Journal of Applied Horticulture Selected Contents of Year

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Muthusamy Manoharan, Sharmin Khan and James O. Garner

Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, AR 71601, USA.

Key words: Vigna unguiculata, shoot meristem, regeneration, transformation, legumes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 40-43.

Abstract: Cowpea is a highly recalcitrant nutrient-rich leguminous vegetable crop. Efforts to genetically transform cowpea with insect-resistant genes remains a challenging task due to lack of an efficient regeneration system. We have established an efficient regeneration system in cowpea through shoot meristem. Shoot meristems were isolated from embryos that were precultured for 3-5 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 8.9 uM benzylaminopurine (BA). The isolated shoot meristems were cultured on MS medium containing 0.89 uM BA. After 3-4 weeks, multiple shoots were separated from the explant and cultured on half-strength MS medium for elongation and rooting. More than 90% of the regenerants formed roots. The rooted plantlets were transferred first to peat pellets and subsequently to the greenhouse. The plants were allowed to flower and set seed. The efficiency of regeneration in all four cultivars ranged from 76-87%, demonstrating a significant improvement over the published protocols (1-32%). At least six to seven plantlets were obtained from each meristem. The protocol using shoot meristems is simple, efficient, rapid and genotype-independent and may be amenable for transformation through particle bombardment.
Pareek, S; Dhaka, R S

Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Jobner - 303 329, India.

Key words: correlated traits, correlation analysis, crop yield, cultivars, flowering, fruits, genotypes, harvesting, path analysis, specific gravity, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 41-42.

Abstract: Ten-year-old plants of 8 commercial cultivars of Ziziphus mauritiana (Gola, Seb, Umran, Mundia, Illaichi, Tikadi, Jogiya and Bagwadi) and 3 local selections of Z. rotundifolia [Z. nummularia] (Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) were evaluated in Jobner, Rajasthan, India. Correlation and path coefficients were assessed for 13 yield attributes, i.e. duration of flowering, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone weight, stone length, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity, fruit yield and harvest duration. Fruit set, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit weight, stone diameter, pulp weight, specific gravity and harvest duration had significant positive correlation with fruit yield. Fruit length had the highest direct positive effect on fruit yield, followed by fruit weight and fruit breadth.
Pradeep Kumar; Singh, H K; Saxena, R P

Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India.

Key words: carbendazim, chemical control, copper oxychloride, disease resistance, fungal diseases, fungicides, germplasm, mancozeb, neem extracts, non wood forest products, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 43-44.

Abstract: Forty ber (Zizyphus mauritiana [Ziziphus mauritiana]) accessions, grown in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, were screened against black leaf spot disease (caused by Isariopsis indica var. ziziphi) during 1997-98 to 1999-2000 to determine the resistant source(s) for crop improvement. Tikri during 1997-98 and 1999-2000; Seedless during 1998-99; and ZG-3 during 1999-2000 were found immune. Guli, Seedless and Ber selection-5 during 1997-98; Guli, Darackhi-2, Ber selection-2, 3, 4 and 5 during 1998-99; and Jalandher, Kali, Bagwadi, Banarasi Peondi, Illaichi, Villaiti, Sanour-3, Chhohara, Katha, Seedless, Darakhi-2 and Ber selection-5 during 1999-2000 were found resistant. Other accessions showed moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against the disease. An experiment on the management of the disease was conducted with ber cv. Gola (a susceptible cultivar). Single spraying of fungicides (0.1% carbendazim, 0.2% mancozeb and 0.2% copper oxychloride) and 3.0% neem [Azadirachta indica] powder (Nimuri) at 10 lit
A. Nookaraju, S.M Barreto and D.C. Agrawal

Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India

Key words: Crimson Seedless, grapevine, micropropagation, Vitis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 44-49.

Abstract: Grapevine genotypes differ in tissue culture requirements and thus require optimized culture conditions for in vitro propagation. Single node segments of Crimson Seedless cultured on six different basal media i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS), Eriksson (ER), Gamborg (B5), Nitsch and Nitsch (NN), Woody plant medium (WPM) and Chee and Pool (C2d) showed different percentage of shoot initiation and morphogenetic responses. The maximum shoot initiation (90.0%) was observed in MS medium. Except ER, all other media induced rooting at the base of nodal segments in varying percentages though number and quality of roots and their establishment on transfer to pots varied greatly. WPM induced the maximum rooting in nodal segments (69.1%) with establishment rate of 100.0%. Induction of multiple shoots in nodal segments was achieved on inclusion of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (8.87 uM) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (1.48 uM) in the MS medium. In second sub-culture i.e., at 90 days, shoot bud proliferation could be increased many fold on transfer of these initial shoot clumps to glass bottles instead of culture tubes. The maximum average number of primary shoots (19.5 per explant) was achieved on MS with BA (8.87 uM) and IBA (1.48 uM). Elongation of shoots was achieved on MS with BA (2.22 uM) + a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.54 uM). Induction of ex vitro rooting and establishment of rooted shoots after transfer to pots was achieved in different efficiencies when shoots were given pulse treatment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or IBA or NAA at 57.08, 49.0 and 53.71 uM, respectively, for 5 or 10 min. Survival of in vitro and ex vitro-rooted shoots on potting was 90.0 and 100.0%, respectively.
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Katiyar, R S; Deepak Ohri

Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.

Key words: branches, correlation analysis, crop yield, cultivars, dry matter, genetic improvement, genetic variation, heritability, inflorescences, path analysis, plant breeding methods, plant height, sodic soils, soil types, stems, yield components, yield correlati

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 45-48.

Abstract: Eight exotic genotypes of Chenopodium quinoa were sown on normal and sodic soils in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2000-01 to compare the grain yield potential, variability and genetic association among the different component traits (plant height, stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, inflorescence length and dry weight of plant) and their direct and indirect effects on yield. High heritability and moderate genetic advance was observed for inflorescence length and grain yield on sodic soil and for stem diameter, primary branches per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, dry weight of plant and inflorescence length on normal soil. Stem diameter and number of inflorescence per plant exhibited high direct path (0.837 and 0.761, respectively) and significant positive association (0.979 and 0.967, respectively) with grain yield on sodic soil, while dry weight of plant showed high correlation (0.889) and direct path (0.972) with grain yield on normal soil. The bre
Singh, S K; Pitam Chandra; Singh, K P

PFDC, Division of Agricultural Engineering, IARI, New Delhi - 110 012, India.

Key words: automation, computer hardware, computer software, decision making, greenhouses, protected cultivation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 49-51.

Abstract: This paper discusses the automation or support system for decision making in greenhouses. This automation is practised in the form of a computer program which are governed by setpoints. The choice of setpoints for environmental parameters must be done by a reasoning process integrating the situation outside the greenhouses, and inside situation that will be managed in an advantageous manner ensuring a profitable, though safe combination of growth and development factors while keeping the energy spending within acceptable bounds and as low as possible.
A. Misra and P. Singh

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015, India.

Key words: Spearmint, Mentha spicata, Zn-efficient genotype MSS-5, protein, photosyntheis, photosynthetic pigments, Zn toxicity.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: Changes in growth attributes, photosynthesis (Pn), photosynthetic pigments with y-Glu.cys peptidase peptide and Zn accumulation in a Zn-efficient genotype of spearmint MSS-5 were investigated. Effect of phosphorus toxicity on MSS-5 were significantly different than the other genotypes; Arka, Neera and control (the local strain), in terems of phenotypic changes in height and a decrease in chlorophyll contents and CO2 exchange rate. Heavy P manuring lead to the tolerance of Zn accumulation in MSS-5 with y-Glu.cys. peptidase peptide with high protein contents and Pn. Hence, the P toxicity induced a differential utilization of y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide for higher accumulation of Zn in MSS-5 spearmint with higher photosynthetic rate for increasing the height and essential monoterpene oil(s). The study also indicated that accumulation of toxic heavy metal-Zn with y-Glu.cys.peptidase peptide made protein synthesis easier with antioxidants Zn cofactor enzymes.
Das, A K

National Research Centre for Citrus, Amravati Road, PO Box 464, Nagpur - 440 010, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: epidemiology, molecular genetics, pathogenicity, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic bacteria, plant pathogens, reviews, strains

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 52-60.

Abstract: Of all the agricultural pests and diseases that threaten citrus crops, citrus canker is one of the most devastating. The disease, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, occurs in large areas of the world's citrus growing countries including India. At least 3 distinct forms or types of citrus canker are recognized. Among these, Asiatic form (Canker A) is the most destructive and affects most of the major citrus cultivars. Severe infection of the disease produces a variety of effects including defoliation, dieback, severely blemished fruit, reduced fruit quality and premature fruit drop. Warm, humid, cloudy climate, along with heavy rainfall and strong wind promotes the disease. Control of canker in countries or regions where the disease is not present include quarantine or regulatory programme to prohibit introduction of infected citrus plant material and fruit, as well as continuous and strict surveying in the field and the immediate destruction of infected trees. In countries where canker
Anthony W. Kahtz

University of Illinois Extension, Mt. Vernon, Illinois

Key words: Biosolids, sewage sludge, Callicarpa, Ilex, pH, electrical-conductivity, nitrate.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 54-58.

Abstract: Growth of Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) 'Early Amethyst' and Ilex glabra (L.) 'Compacta' liners were evaluated in substrate containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% composted biosolids as compared to a 3:2:1 (v:v:v) pine bark:peat:sand horticultural mix. Biosolid waste substrate amended with biosolids had higher pH, EC, nitrate, bulk density and container capacity compared to a standard horticultural nursery mix. Total porosity and air-filled capacity were greater for the control compared to substrate amended with biosolids. The effects of substrate amended with composted biosolids on growth varied for each species. Callicarpa dichotoma "Early Amethyst' liners grown in substrate amended with 20, 40 and 60% biosolid waste had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to the control. Ilex glabra 'Compacta' liners grown in the control (standard nursery mix) had greater shoot and root dry weight and a better visual evaluation compared to any biosolid amended substrate. It was concluded that substrate amended with biosolid waste can be utilized for the container production of plants, however, its usage may be species specific.
M.M. ElFouly, S.H.A. Shaaban and A.A. ElSayed

Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

Key words: Olive, Olea europaea L., leaf nutrients, seasonal variations.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 59-62.

Abstract: The study was conducted for two successive years at a private farm in El-Saf, Giza, Egypt on 19 years old trees of olive cultivars, Picual, Aggizi and Manzanillo, grown in calcareous soils. Leaf nutrients were measured bi-monthly during the 2001-2002 growing season. The study revealed that most of nutrients in the soil were at inadequate level. Nutrient concentrations in the leaves of the three cultivars were nearly the same. Results revealed that leaf N ranged between low to satisfactory. P contents were adequate in spring while inadequate in summer. K leaf contents were adequate. Peaks of Mg were found to be the highest during winter. Ca peaks were observed during March-June. Fe and Zn were inadequate while Mn was adequate. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn peaked during June, which could be due the repeated foliar application of these nutrients during this period. The seasonal nutrient changes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) of the olive leaves are supposed to be used as a guide for proper fertilization. Nutrients should be added as acidic fertilizer to the soil, which is useful in calcareous and high pH conditions.
R. Crofton Sloan and Susan S. Harkness

North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 1690, Verona, MS, 38879, USA.

Key words: Zinnia elegans, zinnia, cut flower, field production

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 63-66.

Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and planting date on zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cut flower production. Parameters evaluated were the number of days to harvest, duration of harvest period for each planting date, number of stems per plant, stem length and diameter. Plants from the May planting date produced stems over a longer period of time compared to plants from the June and July plantings with the exception of 'Scarlet Splendor' from the July planting. Within each of the three planting dates, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of stems produced per plant due to the cultivar effect for 10 of the 13 cultivars evaluated. A trend of increasing stem and bloom size from the May planting date to the July planting was observed. The median number of stems produced by the zinnia cultivars in this study from the May, June, and July planting dates were respectively 21.6, 10.8 and 14.5 stems per plant for plants spaced one foot apart in the row. The potential stem yield for a single 100 ft row of the zinnia cultivars included in this trial was 2160, 1080 and 1450 stems for the production life of May, June, and July plantings, or 4690 stems for the three plantings combined. The cut flower zinnias evaluated in this study were very productive during the summer growing season.
H.S. Balpande, O. Challa and Jagdish Prasad

National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 010, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Grape, soil characterstics, growth, yield, drainage, depth, available water content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 67-69.

Abstract: Six grape growing typical pedons in Nasik district, Maharashtra were characterised and soil-site parameters were correlated with yield and yield attributes of the crop. These soils were very shallow (Darana), moderately deep (Mahiravani, Kothure), shallow (Shivdi), deep (Talegaon) and very deep (Andersool) and characterised by well drained (Darana, Mahiravani, Shivdi) and moderately well drained (Talegaon, Kothure, Andersool). The height, stem girth, spread volume, bunch per plant, berries per bunch were very much related with soil depth, drainage, pH, available water content and DTPA extractable micronutrient cations.
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P; Jagadeeswaran, R; Mahendran, P P

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, foliar diagnosis, iron, leaves, magnesium, manganese, methodology, mineral content, mineral deficiencies, nitrogen, nutrient content, nutrient deficiencies, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nut

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 5, issue 1, pages 7-10.

Abstract: The optimum levels for 12 nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the leaves of turmeric were generated using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) approaches. Approximately 500 soil and leaf samples were obtained from commercial fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during July-September 2000. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis. Approximately 9% of the turmeric growing area was severely limited by mineral nutrition. Approximately 20% was identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS. The order of nutrient imbalance was in the order S > B > Mg > Cu > P > Na > Ca > K > Zn > N > Fe > Mn based on DRIS, S > B > Cu > Ca > Na > Zn > Mg > P > Fe > Mn > K
Ruchi Bist, H. Punetha, A.K. Gaur and L.D. Bist

Department of Biochemistry, Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.

Key words: Picrorhiza kurroa, axillary bud, In vitro multiplication, micropropagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 70-72.

Abstract: Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (Kutki) has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract, fever, and to treat dyspepsia, chronic diarrhoea and scorpion sting in Ayurveda medicine owing to the presence of active principles in root and rhizomes. The plant is self-regenerating but unregulated over-harvesting has caused it to be threatened to near extinction. The current research describes a protocol of micro propagation of this important medicinal plant from establishment to hardening in field conditions. Multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from mature explants on Murashige and Skoogs (1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.25 mg L-1 kinetin (KN), 0.5 mg L-1 ascorbic acid and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Optimal rooting (86.6%) and growth of microshoots were observed on a medium containing 0.25 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 2 % (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully grown in soil.
Sadeghi Pour Marvi Mahdi

Department of Soil and Water Research, Varamin Agricultural Research Center, Ghodosi Blvd. Varamin, 3371616738, Iran.

Key words: Lactuca sativa, logistic equation, nitrogen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2003, volume 10, issue 1, pages 73-76.

Abstract: Modern fertilization recommendation must optimize crop yield and quality and minimize chances of negative environmental effects due to over fertilization. Data from fertilizer studies can be fitted to several mathematical models to determine optimum fertilizer rates, but resulting recommendations can vary depending on the model chosen. In this research, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as a case study vegetable crop to compare models for estimating fertilizer N requirements. Field studies were conducted to measure yield response to applied N. The area was located at 25?21' E longitude and 51?38' N latitude in the North of Varamin city, (Tehran province, Iran) in the alluvial plain of Varamin. Soil family was fine, mixed, active, thermic, typic haplocambids based on Soil Taxonomic system (USDA, 1999). Plants were grown in Central Research Station of Varamin and received five rates of N (0, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1) as a urea in split applications. Data for plant fresh mass and N uptake were recorded. Logistic, linear-plateau and quadratic models were compared for the field data. The logistic model described the data for cultivar quite well, with correlation coefficients of 0.90 and above. Coefficients for the linear-plateau model were derived from the logistic model. All three models for lettuce production were compared graphically and analytically. The model coefficients were used to make improved estimates of fertilizer recommendations for field production of lettuce.

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