the characters had high magnitude of heritability. The estimate of genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 43.76
Rajan, S; Yadava, L P; Ram Kumar; Saxena, S K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: crop quality, fruits, genetic variation, guavas, heritability, phenotypic variation, seed characteristics, seed weight, seeds, selection criteria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 52-54.

Abstract: A total of 68 guava accessions were studied to determine the genetic variability and heritability for fruit weight and associated seed characteristics. Data were recorded for fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, number of seeds per 100 g fruit and seed content. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation were observed for all the traits. However, GCV was maximum for pulp:seed weight ratio followed by number of seeds per fruit, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per 100 g fruit. The estimates of PCV ranged from 33.85 (average fruit weight) to 609.75% (pulp:seed weight ratio). The number of seeds per 100 g fruit, number of seeds per fruit and 100-seed weight also exhibited high levels of PCV. The estimates of heritability in the broad sense ranged from 0.558 (seed content) to 0.843 (pulp:seed weight ratio) suggesting that all the characters had high magnitude of heritability. The estimate of genetic advance as percent of mean ranged from 43.76
Hardevinder Singh; Cheema, D S

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: characteristics, firmness, genetic variation, heat stress, heritability, lycopene, pericarp, phenotypic variation, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 55-57.

Abstract: Studies were conducted on 15 advance generation breeding lines of tomato, including 4 control cultivars, to study the variation and heritability of quality characteristics in tomato raised under normal and high temperature conditions (November and February, respectively). Data were recorded for total soluble solids (TSS), pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, acidity, lycopene content and dry matter content. There were significant differences among the genotypes under normal conditions, whereas differences were not significant under high temperature conditions. The population mean was higher during November than February planting for all the characters except acid content and TSS. In general, the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation indicating that the genotypic effect is lessened under the influence of the given environment. Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) were high for all the characters for November planting except for lycopene content.
Hardevinder Singh; Cheema, D S

Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.

Key words: characteristics, firmness, genetic variation, heat stress, heritability, lycopene, pericarp, phenotypic variation, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 55-57.

Abstract: Studies were conducted on 15 advance generation breeding lines of tomato, including 4 control cultivars, to study the variation and heritability of quality characteristics in tomato raised under normal and high temperature conditions (November and February, respectively). Data were recorded for total soluble solids (TSS), pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, acidity, lycopene content and dry matter content. There were significant differences among the genotypes under normal conditions, whereas differences were not significant under high temperature conditions. The population mean was higher during November than February planting for all the characters except acid content and TSS. In general, the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation indicating that the genotypic effect is lessened under the influence of the given environment. Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) were high for all the characters for November planting except for lycopene content.
Pant, T; Bhatt, R P; Bhoj, A S; Kumar, N

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh - 262 501, India.

Key words: crop yield, cucumbers, fruits, hydroponics, leaf area index, photosynthesis, plant density, protected cultivation, soilless culture, transpiration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 58-60.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the suitable plant density (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 plants per m2) for growing cucumber (cv. Green Long) in recirculating hydroponic system of cultivation. An increase in plant density from 2 to 6 plants per m2 significantly increased yield. A declining trend in yield and fruit number was observed at more than 6 plants per m2. The leaf area index and photosynthetic rate in different treatments were also recorded. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates were maximum when plant density was maintained at 6 plants per m2.
Pant, T; Bhatt, R P; Bhoj, A S; Kumar, N

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pithoragarh - 262 501, India.

Key words: crop yield, cucumbers, fruits, hydroponics, leaf area index, photosynthesis, plant density, protected cultivation, soilless culture, transpiration

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 58-60.

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the suitable plant density (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 plants per m2) for growing cucumber (cv. Green Long) in recirculating hydroponic system of cultivation. An increase in plant density from 2 to 6 plants per m2 significantly increased yield. A declining trend in yield and fruit number was observed at more than 6 plants per m2. The leaf area index and photosynthetic rate in different treatments were also recorded. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates were maximum when plant density was maintained at 6 plants per m2.
Satoh, S; Nukui, H; Inokuma, T

Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi 1-1, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.

Key words: carnations, cut flowers, methodology, preservatives, sucrose, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 8-10.

Abstract: An attempt was made to determine the vase life of spray type carnation flowers by observing the number of open flowers, i.e. the percentage of open flowers to the total number of initial flower buds, and to evaluate the efficacy of this method. The vase life determined by this method was similar to that determined by measuring ethylene production and observing senescence symptoms of carnation flowers. The method effectively evaluated the action of preservatives, sucrose and 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide in carnation flowers. The results indicated that this method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of the vase life of carnation flowers, especially those of the spray type.
Satoh, S; Nukui, H; Inokuma, T

Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi 1-1, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.

Key words: carnations, cut flowers, methodology, preservatives, sucrose, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2005, volume 7, issue 1, pages 8-10.

Abstract: An attempt was made to determine the vase life of spray type carnation flowers by observing the number of open flowers, i.e. the percentage of open flowers to the total number of initial flower buds, and to evaluate the efficacy of this method. The vase life determined by this method was similar to that determined by measuring ethylene production and observing senescence symptoms of carnation flowers. The method effectively evaluated the action of preservatives, sucrose and 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide in carnation flowers. The results indicated that this method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of the vase life of carnation flowers, especially those of the spray type.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture