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S. Bartolini, C. Iacona, D. Remorini and R. Viti

Scuola Superiore Sant Anna, Institute of Life Science, Pisa, Italy. Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Key words: Prunus armeniaca L., dormancy, xylogenesis, flowering, fruiting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 171-177.

Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the involvement of weather conditions and the influence of two Prunus rootstocks (Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling) on flower bud biology of Pisana (Prunus armeniaca L.), one of the most appreciated Italian apricot cultivar, grown in a Mediterranean agro-climatic environment. Anatomical investigations on xylem differentiation within flower buds and biological observations on flowering as well as fruiting were carried out over two consecutive growth seasons. These years were characterized by different weather conditions due to temperatures and rainfall events which influenced the chilling accumulation, blooming time and xylogenesis process. The onset of xylogenesis within flower buds was conditioned by summer temperatures and water availability. The two rootstocks commonly used in apricot, Myrabolan 29/C and apricot Seedling, did not affect the flowering and fruit-set rate of the grafted cultivar. Nevertheless, differences in progressive differentiation of the secondary thickness of procambial cells in xylem vessels were observed.
M. Olszewski, B. Snyder and J. Pils

Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture, Temple University, 580 Meetinghouse Rd., Ambler, PA 19002. Director of Research and Development, Aquatrols Corporation, Paulsboro, NJ 08066.

Key words: Growing media, wetting agent, hydrophobicity, peat, bark, mix manufacturers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 178-182.

Abstract: Surfactant formulations consisting of proprietary blends containing sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend (ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P); sulfonic acid ester ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer blend with polyethylene glycol addition (ACA3204-2a), and ethoxylated alkylphenol (ACA160) were tested for wettability of peat-based substrates and for relative phytotoxicity. Substrate incorporation rates used in this study were 116 mL m-3 (a low recommended rate), 232 ml m-3 (a moderate recommended rate), and 464 ml m-3 (a supra-optimal rate). After a third wetting cycle, those substrates incorporated with ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, or ACA160 at 232 ml m-3 had higher wettability ratings than the Pro-Mix HP control (Premier Horticulture Inc., Quakertown, PA). There were no differences in shoot dry weight (SDW) or visual root health rating (VRHR) among treatment groups of impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) compared to the control For pansy (Viola wittrockiana), Pro-Mix-HP control-grown plants had higher SDW (0.8632 g shoot-1) than ACA3204-R at 464 mLm-3 (SDW = 0.6266 g shoot-1) but SDWs for ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a and ACA160 were similar to the control at all rates. Compared to the control, pansy VRHRs declined at 464 ml m-3 for all surfactants except for ACA160. In general, higher rates of surfactant increased mean days to 50% germination (DX; an inverse measure of germination rate) compared to distilled water control for pansy but this effect was less pronounced for impatiens. There appeared to be a stimulatory seedling effect on mean pansy root length for ACA3204-R and ACA3204-P (rates = 300-1200 ppm) and for ACA3204-2a (rates = 600-1200 ppm). In conclusion, surfactant formulations ACA3204-R, ACA3204-P, ACA3204-2a, and ACA160 were comparatively non-phytotoxic at moderate rates of substrate incorporation (mature plant growth) but laboratory seed germination was affected by low concentrations. ACA3204-R had similar wettability rating to that of ACA160 following the third wetting cycle. Further testing with additional plant species and substrates would aide in evaluating the usefulness of newer horticultural surfactants.
J. Dolezalova, M. Koudela, L. Augustinova and M. Dubsk

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Pr?honice, Czech Republic.

Key words: Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L., seedling, growth, water deficit, brassinolide, vegetable, stimulant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 183-186.

Abstract: Water deficit is one of the most adverse factors for plant growth and productivity. The experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of synthetic brassinolide analogue at concentrations 100 nmol.L-1 , 1 nmol.L-1 , 0.01 nmol.L-1 and 0 nmol.L-1 on lettce seedling grown at two moisture levels (reduced, control). The plants were cultivated in growth chamber under day / night temperature of 20 oC/15 oC. The total quantities of irrigation water during the experiment: reduced - 28 mm; control - 39 mm. The seedlings of two butter head lettuce cultivars (cv. Mars and cv. Marsalus) were sprayed to foliage at juvenile stage of growth. The plant parameters (length, fresh weight of shoots and roots) and dry matter content were measured on 21st and 28th day after sowing. Significantly higher values of the average fresh weight and length of aboveground part and roots were measured on 28th day for the cultivar Marsalus treated with brassinosteroide analogue at concentration 1 nmol.L-1 in conditions with reduced irrigation. The results showed that treatment of plants in the initial stage of the development with 1 nmol.L-1 solution can be used to limit the consequences of reduced moisture conditions. Prior to use the most effective concentration should be taken into account which parameter of plant is expected to be changed and also the varying sensitivity of the cultivars to the treatment.
Kirath Singh, Gyanalok Das, Kundansingh R Jadhao, Gyana Ranjan Rout

Department of Agril. Biotechnology,College of Agriculture, AICRP Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 3, Odisha,

Key words: Piper spp, Piperaceae, HPTLC analysis, Piperine content, ISSR marker, genetic diversity analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 187-194.

Abstract: Phytochemical and molecular characterization of Piper species was investigated. There was a wide variation of the active compounds present in leaf and fruits of different Piper species/accessions. Among the two active compounds, piperine-1 content was more in P. chaba fruit and Piperine -2 in P. nigrum fruit as compared with other species. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker was also used to analyze the genetic variation between the species / accession of Piper species. The phylogenetic analysis generated by ISSR marker was divided into two major groups with 47% similarity. First major group is only one species (i.e. Piper spp. Accession -1) and also morphologically distinct from other seven species. The second groups are divided into two minor groups. Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga are grouped together with 100 % similarity at genetic level, whereas, Piper betle var. Utkal Sudhama having 97 % similarity with Piper betle var. Godi Balunga and Piper betle var. Astarangi Balunga. Both phytochemical and molecular marker was showed significant variation among and between species/accessions. This study will help for the breeding program in Piper .
Ustun Sahin, Yasemin Kuslu, Fatih M. Kiziloglu and Talip Cakmakci

Ataturk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. Yuzuncu Y?l University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, 65080, Van, Turkey.

Key words: Antioxidant activity, marketable yield, mineral content, total phenolics, water productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 3, pages 195-202.

Abstract: Water stress under reduced irrigation conditions affect plant physiology and hence yield and crop quality. Moreover, high altitude climatic conditions can significantly influence plant physiology. Therefore, a two year field study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation quantities on plant growth (leaf number, stem diameter, plant diameter and height), marketable yield, water use and crop quality attributes (mineral content, total phenolics and antioxidant activity) of drip-irrigated lettuce in a semi-arid region with a high altitude. A randomized complete block design was used for testing of different irrigation quantities replicated three times. Different irrigation quantities were adjusted considering 100 (I1), 85 (I2) and 70% (I3) of evaporated water from a Class A pan. Lettuce evapotranspiration was the highest in the I1 treatment (214.1 mm) considering the two year average values. Therefore, the I1 treatment provided the maximum growth and marketable yield (2.17 kg m-2). Water use efficiency was also the highest in the I1 treatment (10.2 kg m-3) because the lettuce yield decreased significantly with the decreasing irrigation quantity. However, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in lettuce leaves were the highest in the I3 treatment. Moreover, I2 and I3 treatments provided higher mineral contents. While the potassium content in leaves was the most abundant among macro minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Na), manganese content was the highest among micro minerals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and B). It could be said that lettuce can be irrigated with less irrigation quantities for obtaining higher mineral contents, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. This application can also provide water saving but cannot induce water productivity.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Christiane de Savigny

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1

Key words: Fruit composition, soil texture, GPS, GIS, precision viticulture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 100-122.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that soil texture would play a minor role in the determination of yield components, fruit composition, and wine sensory attributes of Chardonnay (i.e. the terroir effect), and that vine size, crop size and associated fruit environment would play the major roles. Five Chardonnay vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, Canada were chosen for study. These vineyards were located on sites with heterogeneous soil types to allow study of the impact upon yield, fruit composition and wine sensory attributes of: 1. Soil texture with mesoclimate kept constant; 2. The comparative magnitude of effects of soil texture and vine vigor. Vineyard blocks were delineated using global positioning systems (GPS), and a series of 72 to 162 data vines per site were geo-located within a sampling grid imposed on each vineyard block. Data were collected on soil texture, soil composition, tissue elemental composition, vine performance (yield components and weight of cane prunings), and fruit composition. These variables were mapped using geographical information systems (GIS) software and relationships between them were elucidated. Soil texture and composition were occasionally correlated to yield components and fruit composition but often these relationships were site-specific. Spatial relationships were common between % sand and clay, vine size, yield, berry weight, soluble solids (Brix), and titratable acidity (TA); however, relationships were both vineyard and vintage dependent. Several spatial relationships were apparent as well between vine size, yield, Brix, TA, and various soil/petiole composition variables, including organic matter, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil/petiole N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and B. Spatial relationships between yield, berry weight, berry composition, vine size, and several soil physical variables suggest a likely soil basis to the so-called 'terroir effect'. Vine size, yield, and berry weight were stable temporally within individual vineyards despite differences in annual climatic conditions. Soil texture (% sand) was frequently associated with high vine size, yield, and berry weight. Vine size directly correlated with berry weight. TA was often correlated with vine size. Soil composition had little relationship to petiole composition, fruit composition or yield except in a few specific cases, e.g., between pH and soil K.
Yanbin Hua, Baotong Yang, Xin-Gen Zhou, Jun Zhao and Liulin Li

College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China. AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University System, Bea

Key words: Fruit bagging, overrunning clutch, self-locking, paper bag with rubber bands and plastic rings

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 123-127.

Abstract: Bagging fruit on the trees in the orchard is a challenge to the fruit industry in China and many other countries due to the heavy labor requirement and low efficiency of the current fruit bagging methods. In this study, we developed a novel semi-automatic apparatus for bagging fruits to overcome these disadvantages. This apparatus adopts a mechanism similar to 'overrunning clutch' using the self-locking principle between nut and bolt to achieve the paper bags being progressively delivered by a screwed pipe and slid out individually. Such apparatus is of simplicity in design and efficiency in operation with a low cost. It does not require a battery or any of other sources of power to complete the process. This article describes the design and operation procedure of this apparatus in details. To our knowledge, this is the first apparatus to complete the fruit bagging process using the paper bags with rubber bands and plastic rings based on the new mechanism of operation.
N. Bumgarner and J. Buck

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, 37996. Formerly of Hort Americas, LLC, Euless, TX, USA.

Key words: Hydroponic, protected culture, light emitting diode, metal halide, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, greenhouse, high intensity discharge lighting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 128-134.

Abstract: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most common vegetable crops produced in greenhouses in the United States. Yet, it is difficult to maintain consistent production cycles in many areas due to seasonal variation in ambient light. This presents a challenge to profitability, so, many growers utilize supplemental lighting to provide more consistent production in greenhouse leafy crop operations. Research has frequently been carried out to investigate the relationships between light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouse lettuce crops to optimize production and profitability. Much of this work has been carried out using high intensity discharge lights (HID), specifically high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Currently, growers are considering whether light emitting diode (LED) technology can augment or replace HID lighting for greenhouse-grown vegetables. To improve knowledge in this area, this study evaluated LED and MH lighting in Bibb lettuce crop in the Midwestern United States during low light seasons in 2014. Three lighting treatments were compared: 1) a naturally lighted control, 2) supplemental MH lighting, and 3) supplemental LED lighting. Three sequential runs comparing the three lighting treatments were carried out between January and April of 2014. At the conclusion of each run, fresh shoot weight for all plants was measured along with a chlorophyll content index and a subjective tipburn rating. Supplemental lighting increased biomass over naturally-lighted controls by 194%, 104%, and 39% in MH and 253%, 165%, and 55% in LED in runs one, two, and three, respectively across the two cultivars. Differences in the chlorophyll content index and tipburn rating were also observed in lettuce under both supplemental lighting treatments when compared to the naturally lighted control. This study illustrates that supplemental lighting can improve greenhouse lettuce yield during low light seasons, but suggests growers implementing supplemental lighting should carefully monitor and manage crop quality.
R. Khajehyar, E. Fallahi and M. Rahemi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, Parma Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 29603 University of Idaho Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA.

Key words: Jasmonic acid, polyamines, chilling injury, citrus, cold storage.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 135-137.

Abstract: Chilling injury is one of the most important problems of tropical and subtropical fruits during storage that can occur if the temperature falls below 5 oC. Polyamines and methyl jasmonate (MJ) are believed to prevent and inhibit chilling injury (CI) during storage. In order to find a suitable treatment to reduce CI of oranges (Citrus sinensis) during cold storage, a research was conducted with two concentrations of MJ and two concentrations of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) (1 and 1.5 mgL-1), applied as pre-storage treatments and fruits were stored at 2 oC for 1.5 months. Application of MJ and PAs reduced percentages of CI, decay, pitting, physiological decay (PHD), ion leakage, potassium leakage, and weight loss (WL) and firmness in the fruit as compared to control after the storage period. Put at 1 mgL-1 had significantly lower percentage ion leakage and pH although CI in this treatment was similar to other treatments. Fruit juice density was not affected by any of the treatments.
Abdul J. Cheruth, Khadija I.M. Ramadhan and Shyam S. Kurup

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Key words: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), salinity, morphology, pigments, physiology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 138-140.

Abstract: Salinity represents an increasing threat to agricultural production in every region of the world. The objective of this investigation was to determine ameliorative effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on salt stressed lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in terms of growth, pigments and biochemical contents. The treatments were divided into 4 sections: control, 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl +5mM CaCl2 and 5mM CaCl2 alone. NaCl and CaCl2 stress decreased lettuce plant root and stem length, number of leaves and fresh weight versus the control. NaCl combined with CaCl2 increased these parameters versus treatments with NaCl or CaCl2 alone. Salt stress reduced the shoot and root fresh weight. The roots showed slightly increased growth under salinity, but after the treatment with CaCl2 the plants were normal. The pigment chlorophyll showed a diminishing trend in NaCl stressed plants, but it increased with CaCl2 application. The chlorophyll content increased in all plants with age. There was a slight decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents with NaCl treated plants. CaCl2 also showed decrease in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, but it was still higher than that of NaCl treated plants. Proline and phenol contents increased in lettuce plants under treatment with NaCl and CaCl2 when compared to the control. From these results, it can be concluded that the addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed lettuce plants have a significant role in partial alleviation of salinity stress. Our results indicated that the cultivation of vegetable plants like lettuce in saline areas would be possible with supplemental calcium application.
M.A. Hegazi and M.M.S. Metwaly

Department of Horticulture (Floriculture), Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-sheikh University, 33516, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Seashore Paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum, late season nutrition, cold wear.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 141-147.

Abstract: The present research was conducted on Kafer El-Sheikh University garden turfgrass during the winter season (November-May) of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the possibility of improving cold tolerance of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turfgrass during late season through either nutrition by compost alone or in combination with foliar application of potassium, silicon, iron or calcium separately. Compost was applied to all area except control on 1st November of each season at 10m3/feddan (2.38kg/m2). Aqueous solutions containing the recommended dose of each element plus 0.1% Tween 20 as a wetting agent were sprayed on the above ground parts until runoff, twice a month. The results showed that compost and Fe combination followed by compost and K2SO4 recorded the best results for most growth and anatomical measurements. The least growth values were observed from the compost alone or in combination with silicon and control treatments.
V. Srilatha, Y.T.N. Reddy, K.K. Upreti, R. Venugopalan and H.L. Jayaram

Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaragatta Lake post, Bangalore- 560 089.

Key words: Mango, pruning, paclobutrazol, vigour, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flowering

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 148-153.

Abstract: Dominant vegetative phase, if not regulated, can adversely affect the mango production particularly under high density planting systems. Pruning after fruit harvest and use of paclobutrazol (PBZ) have been identified as common strategies for tree vigour regulation and productivity enhancement in mango. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of 50% pruning of current and previous season vegetative growth and PBZ (3 mL/ m canopy diameter) on tree vigour, flowering and phenol contents in three mango cvs. Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali. Suppression of plant height, tree girth, canopy spread, shoot length and girth was witnessed with PBZ application in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth and unpruned trees. Early flowering witnessed as a result of PBZ application led to advanced fruit harvest by 20.4, 13.0 and 14.7 days in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth and 18.7, 13.7 and 15 days in trees pruned to 50% previous season growth in the cvs Raspuri, Dashehari and Amrapali, respectively. Drastic increase in total phenols, total flavonoids and phenolic acid contents were observed at 75 days after PBZ application in PBZ treated unpruned trees and in trees pruned to 50% of current season growth followed by in trees pruned to 50% of previous season growth. The high levels of o-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and salicylic acid and low levels of caffeic acid and t-cinnamic acid were observed following PBZ application in tree pruned to 50% of current season growth and unpruned trees compared to control. From the study it was apparent that the pruning of trees to 50% of current season growth and PBZ application are vital for regulating tree size, early flowering and advancing fruit harvest in mango and such beneficial effects of treatments were mediated through increases in phenols and flavonoids contents.
D. Sulistyowati, M.A. Chozin, M. Syukur, M. Melati and D. Guntoro

Agronomy and Horticulture Study Program, Post Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and Bogor Agricultural Extension Institute (STPP Bogor). Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor, Indonesia.

Key words: Cluster analysis, euclidean distance, principal component analysis, relative productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 154-159.

Abstract: Tomato genotypes exibit different shade intolerance and shade-tolerant tomatoes have potential for vegetable-agroforestry system. To obtain shade-tolerant tomatoes, a study on several tomato traits were evaluated on their morphological and physiological characteristics and their yield as responses to low light intensity. This experiment was conducted at farmers field, Bogor (October 2014-February 2015) using nested factorial design with three replications. Study was conducted on 50 tomato genotypes cultivated under 50 and 100% light intensity. Variables observed were: leaf number and area, flower number, fruit number, fruit weight and production, flowering and harvesting time. The tolerance levels of tested genotypes were classified based on plant relative productivity rate. Analysis of variance was used to differentiate between genotypes within response group; principal component analysis to define variance characters between genotypes; and cluster analysis using Euclidean distance method to determine relationship among tomato genotypes and similarity level . The 50 genotypes under shading condition were classified into 5 shade-loving genotypes, 16 shade-tolerant genotypes, 15 shade-moderately-tolerant genotypes and 14 shade-sensitive genotypes. First two principal components explained 57.19% variation. The first principal component was plant production and reproduction with the value of 37.69%; and the second one was plant morphological characters with the value of 19.50%. The dendrogram from cluster analysis separated 50 genotypes to 3 clusters with a distance of 20. There were 7 genotypes in the first cluster, 11 genotypes in the second cluster; and 32 genotypes in the third cluster.
Gurlabh S. Brar, M.I.S. Gill, N.K. Arora and H.S. Dhaliwal

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (141001) Punjab, India.

Key words: Grapes, Cardinal, Punjab Purple (H-516), Merlot, fruiting behaviour.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 160-163.

Abstract: Grape vines, trained on Y-trellis system were evaluated for their fruiting behaviour during the fruiting season of 2011-12 in Punjab conditions (North India). The maximum number of bunches per vine were recorded in variety Punjab Purple (H-516) and the maximum berries per bunch were recorded in variety Chardonnay. While, the variety Cardinal was promising in other berry characteristics such as berry weight, length, breadth and firmness, juice recovery was higher in variety Merlot. Varieties Himrod, Punjab Purple (H-516) and Pusa Navrang performed better as compared to other varieties with respect to physico- chemical parameters. Based on the overall performance, variety Punjab Purple (H-516) was found to be the most promising under North Indian conditions.
Ashok Kumar Bishoyi, Aarti Kavane, Anjali Sharma and K.A. Geetha

PDPIAS, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand, Gujarat, India. ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research, Boriavi, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Key words: CTAB, DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, ISSR, SSR, barcode, gene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 164-168.

Abstract: Extraction of DNA from medicinal and aromatic plants is often problematic, since these plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites which interfere with PCR based downstream applications and restriction digestions. Removal of these secondary metabolites requires appropriate reagents for DNA isolation. This investigation optimised an efficient DNA isolation protocol for Cymbopogon species that yielded sufficient quantity of DNA and could be used for diverse molecular applications. The modified protocol was also compared with the two existing DNA extraction procedures for cost effectiveness, time efficiency and quality DNA recovery. The modified protocol yields good amount of DNA ranging from 76 to 90 g/ g of fresh tissues which was significantly higher in comparison to the other two protocols. A260/A280 ratio of the DNA obtained from the modified method ranged from 1.81 to 1.87 indicates purity of DNA and was also found to be suited for downstream applications such as restriction digestions. Subsequent RAPD, ISSR, SSR and barcode gene amplification analysis suggested that the DNA isolated by our modified method was suitable for various molecular research applications. The efficiency of this method in terms of lesser time requirement and cost effectiveness makes the present method a noticeable alternative for total cellular DNA extraction for Cymbopogon species and could be adoptable by the developing countries across the world.

Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Key words: Land suitability, land availability, multi-criteria decision-making, spatial overlay, SPOT-6 imagery

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 2, pages 87-99.

Abstract: In Indonesia, Java Island still contributes a large amount of the total number of vegetables produced. In this tropical country, vegetables are produced in two different agro-ecological conditions, which are high altitude and low altitude. The rapidly increasing population growth has caused the centre's production of high altitude vegetables on Java Island to be increasingly pressured by other types of land utilization. This study was conducted in one of the production centres of tropical high altitude vegetable crops in the upper slope area of Mts Gede-Pangrango, West Java, covering an area of 78,290 ha. The research objective was to delineate the suitable land that is available for high altitude vegetables crops. In the first step, land suitability was analysed using multi-criteria decision-making methodology. The criteria used include those grouped within the parameters of land, topography, climate and ease of management; criterion consists of sub-criteria. The criteria were weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, while sub-criteria were scored according to their contributions to land suitability. The weights of the criteria and scores of the sub-criteria were used for delineating land suitability in a geographic information system model. In the second step, the land availability was analysed by taking into account the constraints of forest area status designation and the spatial pattern of official land use plan map. Results of both analyses were used to delineate suitable and available land for tropical high altitude vegetables crops. The results showed that the amount of land that was suitable and available for tropical high altitude vegetables crops was 23.7% of the analysed area. The area of suitable and available land that is actually not used yet is 9% of the area analysed, which could be recommended for the expansion of vegetable crops. Land that is suitable and available, either land that is already used or land that is not yet used, could be designated as priority lands to be protected from the pressure of non-agricultural land utilization in order to maintain the sustainability of vegetable availability
Hiren Bhavsar, Fisseha Tegegne and Krisden Ingram

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A Merritt Blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, USA.

Key words: Greenhouse, energy use, middle Tennessee, profitability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 12-15.

Abstract: The greenhouse industry is an important sub-sector of agriculture. On average, greenhouse and nursery farms in the U.S. have 57 percent more cash receipts than all farms (Muhammed, 2000). Tennessee cash receipts for greenhouse and nursery farms was 307 percent above than the average in the US. However, greenhouse operations in Tennessee have declined over the years. The goal of this study was to acquire a better understanding of energy use by greenhouse businesses in Tennessee. The latest database containing greenhouse businesses was provided by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. A mailed survey was used to collect data that covered questions on energy use, marketing and skill needs of the businesses. The respondents were mixed in terms of size of their operations, education and income levels. Out of the 279 surveys, 56 were returned, resulting in a 20 percent response rate. To determine the different factors affecting profitability of greenhouse operations, this study utilized correlation and chi-square tests using different variables. Results indicate that profitability of greenhouse operations is influenced by the rising energy cost, economic downturn and size of operation. The survey also indicates that growers would consider adopting alternative energy saving methods depending on their income and age. The study shows the need to assist the growers in learning more about alternative energy saving methods and technologies. This study is beneficial not only for greenhouse businesses but also other stakeholders including policy makers and those working with growers. Other researchers can also undertake similar studies using the approach used here with appropriate modification.
V.R. Logegaray, D. Frezza, A. Chiesa. and A.P. Le�n

Departamento de Horticultura, Facultad de Agronom�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Mart�n 4453 (C1417DSE) CABA, Argentina.

Key words: Nasturtium officinale, quality, gas concentration, chlorophyll, weight loss, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, oxalic acid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 16-18.

Abstract: Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is an aquatic plant of the Brassicaceae family and used as a leafy vegetable that grows in and around water. It is consumed raw or steamed and has a short shelf life of approximately seven days. The objective of this study was to evaluate the postharvest behaviour of watercress minimally processed and stored at optimal storage temperature vs. market temperature. Treatments were: shoots packed with plain film (PD961EZ, 31�m thickness) and stored in refrigerated chambers at 1 � 0.5 oC and 8 � 2 oC for 10 days. Overall visual quality, gas concentration inside the packages, chlorophyll, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and weight loss were evaluated. At the end of the storage period overall visual quality, gas concentration and reducing sugars were affected by storage time and temperature, whereas dehidro ascorbic, oxalic acid and weight loss were not.
X. Alex Isac, K.R.Rajadurai, M. Jawaharlal, K. Arul Mozhi selvan, D. Uma, Hena roy and Nabrun Bhattacharyya

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. 2Horticultural College & Research Institute for Women, Navalur kutapattu, Trichy, India. 3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Ch

Key words: Jasminum sambac, Electronic Nose, MOS, volatile emission

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 19-24.

Abstract: The Jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) flowers are highly fragrant and used for extraction of essential oil, preparation of perfumes and scented water. Since there is a growing demand for the fresh flowers, there arises a need to develop a technique to identify the flower quality in non-destructive and quickest possible manner. A study was undertaken using hand held electronic nose technology (HEN) at the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year 2013-2015.The result showed that, the HEN device generated Aroma Index (AI) score increased over the flower development stages and varied from 0.41 in immature bud (stage I) to 4.26 in matured bud (stage V). The comprehensive study on quantum of fragrance releasing pattern at different flower opening stages (physiologically matured bud to fully opened flower) over period of time interval showed that, minimum of 5.41 was recorded in an unopened closed bud stage which gradually increased upto 41.26 in the fully opened flowers. The biochemical constituents responsible for the unique jasmine flower fragrance were identified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).
K.S. Nirmala, B.V. Champa and A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda

University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065. University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot 587 102. University of Horticultural Sciences, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru-560 065

Key words: Genetic diversity, Jasminum, AFLP, wild, cultivated

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 25-29.

Abstract: Jasmines (Jasminum sp.), a native of tropical and subtropical region, are esteemed for their attractive fragrant flowers and essential oil. However, very meagre information is available on the genetic relatedness among species and cultivars of jasmine. This study analyzed genetic relatedness of 48 genotypes across 26 species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers. Of the ten sets of primers screened, four sets were selected for the present investigation on genetic diversity. A total of 212 bands were scored, of which 90.5% were polymorphic. The relationship among genotypes was analyzed using Unweighted Pair Group method of cluster analysis. Among 48 genotypes J. auriculatum formed a separate node while rest of the 47 genotypes formed two major clusters with two sub clusters in each. Cluster I comprised of 28 genotypes and cluster II had 19 genotypes. It was difficult to classify the genotypes either based on geographical region or based on their cultivation since there was assortment of wild and cultivated species. However the results reflect a high level polymorphism suggesting occurrence of genotypes of diverse genetic background that will be useful in breeding programmes.
Shigeru Satoh, Yoshihiro Nomura, Shigeto Morita, and So Sugiyama

1Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu 520-2194, Japan. 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan. 3Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto 619-0224, Japan. * E-mail: ssatoh@agr.ryukoku.ac.jp

Key words: pyridinedicarboxylic acids; spray-type carnation; carnation cultivars; flower bud; time to flower opening; vase life; gross flower opening

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 3-6.

Abstract: Pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) analogs accelerate flower opening and retard senescence, which markedly extend the vase life of spray-type Light Pink Barbara (LPB) carnation. In the present study, we characterized the activity of these chemicals to develop a novel flower care agent for a practical use. A representative PDCA analog 2,4-PDCA is effective in a wide range of spray-type carnation cultivars, Barbara, Beam Cherry, Candle, Collin, Rascal Green and Scarlet Ostara, as well as LPB and Mule. Treatment of LPB flowers for the initial 24 h with 2,4-PDCA at 5 and 10 mM was almost as effective as the continuous treatment with the chemical at 2 mM.
Shafna Kalarikkal, P. S. Udayan and M. Asha Sankar

1Department of Plantation Crops & Spices, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur District, Kerala, 2 P.G. Department of Botany & Research Centre, Sree Krishna College, Ariyannur P.O., Guruvayur, Thrissur District, Kerala,

Key words: Phyllanthus spp., Kerala, harbaceous, morphology

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 30-33.

Abstract: Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn belonging to Euphorbiaceae is reputed for its hepatoprotective activity against Hepatitis B virus. Preponderance of other herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. often leads to deliberate adulteration or substitution, lowering the efficacy of medication. Hence surveying agro ecological zones of Kerala and characterizing natural population of Phyllanthus spp. morphologically will ensure the correct identity. Exploratory surveys were conducted adopting purposive sampling procedure and accessions of Phyllanthus spp. were collected from different agro-ecological zones of Kerala (coastal, plains, midlands and high altitude regions) representing northern, central and southern Kerala. The collected accessions were identified using morphological key characters of herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. as described in Flora of Madras Presidency by Gamble and Fischer (1915-1936). No considerable variations were observed for characters like, growth habit, branching pattern, leaf margin, capsule colour, capsule shape and flower colour. Accessions representing P. amarus were found to have oblong leaflet shape, obtuse apex and round base. Dark green, light green and purple green stem colour and faintly mucronate to mucronate leaf apices were observed for the collected accessions of P. urinaria. The accession of P. maderaspatensis had obcordate leaf apex. Number of sepals and pedicel length were identified to be the non variable quantitative characters in Phyllanthus. Highest plant height, was observed for P. virgatus var. gardnerianus, inferring that it is the tallest herbaceous Phyllanthus spp among the collected ones. Broad leaves were observed in P. rheedei and longest leaflets in P. virgatus var. gardnerianus and P. virgatus var. virgatus.
P.R. Paul, A.H.K. Robin and M.R. Hossain

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Key words: Musa sapientum L, seeded banana, endosperm culture, seedlessness, triploid, callus blackening, cold treatment

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 34-38.

Abstract: The local Bangladeshi banana varieties, possessing similar brix percentage to that of commercial varieties, grow well under adverse conditions with minimum care but are less popular due to the presence of seed. Endosperm culture of seeded banana can produce triploid seedless varieties which can be cultivated commercially in unsuited environments with less agricultural inputs. The current study was conducted to optimize the initial steps of endosperm culture using the immature endosperm of seeded banana cultivar Bhutia. Young fruits at various stages were collected from the local banana gardens to find out suitable developmental stage of endosperm for culture. Endosperms of juvenile fruits at 25 days age, exhibited jelly state, was selected for culture because endosperm explants at that age survived the most in MS medium. It was observed that non-treated explants produced larger calli comparatively quickly than that of cold-treated explants. Largest calli (0.41 cm) within shorter time period (27 days after inoculation) was produced in MS medium additionally supplemented with 0.5 ppm 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) besides 0.5 ppm 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 ppm Kinetin (Kn). The produced calli gradually became blackish in appearance and higher ascorbic acid content (480 mg/100g) was observed in blackish calli. Avoiding the blackening of calli derived from endosperm of seeded banana would be a challenge to establish a successful triploid production protocol in future.
Fatih Hanci, Esra Cebeci and Ayse Fidanci

Atatrk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova-Turkey.

Key words: Onion, Allium cepa L., in vitro, callus, salinity, embryo, explant

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 39-43.

Abstract: Salinity is one of the major limitations for onion growth and productivity all over the world. There are several methods to determine of salt stress tolerance of plants such as germination tests, pots trials, in vitro experiments etc. This study was conducted for optimisation of rapid and practical method to compare onion genotypes under salinity conditions. In the first stage of the study, three explant types and twenty one combinations of plant growth regulators were tested for optimization of callus protocol. Callus indicate percentage (%), callus fresh weight (mg) and callus dry weight (mg) were measured on the 31st day. According to results, the best medium (MS + 2 mg/L 2,4-D + 0,5 mg/L BAP) and explant type (mature zygotic embryo) for the proliferation of callus were determined. After choosing the best hormone and explant type, the effect of salinity on callus induction was tested using different level of NaCl. Akgun-12 consistently performed the best in callus culture. Responses of onion cultivars were different for different parameters. The proposed method was simple to perform, as no long time is required, and offers a possibility to screen genotypes in any time of year.
K.M. Sharadraj and R.Chandra Mohanan

Central Plantation Crops Research Insitute (ICAR), Kasaragod 671124 Kerala, India.

Key words: Baiting, coconut, bud rot disease, Phytophthora palmivora.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 44-47.

Abstract: Earlier studies using different methods of isolations revealed that it is extremely difficult rather impossible in certain cases to isolate the pathogen, Phytophthora sp. from bud rot disease of coconut due to the presence of high population of other microorganisms like bacteria and fungi in the rotten tissue. Hence, it was very much imperative to develop an easy technique for isolations of Phytophthora sp. from samples collected from various locations. In the modified baiting method, different treatments were given to infected tissues before baiting with susceptible healthy plant tissues. Among the different treatments given to infected tissue, the treatment of keeping infected tissue in carbendazim (Bavistin 50 WP) 125 ppm + rifampicin 200 ppm solution was found to be better for successful infection of baits and successive isolation of Phytophthora palmivora (Mean 30%) irrespective of the baits used. Out of the seven types of baits used in this treatments, rachillae of young unopened coconut inflorescence, leaves of Loranthus parasiticus (L.) Merr. and leaves and young fruits of badam tree (Terminalia catappa L.) were found to be superior to others (with 33-37% success in isolation) and they were statistically on par. Tender leaves of badam tree yielded the highest percentage (37) of isolation of P. palmivora, when used as bait in the treatment carbedazim + rifampicin solution containing rotten bud tissue of coconut palms. Hence it can be used for large scale isolation of P. palmivora.
F.Y. Daramola

Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota Nigeria.

Key words: Helicotylenchus spp, Parkia biglobosa, population distribution, rainfall pattern, temperature changes, horticultural crops, Celosia argentea, Colocasia esculentum, Azadirachta indica, frequency rating, nematodes, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 48-53.

Abstract: The African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa Benth) is a perennial, deciduous fruit tree that is important for its myriad medicinal and nutritional benefits. The association of the spiral nematodes of the genus Helicotylenchus spp. with P. biglobosa has not been previously reported in Nigeria. Three P. biglobasa trees from University of Ilorin in the Guinea Savanna Ecological zone of Nigeria were purposively selected for nematode sampling for a period of five months (May to September). Eighteen field and horticultural crops were also surveyed to assess the population density of Helicotylenchus spp on selected agricultural crops in the local environment. Soil samples were collected monthly from the rhizosphere of P. biglobosa trees and also from the field crops to a depth of about 15 cm and within a 25 cm radius from the base of the plants. Vermiform nematodes were extracted from 250 g each of the composite samples using a modified Baermann extraction tray set-up. The spiral nematodes were frequently encountered in association with all the crops. Higher soil population of Helicotylenchus spp was recorded on Celosia argentea, Colocasia esculenta and Azadirachta indica at relative densities of 55.33, 42.11 and 25.6, respectively. The African locust bean trees also supported population build-up of Helicotylenchus spp which were found at a frequency rating of 100% in all the soil samples. Higher soil population of Helicotylenchus spp were recorded in June and September, coinciding with the two rainfall peaks while lower nematode population was recorded in August, at the lowest ambient temperature. The study indicated spiral nematodes as abundant and often associated with many agricultural crops at University of Ilorin, Guinea savanna of Nigeria. P. biglobosa was a suitable host for Helicotylenchus spp while the rainfall pattern and temperature changes influenced the population distribution of soil nematodes in the local environment.
Millicent Adhiambo Otiende, Julius Omondi Nyabundi and Kamau Ngamau

University of Kabianga, P.O Box 2030-20200, Kericho, Kenya. 1Maseno University, P.O Box Private bag, Maseno, Kenya. 2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62,000 00200 Nairobi, Kenya.

Key words: Cutting position, rose rootstocks, NAA concentration, IBA concentration, endogenous carbohydrate, grafting take

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 54-60.

Abstract: Inadequate grafting take of some of the rose cultivars may cause economic losses. The study was conducted to determine the effects of cutting position (top, middle and bottom) of Rosa hybrida rootstocks (Natal Briar and Rosa Progress) and auxins (0 %, 0.4 % IBA and 0.2 % NAA) on rooting and grafting take of rose cultivar Inca. Changes in endogenous carbohydrate content during rooting were measured on days 0, 3 and 7 after sticking. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design. Interaction between cutting position and rootstock was significant (P ? 0.05) for most of the parameters measured. The shoot height, root number, percent rooting and grafting take increased towards the basal position in Rosa Progress. In Natal Briar, the shoot and root growth parameters increased towards the top though non significant except grafting take that significantly increased towards the basal position. The auxin treated cuttings recorded significantly (P ? 0.05) higher grafting take and rooting percentage than the control. 0.4 % IBA exhibited higher shoot height, leaf number and root number than 0.2 % NAA. The rootstock Natal Briar recorded significantly (P ? 0.05) higher rooting percentage and grafting take than Rosa Progress. Middle and top position cuttings of Rosa Progress and Natal Briar recorded higher carbohydrate content, respectively than bottom position cuttings. Bottom position recorded higher sucrose content on day 3 than days 0 and 7 after planting in Rosa Progress. Natal Briar exhibited significantly (P ? 0.05) higher carbohydrate content than Rosa Progress. The increase in growth with top position cuttings of Natal Briar could be attributed to high carbohydrate content. The high growth responses in bottom position cuttings of Rosa Progress could be attributed to high sucrose content on day 3 after planting. The stem cuttings of rootstocks for top grafting rose cultivar Inca should be taken from bottom position cuttings of both rootstocks, and auxins should be applied to increase rooting and grafting take.
A.K. Srivastava, S.K. Yadav, L.C. Diengdoh, R. Rai and T.K. Bag

ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Shillong- 793 009 (Meghalaya), India.

Key words: Potato, micro-plants, plant density, yields potential, net-house.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 61-63.

Abstract: The present study was conducted to standardize the crop geometry under net-house with micro-plants of two popular potato varieties, Kufri Himsona and Kufri Girdhari planted at two spacing viz., 20 x 10 cm and 15 x 10 cm at Central Potato Research Station, Shillong during 2013 and 2014. The effect due to spacing and varieties was significant for all the plant growth and yield parameters except for plant survival among varieties. Plant survival was better in all treatments (> 80%). The plant growth was superior in terms of plant height, at wide spacing (20 x 10 cm) although canopy cover was more at narrow spacing (15 x 10 cm). Kufri Himsona exhibited better growth with more stem height, number of leaves/plant, stems per plant and better canopy cover at 30 DAP than Kufri Girdhari. Kufri Himsona yielded better in terms of numbers and weight of mini-tubers per plant as well as per unit area compared to the variety Kufri Girdhari. More number of tubers per plant was observed at closer spacing (15 x 10 cm) but better yield per plant was obtained at wider spacing (20 x 10 cm) due to increased competition for nutrients, space, sunlight etc. leading to an increase in number of tubers per plant but subsequent decrease in total tuber yield per plant at closer spacing. At closer spacing more small sized tubers were harvested (<3g to 20g) while at wider spacing more larger sized tubers were harvested (over 20g). Among varieties, Kufri Himsona yielded more large sized tubers as compared to Kufri Girdhari. Thus depending on the seed size requirement and availability of area under net house, either narrow or wide spacing can be followed for production of mini-tubers from potato micro-plants in North Eastern Himalayan region.
Mahbube Someh, Ghaffar Kiani, Gholam Ali Ranjbar and Seyyed Mohamad Alavi

Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. 2Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

Key words: Cucumber, Genetic diversity, Cluster analysis, RAPD markers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 64-67.

Abstract: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most economically important plants in many countries of the world. The identification of cultivars is extremely important both for cultivation and breeding of crop plants. There is little known about the genetic relationships between cucumber genotypes in Iran. The genetic diversity and the relationships among 20 cucumber varieties were evaluated by RAPD markers. A total of 155 bands were generated with15 RAPD primers, out of which 114 bands were polymorphic (73 %). The mean polymorphism index content (PIC) was 0.24. Considerable levels of polymorphism were observed within cucumber varieties. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard similarity coefficients grouped varieties into three main clusters. The data obtained from this study can be used to select suitable parents in hybridization breeding programs in cucumber.
C.N. Muruli, K. Bhanuprakash and B.C. Channakeshava

1University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560065, India. 2ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-560089, India.3University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560065, India.

Key words: Onion seeds, seed priming, seed vigour, seed ageing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 68-70.

Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to identify the effect of seed priming on vigour in fresh and aged seeds of onion (var. Arka Kalyan). It was observed that seed priming with GA3 (50 ppm), KNO3 (3 %) and PEG (-1.5 Mpa) were shown significant impact on germination and vigour. Aged seeds responded to the priming treatments effectively than fresh seeds. Among various treatments studied, there was an increase of germination in fresh seeds to the extent of 5 % due to treatment with GA3, whereas in aged seeds it was to the extent of 11 % due to PEG treatment.
H. Ramrez, J. Mendoza-Castellanos, L.J. Ramrez-Prez, J.H. Ranca�o-Arrioja V. Robledo-Torres, and R. Mendoza-Villarreal

1Departamento de Horticultura, 2Direccien de Investigacion, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calz. Antonio Narro No. 1923, Saltillo, Coahuila, C.P. 25315. Mexico.

Key words: Capsicum chinense Jacq., growth retardant, capsaicin, antioxidants, gibberellins.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 7-11.

Abstract: In recent years, the cultivated area of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) has grown in Mexico as a result of increasing the culinary diet among consumers and the knowledge on its high healthy components such as antioxidants, vitamins and nutrients. The actual worldwide demand of this vegetable requires the application of new production systems in order to increase yield per hectare as well as to improve the fruit quality of this commodity. The use of growth retardants is an alternative for this challenge, therefore, the effect of prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) was evaluated on the vegetative growth, gibberellins at the stem apex, yield and antioxidants content in ripen fruits of habanero pepper cv. Jaguar. The dosages of P-Ca were: 0,100, 175 and 250 mg L-1 sprayed to seedlings at one (10 days after transplanting) or two (10 and 31 days after transplanting) occasions. Results showed that P-Ca temporally reduced growth in height and diameter of main stem. This effect was related with a reduction in the synthesis of gibberellins A1, A4 and A7 at the apex. The fruit number and yield per plant increased with one application of P-Ca (at 175 mg L-1). The content of capsaicin and total carotenoids showed a remarkable increment in ripen fruits when plants have received one application of P-Ca at any concentration.
M. Pal, R.L Lal, P. Nautiyal and P. Joshi

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), India. E-mail: pankajnautiyal2009@gmail.com

Key words: Shade, GA3, BA, litchi, quality, maturity time

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 71-75.

Abstract: An investigation was carried for extening harvesting span of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cv. Rose Scented on twenty year old litchi trees at Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand, India). The experiment consisted of 10 treatment [30% shade net (T1), 50% shade ne, (T2), 20 ppm GA3 (T3), 40 ppm GA3 (T4), 20 ppm BA (T5), 40 ppm BA (T6), 4% KNO3 (T7), perforated polyethylene bagging (T8), STS, 10 m Mol (T9) and Control (T10)] in Randomized Block Design with four replications. The application of KNO3 @ 4% resulted in significantly higher fruits set per panicle (64.93). Maximum fruit drop of 79.05 per cent was observed under control while under shade net (30%) 71.91 per cent fruit drop was checked. Shade net (50%) checked the fruit cracking (4.49%) whereas; maximum fruit cracking took place in untreated trees. The maximum delay in harvest (16 days) was recorded in shade net 50% closely followed by shade net 30% (14 Days). Significantly more fruit yield per tree (116.50 kg) was recorded in shade net (50%). Treatment of GA3 (40 ppm) being at par with BA @ 20 and 40 ppm exhibited significantly more TSS, total sugars and non-reducing sugars. Application of KNO3 @ 4% exhibited significantly highest reducing sugars and significantly lower titratable acidity, however, difference in ascorbic acid content were found to be non-significant among different treatments. Shading delayed the harvesting span and maximized fruit quality and yield of litchi.
S.K. Patra and S. Beura

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, India

Key words: Gerbera, pre-hardening, hardening, MS liquid medium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 76-79.

Abstract: Experiment was carried out to standardize media for pre-hardening and hardening of in vitro regenerated plantlets taking two cultivars of gerbera namely Red Star and Jallisse. During hardening, soil, sand, FYM and coco peat mixture with a proportion of 1:1:1:1, 1:1:1:2,1:1:2:1, 1:2:1:1, :1:1:1 , :1:1:2, :1:2:1, :2:1:1, respectively and control (only soil) were tried for transplanting the regenerated plants. Among these, soil: sand: FYM: coco peat in :1:1:2, :2:1:1 and :1:1:1 proportion for cv. Jallisse and :1:1:2 proportion for cv. Red star were found to be most promising combinations for 100% survival of regenerated plants in both the cultivars.
Sangeeta Saxena, Vijay K. Singh and Saurabh Verma

Department of Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Lucknow., India

Key words: Geminivirus, multiplex PCR, Begomovirus, PaLCuV, coat protein.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2016, volume 18, issue 1, pages 80-84.

Abstract: The global papaya cultivation faces a major threat from various fungal and viral diseases, apart from the uncertainty in the identification of sex at juvenile stage. In case of papaya, only female and hermaphrodite plants bear fruits and the diagnostics discriminating male, female and hermaphrodite based on molecular markers used widely for sex determination, can be of great help. On the other hand, the papaya cultivation faces major challenge by leaf curl disease, which needs to be detected timely and simultaneously along with respective sex in order to achieve a higher yield. This review highlights the significance and detection of papaya sex and virus using molecular approaches; however, the authors feel that using multiplex PCR, a reliable and cost-effective technique giving results in a single attempt is by far the best approach. These molecular diagnostics may save papaya industry and give farmers a complete package of healthy (virus free) female/hermaphrodite seedling.

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