Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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Wilson, S B; Rajapakse, N C

Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA.

Key words: far red light, flowers, growth, internodes, leaf area, leaves, light relations, plant height, plastic film, red light, solar radiation, stems

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 71-74.

Abstract: Plant response to a photoselective plastic film with a red (R)- or far-red- (FR)-absorbing property was tested using the three perennial salvias: Indigo Spires sage (Salvia longispicata x Salvia farinacea), wine sage (Salvia splendens 'Van Houttei'), and Mexican sage (Salvia leucantha). Films were designated AFR (FR-light-absorbing film), AR (R-light-absorbing film), and control (clear plastic film). Solar light transmitted through the AFR film reduced plant height by 17-36%, depending on the species. This correlated with a reduction in internode length and stem dry weight. Light transmitted through the AR film did not significantly affect plant height, regardless of species. Leaf area was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the control film, regardless of species. Leaf dry weight under AFR was reduced in Indigo Spires sage and Mexican sage, but not in wine sage. Flower development (days to flower and flower number) was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the
Orta, A H; Ener, M

Department of Farm Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Tekirdag Agriculture, University of Trakya, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: bulbs, crop yield, evapotranspiration, irrigation, irrigation scheduling, onions, plant water relations, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 75-77.

Abstract: The response of onion (Allium cepa) to different irrigation schedules was studied in Trakya, Turkey, during 1997 and 1998. Onion crop was subjected to four irrigation treatments according to available soil water depletion fractions (0.30, 0.50, 0.70, and no irrigation). Irrigation thresholds (amount of soil water at 0.40 m depth) were used as criteria to initiate drip irrigations. For each differential water treatment, the parameters of bulb morphology (diameter and height), solids soluble in bulbs, bulb weight, and total yield were analysed. Yield and yield components except solids soluble in bulbs were affected by irrigation and soil water depletion fractions. The highest yield was obtained from the plots to which irrigation water was applied at a soil water fraction level of 0.30. The maintenance of soil moisture depletion level at 0.30 required 339.4 mm (in 14 applications) and 227.2 mm (in 13 applications) of irrigation water in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The seasonal evapotranspiration of onion was 42
Reddy, Y T N; Kurian, R M; Sujatha, N T; Srinivas, M

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: chemical composition, correlated traits, crop growth stage, crop yield, cultivars, leaves, mangoes, mineral content, nitrogen, nitrogen content, nutrient availability, nutrient content, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, potassium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 78-81.

Abstract: Twenty-five mango orchards in Nuzuvid (Andhra Pradesh), Srinivaspur (Karnataka), and Krishnagiri (Tamil Nadu), India, were evaluated for leaf and soil nutrient status from 1994 to 1997. Banganapally was grown in 5 orchards, Alphonso in 5 orchards, and Totapuri in 15 orchards. The trees in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were 30- to 40-year-old, whereas those in Tamil Nadu were 20-year-old. The high-yielding trees had higher leaf N content than the low-yielding trees. The orchards in Andhra Pradesh had the highest leaf and soil nutrient (N, P, and K) levels. The available soil N significantly varied between high-yielding and low-yielding trees only before the flowering stage. The available soil P and K did not significantly vary with the growth stage. The high-yielding orchards recorded higher soil N and P, and lower soil K than the low-yielding orchards. Fruit yield was positively correlated with leaf N before and during flowering, with leaf P after harvest, and with leaf K before flowering. Fruit yield was posi
Krishnamurthy, K B; Mythili, J B; Meenakshi Srinivas

Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560 065, India.

Key words: benzyladenine, carbendazim, chlorothalonil, cultivars, disinfectants, explants, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, ornamental plants, plant growth regulators, rooting, roots, shoots, tissue culture, tissue cultures, varietal r

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Terminal or axillary stem scale sections from P. tuberosa cultivars Shringar (single type) and Suvasini (double type) were disinfected with 1000 ppm Bavistin [carbendazim], 1000 ppm Kavach [chlorothalonil], and 500 ppm Cetrimide, singly or in combination, before sterilization with 0.1% HgCl2 for 10-15 minutes. The explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.25% phytagel, and autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 15 minutes. The shoot tips from sprouted explants were transferred into a medium containing 2 or 4 mg BAP [benzyladenine]/litre singly or in combination with 0.1 mg IAA/litre. The regenerated shoots were transferred into 1/2 MS medium containing 0.5 or 1.0 mg IBA, 0.5 mg IAA, or 0.25 mg IAA + 0.25 mg IBA/litre. Treatment with Bavistin + Kavach + Cetrimide overnight followed by treatment with HgCl2 for 15 minutes resulted in the highest percentage of axenic cultures using axillary (23.3-26.6%) and terminal (30.0%) scale sections. Cytokinin induced multiple shoot fo
Preety Singh; Misra, A; Srivastava, N K; Sharma, S

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO: CIMAP, Lucknow - 226 015, India.

Key words: application rates, branches, chlorophyll, correlated traits, cultivars, dry matter, growth, iron, nutrient deficiencies, plant height, plant nutrition, plant oils, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 85-87.

Abstract: Suckers from M. spicata cultivars MSS 5, Arka, and Neera were grown in Hoagland's solution supplemented with 0.00, 0.056, 2.80, and 5.60 mg Fe/litre. Plants grown at 0.00 and 0.056 mg Fe/litre did not survive after 10 days of treatment. Fe deficiency symptoms, such as chlorosis and necrosis particularly in young leaves, were more pronounced in Arka and Neera than in MSS 5. The latter cultivar also recorded the greatest plant height, number of branches, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, oil content, and carvone content under Fe deficiency. These parameters decreased with the reduction in Fe supply. The positive correlation between fresh weight and dry matter, dry matter yield and oil content, and oil percentage and carvone content was observed in all cultivars. Fresh herb yield and dry matter was positively correlated with oil percentage and carvone content in MSS 5 only.
Kurian, R M; Reddy, Y T N; Sonkar, R K; Reddy, V V P

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: cultivars, fruits, leaf area, leaves, mangoes, paclobutrazol, photosynthates, plant growth regulators, ringing, source sink relations, translocation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 88-90.

Abstract: The effects of paclobutrazol on the fruit-leaf ratio of twelve-year-old trees of mango cultivars Alphonso and Dashehari were studied in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The soil was drenched with paclobutrazol at 0.0, 2.5, or 7.5 g a.i. per tree. In each paclobutrazol-treated tree, photosynthate and metabolite translocation to 30 leaves with a single fruit was inhibited by girdling the branch (1 cm wide ring of bark) at a uniform distance from the fruit. Girdling was conducted when Dashehari fruits were 4.9+or-0.7 cm long and weighed 27.9+or-8.5 g, and when Alphonso fruits were 4.0+or-1.0 cm long and weighed 32.9+or-7.5 g. Twenty-eight fruits on ungirdled shoots of trees not treated with paclobutrazol served as the control. In the two cultivars, thirty leaves were not sufficient to promote the growth of a single fruit, especially when the tree was not treated with paclobutrazol. In untreated trees, the weight of fruits from girdled trees of Alphonso and Dashehari was only 60.2 and 64.9%, respectively, of the cont
Singh, V K; Saini, J P; Misra, A K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: chemical composition, crop growth stage, cultivars, enzyme activity, enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, glutamate ammonia ligase, mangoes, nitrate, nitrate reductase, nitrogen content, panicles, plant composition, plant disorders, prote

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 91-94.

Abstract: The activity of nitrogen-utilizing enzymes, i.e. nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase [glutamate-ammonia ligase] (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), during the development of healthy and malformed panicles of mango cultivars Amrapali and Dashehari was studied in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-97. Healthy and malformed panicles were evaluated at stages I (fully developed apical bud), II (flower bud at inception), III (fully grown panicles prior to full bloom), and IV (fully developed panicle at the full bloom stage). NR activity was significantly reduced in normal panicles from stage I to IV in both cultivars. Non-significant changes were observed in the malformed panicles of Amrapali. In general, the activity of GS and GOGAT followed the same trend. Contrary to the activity of NR, GS, and GOGAT, a sharp increase in GDH activity was observed in malformed panicles at the early stage of panicle development. GDH activity, which was highest at stage II in both c
Shailendra Rajan; Ram Kumar; Negi, S S

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: canopy, colour, crop quality, foliage, foliage area, fruits, genetic variation, leaf area index, mangoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 95-97.

Abstract: A study was conducted Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, to study foliage density and canopy diffuse non-interceptance in 26 Indian mango cultivars. The indirect measurement of leaf area index (LAI) and diffuse non-interceptance (DNI) was conducted using output of concentric silicon detectors placed at five zenith angles on the sensing head of LAI-2000, which recorded significant variability in foliage density (LAI=1.18-4.48). DNI values also exhibited large variation, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.36. UPGMA cluster analysis of the data revealed that Bangalora, Fazri, Neelum, Vanraj, Dashehari, Alphonso, Lucknow Safeda, and Banganapalli had similarity in tree leaf component. Nisar Pasand, Kishan Bhog, and Bombay Green had compact and dense canopy with more foliage component. Papatio and Fernandin exhibited comparatively less foliage under Lucknow conditions. Prabhashankar and Chausa showed similarity and were closer to compact canopy group. In general, east and north Indian cultivars recorded more foliage component
Deshpande, G M; Sonawane, P C; Manjul Dutt

College of Agriculture, Pune, India.

Key words: crop density, crop quality, crop yield, cut flowers, earliness, flowering, flowering date, growth, plant height

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 98-99.

Abstract: The effects of spacing between plants (15, 30, and 45 cm) and rows (30, 45, and 60 cm) on 30-day-old L. sinuatum seedlings were studied in Pune, Maharashtra, India. At 60 and 90 days after sowing, plant height increased, whereas plant spread decreased as the spacing between plants and rows decreased. A spacing of 45 between plants and 60 cm between rows resulted in the earliest flowering (47.43 days) and highest yield in terms of the weight of flower stalks per plant (871.36 g). Flower stalk length (82.55) and flower weight per hectare (47.27 t/ha) were highest when the spacing between plants and rows was maintained at 15 and 30 cm, respectively. In general, a plant spacing of 45 cm with a row spacing of 60 cm resulted in superior growth and flower quality, but inferior yields. On the other hand, a plant spacing of 15 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm resulted in high yields but inferior flower quality. Satisfactory flower yield and quality was obtained with a plant spacing of 30 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm.
Denny, G C; Arnold, M A

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, Mail Stop 2133, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA.

Key words: application rates, auxins, hardwood cuttings, IBA, ornamental plants, ornamental woody plants, peat, perlite, phenology, plant growth regulators, rooting, semihardwood cuttings, softwood cuttings, substrates, woody plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 13-16.

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effects of substrate, phenological stage of cutting, and auxin concentration on the rooting of the ornamental Texas smoke tree (C. obovatus). Cuttings from new lush growing tips (softwood), partially matured tissues (semi-mature wood) and mature woody fully lignified cuttings from the previous season's growth (mature wood) were treated with either 0, 5000, 10 000 or 15 000 mg potassium salt of indole-butyric acid (K-IBA)/litre and placed in either 50% peat:50% perlite or 100% perlite rooting substrates. Cuttings were placed under an intermittent mist system in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Softwood cuttings rooted in both substrates, but the 50% peat:50% perlite substrate produced better quality rooted cuttings. Softwood cuttings peaked at 8000 to 10 000 mg K-IBA/litre. Semi-mature wood and previous season's growth cuttings rooted only in the 100% perlite substrate. In 100% perlite substrate, the optimum concentration for semi-mature wood cuttings was ~12 000 mg K-IBA/litre,
Arous, S; Boussaid, M; Marrakchi, M

Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Tunis, Tunisia.

Key words: adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, buds, chillies, crop quality, culture media, flowers, fruits, gibberellic acid, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, leaves, NAA, plant development, plant embryos, plant growth regulators, progeny, seeds

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 17-22.

Abstract: This paper reports the regeneration of Tunisian pepper cultivar from zygotic embryos cultured in vitro. Zygotic embryos of the Tunisian cultivar D'hirat cultured in vitro developed adventitious buds. The best results for bud induction were obtained in the Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 5 mg benzylaminopurine (BA)/litre and 1 mg NAA/litre. The important effect of BA in adventitious bud formation was demonstrated. Shoot bud development was enhanced by the addition of gibberellic acid to the medium. Plants were rooted in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium and transferred into pots, containing loam. To test the stability of the regenerants, characters related to the fertility, fruit quality, leaf and flower were measured. Regenerants and their progeny were compared to the control plants derived from seeds. Variance analysis and CANDISC were used. No significant differences were detected between the regenerants and the control plants for the characters tested.
Arin, L; Ankara, S

T. U. Agricultural Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: crop yield, earliness, fruits, harvesting date, mulches, mulching, plant height, polyethylene film, protected cultivation, pruning, stems, straw mulches, tomatoes, tunnels

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 23-27.

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of low-tunnel, mulching (black and transparent polyethylene or straw) and pruning treatments on yield and earliness of tomato cv. Fuji F1 in unheated glasshouse. A 643.72% increase in height (relative to height at the planting time) was observed in plants grown under low-tunnel (tunnelled) than those grown without tunnel (602.87%). Among the mulches, plant height increase was highest with the straw mulch (679.13%). Stem diameter increase was higher in plants tunnelled (265.36%) than plants grown without tunnel (233.83%). Straw and transparent polyethylene mulches recorded higher stem diameter than other mulches. The number of days to first harvest was 117.97 for plants tunnelled and that for plants grown without tunnel was 119.88. The shortest time to harvest was recorded in transparent polyethylene (117.90 days), which was at par with black polyethylene (118.17 days). Early fruit yield was higher in tunnelled and mulched treatments than in other treatments. The c
Mandhar, S C; Singh, K P; Kumari, C R

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Karnataka, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: artificial ventilation, crop production, crop quality, crop yield, flowers, greenhouses, natural ventilation, relative humidity, seasonal variation, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 28-31.

Abstract: The naturally ventilated greenhouse (NVGH) and fan- and pad-cooled greenhouse (FPGH) were designed and constructed for conditions in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gerbera crop was cultivated in both greenhouses and temperature and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at 10.00, 13.00 and 16.00 h. The temperature in NVGH could be brought down very near to ambient temperature during hot and dry months by proper irrigation. The maximum temperature during the year in NVGH was 36.6 degrees C when the ambient temperature was 35.4 degrees C and RH 28.4% at 13.00 h in April. The maximum build up of temperature of 2.5 degrees C was recorded during rainy and cloudy days when the ambient temperature was low and RH was high. The average build up of humidity on a yearly basis in NVGH was 1.5% above the ambient RH. The drop in temperature up to 8.2 degrees C was observed in FPGH in April when the ambient temperature was very high (35.4 degrees C) and ambient RH was very low (28.4%). The maximum temperature of 30.1 degrees C
Silva, J A T da; Fukai, S

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: cefotaxime, culture media, genetic transformation, growth, light, morphogenesis, phytotoxicity, tobacco, transgenic plants, vancomycin

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 3-12.

Abstract: Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation requires a two-step process for its success: selection and regeneration of transformed tissues, and the elimination of the transformation vector, Agrobacterium. This study uses carbenicillin (CA), cefotaxime (CF) and vancomycin (VA) singly, or in combination, to eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and AGLO growing on Agrobacterium-favouring (LB) and plant-favouring (MS) media, at transgenic plant selection levels (10 or 25 micro g/ml kanamycin for chrysanthemum and tobacco, respectively). The three antibiotics differed in their capacities to eliminate Agrobacterium i.e., bacterial threshold survival levels (TSLs), depending on the strain, medium and light conditions. Plant TSLs differed from those for Agrobacterium, and were cultivar-, species- and light-dependent, with CA > VA > CF in terms of phytotoxicity. Since over 90% of plant transformation experiments use Agrobacterium as the transformation vector, with most of these containing an aminoglycos
Samadia, D K; Khandelwal, R C

NRC for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner, India.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, genetic variation, heterosis, hybrids, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 32-36.

Abstract: Heterosis studies on 9 bottlegurd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars (Banswara Local-1 (BL-1), Long White Prolific, Pusa Naveen, Raichur Local-1, Udaipur Local-1, IC 92352A, IC 92374, IC 42361 and PSPL), including their 36 F1 hybrids and cv. Varad as the control cultivar, were carried out under 4 environments created by sowing on two dates and at two locations in a field experiment conducted in Rajasthan, India. The analysis of variance indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among the experimental materials. The hybrids BL-1 x IC 92374, BL-1 x Pusa Naveen, and IC 92374 x PSPL were superior and exhibited significant economic heterosis for fruit yield per plant and yield components such as number of fruits and female flowers per plant. Most of the heterotic crosses were also heterobeltiotic.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture