Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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R. Jagadeeswaran, V. Murugappan and M. Govindaswamy

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003.

Key words: Nutrient tablets, fertilizer placement, slow release fertilizers

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 100-105.

Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy of slow release NPK fertilizers in turmeric, two field experiments were conducted on a sandy clay loam soil. These slow release NPK fertilizers are new products in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated formulations, which contains all the three major nutrients in them. Five slow release NPK fertilizer sources were tested in comparison with straight fertilizers at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125 % of recommended dose in a randomized block design. The results clearly indicated that the wet rhizome yield significantly increased with increasing levels of NPK and when applied in the form of tablets. The N, P and K uptake both in shoot as well as rhizome of turmeric increased significantly up to 125 % of NPK level applied. The uptake was significantly higher in plots which received tablet form of slow release fertilizers than other fertilizer sources.
Verma, S K; Singh, R K; Arya, R R

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Bhowali, Nainital, Uttaranchal - 263 132, India.

Key words: crop yield, flowering, flowers, fruits, genetic correlation, genetic variation, heritability, petioles, phenotypic correlation, plant height, runners, strawberries, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 102-104.

Abstract: Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability, heritability along with genetic advance as percentage of mean were estimated in 17 strawberry accessions, grown in 1997 in Bhowali, Uttaranchal, India, for 16 characters. Fruit length showed high coefficient of variation (104.56%). Percentage of plant flowering showed the maximum phenotypic and genetic coefficient of variations, followed by fruit volume, flower number, number of flower trusses per plant and flower disk diameter. Fruit weight, plant height, petiole length, percentage of plant flowering and fruit volume showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean, which indicated that selection can be made for improvement. The genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the phenotypic correlation coefficients. This indicated little role of environment in the expression of genetic relationship. Fruit number per plant was positively and significantly correlated with fruit volume, fruit weight, flower disk diameter,
Pal, A K; Singh, B; Maurya, A N

Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005 (U.P.), India.

Key words: branches, cowpeas, crop yield, flowering date, genes, genetic diversity, genetic variance, hybrids, inbreeding depression, plant height, pods, seed weight, seeds, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: A study was conducted during 1999-2000 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the inbreeding depression between Vigna unguiculata and V. sesquipedalis [V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis]. The experiment was carried out in a line x tester design and data on 30 hybrids generated from 13 parents were analysed for inbreeding depression in the F2 generation. Observations were recorded for 13 characters, i.e. days to 50% flowering, days to 1st green pod picking, plant height, peduncle length, number of primary branches per plant, pod length, pod diameter, number of peduncles per plant, number of pods per peduncle, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, green pod yield per plant and 100-seed weight. Significant and varying degrees of inbreeding depression was observed for all the parameters, indicating the presence of high degree of diversity among the parents and presence of non-additive gene action. Cross combination KLS-10 x Cowpea-263 yielded more in the F2 generation for green pod yield
Cyd Celeste Cagas, Miki Nakata, Mae Rose Sumugat and Nobuo Sugiyama

Graduated School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plug tray, root restriction, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 106-108.

Abstract: Seedlings of three tomato cultivars, 'Reika', 'Marryroad' and 'First Power' were grown in either pots or plug trays in order to clarify the interaction effect of cultivar and root container size on the number of days to flowering and the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence under different temperature regimens. The number of days to flowering was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, regardless of temperature regimen. Flowering was delayed at 23/18?C compared with 30/25?C for seedlings raised in either pots or plug trays. The number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in seedlings raised in plug trays than those in pots, except for 'Marryroad' at 23/18?C. Regardless of root container size, the number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence was greater in 'First Power' than in 'Reika' and 'Marryroad' at 30/25?C. These results suggest the importance of cultivar choice for the production of tomato seedlings with a small number of leaves preceding the first inflorescence using plug trays in cool conditions.
Chezhiyan, N; Shanmugasundaram, K A

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Key words: ascorbic acid, brix, characteristics, chemical composition, crop quality, crop yield, crude fibre, fruits, maturation, medicinal plants, phenolic compounds, plant composition

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 108-109.

Abstract: BSR-1 is a new high-yielding (155 kg/tree, 42 952 kg/ha), self-fruitful, and late-maturing cultivar of aonla (Emblica officinalis [P. emblica]) selected from a large number of germplasm from Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu, India. Its fruits are flattened at the base and round at the apex, with an average weight of 27.30 g/fruit. The fruits contain high total soluble solids (18.1 degrees brix) and vitamin C (620 mg/100 g of flesh), low phenol (29.75 mg/g of flesh), and high crude fibre content (4.31%).
Ryo Norikoshi, Hideo Imanishi and Kazuo Ichimura

National Institute of Floricultural Science, Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8519, Japan; Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.

Key words: Centrifugal filter device, extraction method, microwave heating, osmotic pressure, petal, rose, soluble carbohydrates.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 109-112.

Abstract: To establish a simple and rapid extraction method for soluble carbohydrate for determination of osmolar concentration in petals by HPLC analysis, a method using a centrifugal filter device with microwave heating was developed. Rose 'Sonia' petals were placed in a centrifugal filter device and heated in a microwave oven to boiling. The centrifugal filter device was centrifuged with the petals at 12,000 g for 10 min. The resulting leached solution was subjected to HPLC analysis. No significant difference in soluble carbohydrate composition was observed between the solution obtained from this method and that obtained from a conventional extraction method in which tissues are homogenized using hot ethanol solution. Changes in soluble carbohydrate concentration with flower opening in 'Rote Rose' roses were investigated using the new method. The osmolar concentrations of glucose and fructose in the petals increased during flower opening. This increase was roughly comparable to the increase in osmotic pressure in the petals. The results suggest that the method using the centrifugal filter device with microwave heating is a simple and rapid way to determine osmolar concentration of soluble carbohydrates of rose petals.
Narendra Kumar; Dimri, D C; Nigam, J K

Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agri & Tech., Hill Campus, Ranichauri - 249 199, (Uttaranchal), India.

Key words: acidity, ascorbic acid, brix, chemical composition, crop quality, cultivars, fruits, humid zones, peaches, physicochemical properties, plant composition, size, sugar content, sugars, temperate climate, volume, weight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 110-111.

Abstract: Six important peach cultivars namely, Tessia Samisto, Early White Giant, Stark Early Giant, Hales Early, Crawford Early and July Elberta, were evaluated for their physico-chemical traits under humid temperate mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal, India during 2000/01. The maximum fruit size (6.72x6.15 cm), weight (89.21 g) and volume (91.51 ml) were recorded in Crawford Early, followed by July Elberta (5.68x5.47 cm, 81.69 g and 83.14 ml, respectively). The maximum TSS (12.79 degrees Brix) and total sugars (11.56%) were also registered in July Elberta, whereas maximum acidity (0.98%) and ascorbic acid (6.42 mg/100 g) were recorded in the cultivars Hales Early and July Elberta, respectively. On the basis of these parameters, July Elberta and Crawford Early have been found superior under mid-hill conditions of Uttaranchal.
Tripathi, A N; Tripathi, S N; Shukla, R K; Pandey, G

Department of Horticulture, Janta College, Bakewar (Etawah), U.P. 206 125, India.

Key words: application rates, branches, chlormequat, crop yield, flowering, flowering date, flowers, gibberellic acid, growth, leaves, NAA, plant growth regulators, plant height, stems, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 112-113.

Abstract: A field trial was conducted during the winter season of 1998/99 in Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India to determine the optimum concentration of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA) and chlormequat (CCC) for application on French marigold. Spraying of NAA (50, 100 and 200 ppm), GA (100, 200 and 400 ppm) and CCC (200, 400 and 600 ppm) was done in February. Data were recorded for plant height, diameter of main stem, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, days to first flowering, diameter of flowers, fresh weight of flowers, number of flowers per plant, and flower yield per plant. CCC and GA application gave quite beneficial effects on these parameters. GA at 400 ppm and CCC at 600 ppm recorded the highest flower yield per plant (127.71 g) and number of flowers per plant (78.83), respectively. These chemicals had no adverse effect on the growth and flowering of French marigold.
Kenji Beppu, Makito Iino and Ikuo Kataoka

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: Fruit set rate, ovule development, Prunus avium, soil cooling

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 113-115.

Abstract: The effects of root zone cooling on flower development and fruit set of 'Satohnishiki' sweet cherry were studied. Soil temperature in pots of the tree was maintained at approximately 11?C from bud burst until petal fall, then at about 15?C until harvest by circulating cooled water through a tube coiling the pots. Root cooling did not appreciably affect flower size, pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in pistils. However, the treatment prolonged ovule longevity and markedly increased the fruit set rate. These results suggest the possibility of applying root cooling to improve the fruit set of sweet cherries grown in warm regions.
Engindeniz, S; Cukur, F; Yucel, D

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Ege, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Key words: costs, crop production, crop yield, fruit growing, peaches, production economics, profitability, returns

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 2, pages 114-118.

Abstract: Some technical and economic characteristics of peach growing in Kemalpasa, Izmir, Turkey, were examined. Data were obtained from a sample of 63 peach growers. Average yield per hectare and per tree was determined to be 16 848 kg and 37.7 kg, respectively. The average orchard size was 1.09 ha. Growers preferred square planting with 4.5 m x 4.5 m spacing rather than triangle planting. Redhaven, Cresthaven, Triogem and Dixired were the major cultivars grown. Net return per hectare and per tree was determined to be $839 and $1.88, respectively.
M. Melkamu, Tilahun Seyoum and Kebede Woldetsadik

Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Plant Science, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, P.O. Box 131, Haramaya, Ethiopia

Key words: ComCat?, manure, NP fertilization, yield, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 116-122.

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study effects of preharvest treatment of ComCat? spray, organic manure, NP fertilization and the combinations of ComCat? with the two forms of fertilizers on yield and chemical quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Total and marketable yields were significantly influenced by the preharvest treatements. The result showed that the use of ComCat? and its combination with organic manure gave the highest total yield of 58.5 and 55.8 t ha-1, respectively. At harvest, 94 and 93% of tomatoes subjected to preharvest ComCat? and ComCat? plus organic manure treatment were marketable, respectively. The chemical quality parameters tested such as total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar were significantly (P<0.01) affected by the preharvest treatments. The study clearly demonstrated the importance of integerated agro-technology in order to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of tomatoes.
Phebe Ding and Ng Swee Bee

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti PutraMalaysia, 43400 UPMSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Key words: Papaya, Carica papaya, 1-MCP, colour, firmness, weight loss, visual quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 123-128.

Abstract: Papaya is a climacteric fruit, naturally fragile and cannot resist low temperature. Thus, prolonging the postharvest life of papaya fruit for long distance transportation is highly desirable to increase its commercialisation. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been widely used to delay ripening and senescence of horticultural produces. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of 'Eksotika' papaya treated with 1-MCP and optimum concentration of 1-MCP in prolonging postharvest life of papaya. Papayas were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 uL L" of 1-MCP for 7 days at 21?C/90% relative humidity (RH). Then, the fruits were allowed to ripen at 26?C/70% RH. 1-MCP did not affect L*, C*, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, pH, vitamin C and weight loss of papaya. The ho and firmness of papaya treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP showed significant high values as compared to other concentrations. Similarly, visual quality evaluation also showed that fruits treated with 30 uL L" of 1-MCP retained green colour for 9 days and by day 13, no disease infection and shriveling was found in these fruits as compared to other concentrations. There is potential to prolong postharvest life of Eksotika papaya using 1-MCP.
Gh. Peyvast, P. Ramezani Kharazi, S. Tahernia, Z. Nosratierad and J.A. Olfati

Guilan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticultural Department, Rasht, Iran.

Key words: Broccoli, municipal solid waste compost, nitrate, yield, quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 129-131.

Abstract: A study of the nitrate uptake of Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. italica), grown with different amount of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) was conducted in 2006 on open field at the University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. The experiment was arranged in complete randomized block design with four treatments (0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg. ha-1 MSWC) and four replications. The results revealed that under prevailing local conditions, total yield of the broccoli was higher when fertilized with MSWC and low when compost was not applied to the planted area. The plants with the highest compost application (100 Mg ha-1) gave significantly highest yield at 37.03 Mg ha-1 which was statistically different from other treatments. The significant differences were found also on marketable yield with an exception at lowest compost treatment. The lowest amount of nitrate (0.197 % in DM) in broccoli edible part was with application of 50 Mg. ha-1 compost.
F.M. Saiful Islam, Hiroaki Hirai and Yoshiaki Kitaya

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

Key words: CO2 concentration, CO2 gas diffusion coefficient, Daucus carota, growth, harvest index, storage roots, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 132-136.

Abstract: Three varieties of carrot (Daucus carota L.), 'Tokinashigosun', 'Hitokuchi' and 'Kurodagosun' were cultured hydroponically with rockwool blocks (56^8^30 cm high) in a greenhouse for 90 days. Two types of rockwool block, with holes and without holes were used in the study. Rockwool blocks with holes had seven rooting holes (10 cm in depth and 2.5 cm in diameter) 8 cm apart, which were filled with vermiculite for promoting root development. Rockwool blocks without holes were used as the control for comparison. Two rockwool blocks were placed side by side in a plastic box (58x18x18 cm high) and 14 plants were grown in each plastic box. The rockwool blocks were automatically sub-irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 35 ppm total N, 14 ppm P, 59 ppm K, 23 ppm Ca, 10 ppm Mg, 0.62 ppm Fe, 0.12 ppm Mn, 0.06 ppb B, 0.02 ppm Cu, 0.04 ppm Zn and 0.01 ppm Mo. The solution was added to the plastic boxes twice a day to keep the depth of the solution at 15 cm. The fresh and dry weights of the storage roots were 2 to 3 times greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than those without holes in each variety. The storage roots produced in the rockwool blocks with holes were 2 times longer than without holes in all the varieties. The diameter of storage roots was also greater in rockwool blocks with holes than without holes. Greater weights of the whole-plant and percent harvest index were obtained in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the varieties. Carbon dioxide concentration inside the rockwool blocks at a depth of 8 cm from the top surface and 1 cm beside the storage roots were lower in the rockwool blocks with holes (0.08%) than in the without holes (0.11%). Carbon dioxide gas diffusion coefficient in the rockwool media was greater in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes. The hardness of the growing media was lower in the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite than in the without holes. Therefore, better aerating conditions inside the rockwool blocks with holes containing vermiculite and lower hardness of the media would partly account for the better growth of storage roots in the rockwool blocks with holes than in the without holes in all the tested varieties.
Anjaneya Reddy, M.S. Patil, P.R. Dharmatti and T Rajasekaram

Department of Plant Pathology, UAS, Dharwad-05, Department of Horticulture, UAS, Dharwad-05

Key words: Tomato leaf curl, ELISA, PCR and screening

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 2, pages 137-141.

Abstract: During summer 2005 out of 50 genotypes screened for tomato leaf curl virus under field conditions, none of the lines tested were resistant, however, six genotypes showed mild infection and nine genotypes showed moderate infection. In the second season, i.e., 2006 only Nandi and Vybhav showed moderate resistant reaction, along with the new commercial hybrids Hy-558, Hy-530, NS-563 and NS-719. The variety Vybhav was found superior over other varieties against the disease. The presence of virus in the symptomatic hosts was confirmed by ELISA and PCR. The plant height of the genotypes contributes to maximum extent (52.21 %) to the divergence followed by yield per plant and per cent disease incidence (10.86 % each), but the vector population contributed least (0.97 %). As a result of D2 clustering, the commercial hybrids possessing lot of diversity fall in to four different clusters, cluster II had got six entries, cluster III 3 entries, cluster IV 6 entries and cluster V only one entry wheras cluster I had 50 entries.

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Journal of Applied Horticulture