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D. Bakhshi and O. Arakawa

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkycho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan.

Key words: Apple, light irradiation on flesh, ultraviolet-B, flavonoids, phenolic acids, high performance liquid chromatography

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 101-104.

Abstract: Effect of light irradiation on the accumulation of phenolic compounds was investigated in the flesh slices of three apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. 'Fuji' and 'Jonathan' with red skin and 'Orin' a yellow-green one were used in this study. The irradiation was carried out at 10, 17, 24 and 30C for 96 hours, using a mixture of white plus ultraviolet fluorescents. Phenolic acids, anthocyanin and flavonols were the phenolics that increased rapidly by irradiation whereas flavanols, procyanidins and dihydrochalcones did not change in either mature or in ripe fruits of all the three cultivars. There was a positive correlation between anthocyanins, phenolic acids and flavonols in examined cultivars both at the mature and ripe stages. Optimum temperature for the synthesis of phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonols was 24C regardless to the maturity stage and variety. Total phenolic content of 'Fuji' increased through ripening but it decreased in 'Jonathan' and 'Orin'. Therefore, the irradiation to the flesh might be a very useful method for the study of the regulation mechanism of the phenolic compounds accumulation.
Axelle Schauwers,Ada M.C.N. Rocha and Alcina M.M.B. Morais

KaHo Sint-Lieven Campus Rabot, Departement Industrieel Ingenieur, Gebr. Desmetraat 1, 9000 Gent Belgium; Faculdade de Ciencias da Nutrigao e Alimentagao, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200 - 465 Porto, Portugal; Corresponding author: Escol

Key words: Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., lycopene, colour, ripening, storage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 105-108.

Abstract: The ripening of tomato fruit is a highly regulated process during which colour, flavour, aroma and texture change in a coordinated manner. This research work aims to correlate the colour changes measured objectively with the lycopene concentration in tomatoes during ripening at room temperature (21 and 26?C). These results were compared with colour and lycopene content of pink and light red tomatoes stored at 14?C, temperature used to prevent ripening and therefore extend the shelf life of the fruits. The duration of heat treatment at 100?C was previously optimized in order to release the maximum lycopene from chromoplasts during extraction. An a* value of 20 for the peel corresponds to an increase of lycopene content of Caruso tomato from 9 to 43 mg/100 g TSS, at room temperature. The shelf life of pink and light red tomatoes can be extended to two weeks at 14?C without loss of lycopene content, presenting the same content as green tomatoes ripened at room temperature for one week.
Maria del R. Moreira, Alejandra G. Ponce, Carlos E. del Valle, R. Ansorena and S.I. Roura

UniversidadNacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONI-CET), Argentina. .Corresponding author: Moreira Maria del Rosario, Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria en Alimentos, Facultad de Ingenieria,

Key words: Abusive temperature storage, nutritional quality, microbiological quality, shelf life, growth models, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, ascorbic acid retention

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 109-113.

Abstract: Changes in lettuce leaf quality (ascorbic acid contents and microbial populations) at two abusive temperatures (8 and 15?C), simulating the commercial storage conditions for fresh vegetables were analyzed. A storage temperature of 8?C was chosen to simulate abusive refrigerated storage and a storage temperature of 15?C was chosen to simulate room temperature. Quality indicators evaluation in samples, stored at abusive temperatures were compared with sample from optimal storage temperature (0?C). First order kinetics is assumed for ascorbic acid degradation. Ascorbic acid degradation rate in lettuce leaves stored at abusive temperatures was from 2.7 to 2.9 times faster than at 0?C. The growth curve of total microbial counts was fitted with the Gompertz and Logistic models. These models allowed us to predict the vegetable microbiological shelf life. Temperature is the controlling factor for lettuce shelf life and quality; microbial quality was retained 1.6 and 4 times longer at 0?C with respect to 8 and 15?C, respectively.
Syavash Hemmaty, Noorollah Moallemi and Lotfali Naseri

Jahad-e-Daneshgahi, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran; Department of Horticulture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran; Department of Horticulture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Key words: UV-C irradiation, apple, 'Golden Delicious', 'Red Delicious', fruit quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 114-116.

Abstract: In this study, UV-C irradiation (1.435><10-4 w cm-2) was used to maintain fruit quality of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apple cultivars during storage. Apple fruits were irradiated in three different treatments (0, 5 and 15 min), and were stored in a cold storage at 1?1?C with 85-95% RH for 6 months. At the end of storage, irradiated fruits for 15 min had lower pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and higher titratable acids and firmness than irradiated fruits for 5 min and control fruits. A significant difference was observed among total soluble solids of irradiated 'Red Delicious' fruits for 15 min, irradiated fruits for 5 min and control fruits at the end of storage. 'Red Delicious' apples had lower total soluble solids and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and higher firmness than 'Golden Delicious' apples after 6 months. Our results showed that UV-C irradiation can be used to reduce loss of fruit quality during long period storage of apples.
S. Chandran, C.L. Toh, R. Zuliana, Y.K. Yip, H. Nair and A.N. Boyce

Institute of Biological Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur; Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology, 2 Persiaran Cempaka, Amanjaya, 0800 Sungai Petani, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

Key words: Dendrobium, pollination, ethylene, AOA, flowers, discoloration, sucrose, glucose

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 117-120.

Abstract: The vase life of detached pollinated Dendrobium (Heang Beauty) orchids are affected by loss of energy source and the production of pollination-induced ethylene. The physiological changes that follow these two events are discoloration, thinning of petals and hyponasty. In order to circumvent this problem, individual detached pollinated Dendrobium (Heang Beauty) flowers were treated with solutions containing different concentrations of sucrose or glucose, Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and a combination of sugars and AOA. Discolouration, petal thickness and hyponasty were observed and data was recorded daily. Weight loss of flowers and pH of all solutions were also measured daily. Results showed that the best treatment solution in extending the longevity of the flowers were solutions containing 4% sucrose + 0.5mM AOA. Flowers held in this treatment also showed a delay in discoloration, thinning of petals and hyponasty. The inclusion of AOA into solutions resulted in low pH and contributes to better water uptake and delayed turgor loss in flowers.
A. Koocheki, M.A. Behdani and M. Nassiri

Center of Excellence for Special Crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand, P.O.Box. 97175/331, Birjand, Iran

Key words: Saffron, irrigation interval, summer irrigation, corm size

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 121-124.

Abstract: In order to study effective factors in production of saffron, a series of studies was carried out during 2001 and 2002. In these studies, four selected location, Birjand, Qaen, Gonabad and Torbat-Haydarieh were spotted as the main saffron producing areas in Iran. Data was collected from 160 saffron farms, aged between 1 and 5 years. Results indicated that age of saffron farms, corm size, irrigation interval, and summer irrigation had positive linear relationship with yield. Age of saffron farms had the most pronounced effects on yield and was the most important component in all linear equations. Age of farms, irrigation intervals and corm size were major factors contributing to yield. The longest irrigation interval was observed for Gonabad (24 days) and the shortest was for Torbat-Haydarieh (12 days). Highest actual yield was for Torbat-Haydarieh which is an indication of better farm management in comparison with other areas. Maximum yield of 4 kg ha-1 was frequent but many farms produced over 7 kg ha-1 yield.
Ali R. ElShereif, Fusao Mizutani, Justus M. Onguso andA.B.M. Sharif Hossain

Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Hattanji 498, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799-2424, Japan; Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Key words: Aminooxy acetic acid, AOA, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, bud break, bud scale removal, dormancy, ethylene biosynthesis, grape.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 125-128.

Abstract: A study was carried out to examine the effect of bud scale removal (BSR) and aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) on bud break and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content of 'Muscat Bailey A' grapevines using single-eye cuttings. Samples were collected monthly from October to February. Single-eye cuttings were subjected to these treatments; BSR, BSR + AOA, control and AOA. The results show that in October and November, BSR and BSR+AOA were more effective on bud break without big difference between the two treatments. Whereas, control and AOA were found to be more effective from December up to February. In October, ACC content recorded a marked increase after one week and decreased afterwards under BSR and BSR + AOA. However, it showed a continuous increase under control and a reverse trend under AOA. In November, it increased after one week and decreased in the fourth week under all treatments. A continuous increase was recorded in December under all treatments. In January, there was no significant change under control with time and AOA treatment exhibited decline with time, while BSR and BSR + AOA treatments recorded small increment and then decreased. In February, it decreased under all treatments with time. The results indicate that bud break of grapevine seems to be associated with the promotion of ethylene biosynthesis caused by wounding stress.
Mohamed. A. Awad, A. A. Soaud and S. M. ElKonaissi

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, UAE University, P.O.Box. 17555 Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Permanent address: Faculty of Agriculture, Pomology Department, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura/Egypt.

Key words: Tissue culture, acclimatization, elemental sulphur, gamma aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, aspirin, vitamin E, oleic acid, ABG-3168, Phoenix dactylifera L.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 129-134.

Abstract: There is a high demand for date palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture techniques. However, such plantlets require a long acclimatization period extending 12-18 months before transplanting in the open field. The effect of foliar and soil application of anti-stress substances and elemental sulphur, respectively, on growth and survival percentage of tissue culture-derived 'Khalas' date palm plantlets during acclimatization were studied. The results showed that application of salicylic acid, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin), elemental sulphur, plantacur-E (a vitamin E formulation containing 25% ?-tocopherol) at 1%, and oleic acid at 100 ppm, significantly increased plantlet survival percentages compared to the control. In this respect, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 20 mM was the most effective treatment compared to 10 mM and the control. Salicylic acid, aspirin, elemental sulphur and plantacur-E (at 2%) significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in leaflets compared to the control. However, the macro nutrients showed no clear response to the applied treatments. Application of 250 ppm of the ethylene biosynthesis blocker, ABG-3168 (ABG), inhibited the growth of plantlets, and completely suppressed growth at 500 ppm, suggesting the potential role of ethylene biosynthesis in subsequent plantlet development. Irrigation with 10,000 ppm sea water for two months decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage by 2-3 fold compared to the control and the other treatments. GABA at 20 mM significantly increased chlorophyll concentration and decreased electrolyte leakage of leaflets compared to all the saline water treatments. In contrast, ABG at 250 ppm significantly decreased chlorophyll concentration and increased electrolyte leakage of leaflets by about 3-fold compared to all the saline water treatments. These results show potential role of GABA, salicylic acid, aspirin and oleic acid conducive for improved survival percentage of plantlets and stress tolerance during acclimatization.
Duong Tan Nhut, Nguyen Duy, Nguyen Nhu Ha Vy, Chau Diem Khue, Dinh Van Khiem and Do Nang Vinh

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Da Lat, Lam Dong, Vietnam; Institute of Agricultural Genetics, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Key words: Anthurium andraeanum, genotypes, leaf explants, callus induction, shoot regeneration, root regeneration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 135-137.

Abstract: In this study, the most critical step in Anthurium micropropagation was the induction of primary calli from leaf segments. Genotype played an important role during in vitro multiplication of Anthurium. Callus induction from leaf segments was examined in ten Anthurium cultivars: 'Carnaval', 'Neon', 'Choco', 'Sonate', 'Midori', 'Pistache', 'Tropical', 'Safari', 'Arizona' and 'Cancan' on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L1 BA, 0.08 mg L1 2,4-D, 30 g L1 glucose, 8 g L1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. After 100 days, leaf segments of eight genotypes formed calli, among them, cultivar 'Pistache' had the highest callus induction ratio (65.1%) and two genotypes, 'Carnaval' and 'Cancan', showed no response. After multiplication, calli were subcultured on shoot regeneration medium, 1/2 MS with NH4NO3 level adjusted to 0.206 g L-1, added with 20 g L-1 glucose, 1 mg L-1 BA, 8 g L-1 agar and adjusted to pH 6.0. Shoots were obtained from all cultivars with different potential of shoot regeneration. The average number of shoots per explant in 'Tropical' (10.1) was higher than that of 'Choco' (4.3) and 'Pistache' (3.5), and shoots (at least 10 mm high) were excised and cultured on rooting medium, 30 g L-1 glucose, 8 g L-1 agar and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal added to 1/4 MS medium. All shoots consistently formed roots after 30 days and plantlets developed well after being transferred to the nursery. The propagation process took 10 and a half months to complete.
M.S. Barreto,A. Nookaraju, N.V.M. Harini and D.C.Agrawal

Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune - 411 008, India.

Key words: Auxin pulse, benzyladenine, grape, micropropagation, Red Globe, Vitis vinifera

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 138-142.

Abstract: Earlier studies have shown that the degree of success at each stage of micropropagation in grapevine is genotype dependent; hence it becomes imperative to optimize culture conditions for rapid propagation of a variety. Present report describes two approaches of in vitro propagation of a Vitis vinifera cultivar, Red Globe. In one approach, whole plants could be developed from single node segments by bud break and direct rooting in vitro. Eight different basal media tried showed different morphogenetic responses. In second approach, multiple shoots were induced in nodal segments cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with BA (8.88 uM). Also, second crop of shoots could be induced in left over nodal segments devoid of shoots. Rooting of shoots could be induced in vitro, both in semi-solid or liquid media and also ex vitro by pulse treatment of IAA (2.85 uM) + NAA (2.70 uM). Plant establishment in later case was 80%. A simple procedure described here can complement conventional methods, currently being used in propagation of this important grape variety.
Kitti Bodhipadma, Sompoch Noichinda, Sasikan Udomrati, Goravis Nathalang, Boonyuen Kijwijan and David W.M. Leung

Department ofAgro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut S Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok, 10800, Thailand; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bang?kok, 10400, Thailand;

Key words: Red Agati, anthocyanin, Sesbania grandiflora, histology, development

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 143-146.

Abstract: Seeds of Red Agati (Sesbania grandiflora), an ornamental leguminous tree, were germinated in vitro under both light and dark conditions for 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The localization of anthocyanin-containing cells and level of total anthocyanin content of hypocotyl from several developmental stages were determined. In the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings, anthocyanin-containing cells were observed in epidermal and sub-epidermal layer and peripheral cortex while none was found in that of dark-grown seedlings. On day 7, the hypocotyl of light-grown seedlings had the highest anthocyanin content (290 ug/g FW). Moreover, Red Agati's petal at various developmental stages was also examined for the total anthocyanin content. It was found that the petal of 3 cm length had the highest total anthocyanin level (455 ug/g FW). It is concluded that the hypocotyl of light-grown Red Agati seedlings is an attractive alternative source of anthocyanins to the petal as the seedlings can be raised and be made available throughout the year.
M.A. Meman and K.M. Dabhi

N. M. College of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Navsari, Gujarat Agricultural University.

Key words: Gerbera, Gerbera jamesonii Hook., stalk length, chemicals, vase life, sucrose, citric acid, HQC

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 147-150.

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different stalk lengths and certain chemical substances on vase life of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii Hook.) Cv. 'Savana Red'. Twenty treatment combinations consisting of four chemicals viz., sucrose 4 %, sucrose 4 % + 8-HQC 250 ppm , sucrose 4 % + aluminum sulphate 100 ppm , sucrose 4 % + citric acid 250 ppm , along with control (distilled water) and four lengths of stalk viz., 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm. The vase solution of sucrose 4% + 8-HQC 250 ppm and stalk length of 60 cm, individually and in combination increased fresh weight of flowers by promoting solution uptake. These treatments are also beneficial for improving the vase life of flowers and useful life of flowers, opening of disc florets, with bright, shining red colour and freshness for a longer duration.
Yun Li, Daling Feng, Zhenyuan Sun and Chen Niu

College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China. 1 Current addres College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, China. 2Research Institute of Forestry,

Key words: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, axillary buds, micropropagation, B5 medium, benzylaminopurine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: Parthenocissus quinquefolia L. was successfully micropropagated through axillary bud multiplication from seedling explants. Shoot tips were isolated from seedlings and cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 1.33-2.22 uM benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.107 uM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to induce axillary buds. The sprouted axillary buds formed multiple shoots when cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 2.22 uM BA and 0.246-0.49 uM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The elongated shoots rooted in B5 medium containing 0.49 uM IBA and they survived from acclimatizing in soil to grow into healthy plants.
J. OfosuAnim, E.T. Blay, and M.E. Frempong

Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana,

Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, okra, organic manure, soil characteristics, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 155-158.

Abstract: The effect of different organic manures (cow dung, poultry manure and compost) on the yield of okra, soil physical and chemical characteristics was investigated at the University of Ghana, Legon. Results obtained revealed that the application of recycled garden solid waste compost, poultry manure and cow dung improved the soil physical condition, particularly, structure and drainage, increased nutrient and organic matter levels and enhanced the yield components of okra plants. Inorganic fertilizer improved only chemical properties, but soil physical properties such as structure was not improved. There were improvements in pod yield, yield components and pod fibre content on all manured plots. The study clearly inidicated the superiority of poultry manure over cow dung and compost as a source of manure for okra production.
T Alimi, O.C. Ajewole, O.O. OlubodeAwosola and E.O. Idowu

Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti

Key words: Vegetable, commercial organic fertilizer, marginal rate of return, constraints, Osun State, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 159-164.

Abstract: The fragility and high susceptibility of the soils in Nigeria to degradation and loss of nutrients make augmentation through the use of fertilizers necessary to obtain reasonable crop yield. The use of market oriented organic fertilizer is being encouraged to improve soil fertility and there is the need to determine the economic rationale of this technology. This study determined the change in net income of users of commercial organic fertilizer (UCOF) relative to non-users of fertilizers (NUF) in vegetable crop production in Osun State of Nigeria to find out if its use should be encouraged based on economic reason only. Nested sampling technique was used in selecting UCOF and NUF respondents. Data on yield, quantities and prices of inputs and output; and reasons for non-use of commercial organic fertilizer were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, partial budgetary technique, sensitivity analysis and importance ranking. Analyses indicated that UCOF applied 610kg ha-1 of commercial organic fertilizer resulting in additional yield (3,375kg ha-1) and rate of returns (401%) over and above the NUF, making the use of organic fertilizer technology economically superior to non-use of fertilizers. Constraints to the use of commercial organic fertilizer are doubtful efficacy, offensive odour, heavy weed infestation, bulkiness and lack of funds in descending order of importance which if eliminated will boost demand for commercial organic fertilizer and improve production of vegetable for consumption.
K.C. Das, P.A. Annis, E. W.Tollner and S. Dudka

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Interior; Depart?ment of Crop and Soil Sciences, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-4435, USA.

Key words: Bioconversion, wool, composting, wood wastes, economic analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 165-169.

Abstract: Composts produced from a mixture of fibrous wool by-products and other components (e.g., wood-shavings, cotton-gin trash, yard waste, biosolids, etc.) have a high concentration of nitrogen and low concentrations of regulated trace elements. Some have low soluble salts content and have slightly acidic to neutral pH. These composts met standards of the US EPA of an exceptional quality product and were successfully used to grow ornamental crops in a greenhouse and to establish turfgrass from seeds. Market research showed that the turfgrass industry and retail garden centers would be the largest and most profitable markets for fibrous wool-based composts and potting mixes. Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP) indicated that production and sale of about 17,200 tonnes per year of the compost product would be a break-even point in units for a hypothetical compost production and marketing business. Since composting is also a waste management operation, revenues from accepting waste (tipping fees) does improve business profitability.
J Muhtaseb and H Ghnaim

Irrigated Research Program, National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), P.O. Box: 639, Baqa'a, Jordan.

Key words: Male, pollen, Hayyani, pollination, maturity, fruit quality, date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 170-172.

Abstract: To study the effect of pollen source on the productivity, maturity and fruit quality of 'Hayyani' date palm, one local and three commercial male varieties were used during 2002. Effect of pollen source on 'Hayyani' fruit-set and yield was statistically not significant, however, trees pollinated with 'Mejhool' pollen recorded the highest fruit-set and yield. The largest fruit weight, length and diameter were obtained when trees pollinated with 'Barakah' male. In addition, pollen source had no or little effects on 'Hayyani' fruit maturity, however, fruits of trees pollinated with 'Jarvis' male matured earlier while in trees pollinated with 'Barakah' showed delayed maturity. Moreover, 'Hayyani' trees pollinated with 'Barakah' pollen gave the highest fruit flesh %.
Yueju Wang, Michael Wisniewski, Richard Meilan, Minggang Cui and Leslie Fuchigami

Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331-7304, USA, BUSDA-ARS, 45 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV, 25430-9606, USA, CForestry & Natural Resource Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2072, U

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, overexpression, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), heat, UV-B, oxidative stress, sunscald.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 87-90.

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, are by-products of biological redox reactions. ROS can denature enzymes and damage important cellular components. Plants develop antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to scavenge ROS and detoxify them. The effect of increased cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) on heat and UV-B stress tolerance was studied using transformed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Zhongshu No. 5) plants. This research demonstrates, in either laboratory or field tests, the potential to enhance tolerance to heat, UV-B, and sunscald stress by gene transfer. Overexpression of cAPX in transgenic tomato enhanced resistance to heat (40 ?C) and UV-B stress compared to wild-type plants. When leaf disks were placed at 40 ?C for 13 hours, the electrolyte leakage of disks from wild-type were 93%, whereas two tested transgenic lines (A9, A16) exhibited 24% and 52% leakage respectively. When fruits of wild-type and transgenic plants were exposed to UV-B (2.5mW cm-2) for five days, the extent of browning was 95%, and 33%, and 37%, respectively. In field tests, the detached fruits from field-grown transgenic plants showed more resistance to exposure to direct sunlight than fruits from wild-type plants. APX activity in leaves of cAPX transgenic plants was several folds higher than in leaves of wild-type plants when exposed to heat, UV-B, and drought stresses.
Ignasi Iglesias and SimA Alegre

Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentdries (IRTA) - Estacio Experimental de Lleida, Avda. Rovira Roure, 191. 25198-Lleida, Spain.

Key words: Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., 'Mondial Gala', net, hail protection, insurance, radiation, temperature, humidity, vigour, fruit colour, quality, cost, benefit.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 2, pages 91-100.

Abstract: The effects of crystal (transparent) and black nets on the protection of fruits from hail, the interception of light, temperature, humidity and fruit quality were evaluated over four seasons (from 2000 to 2003) at the IRTA-Experimental Station, Lleida (NE-Spain) on 'Mondial Gala' apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Nets demonstrated their efficiency for fruit protection against hail; decreased maximum orchard temperatures and increased minimum temperatures and relative humidity. Based on PAR values, on sunny days, the black net intercepted 25% more incident radiation than the control and the crystal net intercepted 12% more. The use of black net resulted in a significant reduction of colour intensity and days taken for maturity, and provided lower average yields for fruit harvested at the first picking. The crystal net was associated with intermediate values between black net and control, or similar values to those of the control. Both nets reduced fruit temperature and the incidence of sunburn improving global skin quality. The black net increased the vigour of the trees. Fruit firmness was not affected by the use of nets. Soluble solid content decreased when black net was used, while maturity was delayed in some seasons. There were no consistent effect with respect to titratable acidity and fruit cracking. The annual cost of the anti-hail nets was 1874 to 1612 ? ha1, respectively, for crystal and black nets, depending mainly on the durability of the net. The annual cost of insurance was 760 ? ha1 and was determinated by site, cultivar, yield and price insured, and was lower than that of covering by nets. The gross profit corresponding to the crystal net (8896 ? ha1) was lower to the control/insurance (9223 ? ha1) and greater to the black net (7842 ? ha1) because of the reduction in fruit colour. With 'Mondial Gala' apples, the use of both colour nets was not economically beneficial compared to the control.
Randal. L. Shogren and Monica David

Plant Polymer Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA/ARS, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, University of Illinois Extension, 1201 South Dorner Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, Corresponding author.

Key words: Degradable mulch, soybean oil, sustainable agriculture, vegetable production

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 12-14.

Abstract: This project was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a biodegradable paper/cured vegetable oil mulch with newspaper/straw and bare soil for reducing weed growth and promoting vegetable yields. There were no significant differences in total tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or pepper (Capsicum annum) yields between the different mulch types. The coated paper and newspaper/straw mulches were effective in preventing weed growth around the plants while hand weeding was required for the bare soil plots. After 3 months, there was slight degradation (a few cracks, names are necessary to report factually on available data; however the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name. USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. holes) of the coated paper mulches but not enough to allow noticeable weed penetration or detachment of the buried edge. Paper/cured oil mulch rolls appear to be a convenient and effective alternative to laborious hand weeding or spreading of newspaper and straw for vegetable gardening.
D.T. Nhut, M.T. Ngoc Huong, D.V. Khiem and J.A. Teixeira da Silva

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Dalat Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: Compact 3U, Neon, Cymbidium 'Tim Hot', Lilium longiflorum, Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da'

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 15-20.

Abstract: A novel lighting system (Compact 3U) was successfully applied to the micropropagation of some horticultural plants. Cymbidium 'Tim Hot', Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were used for this study. To compare in vitro growth of plantlets placed under Neon and Compact 3U lighting systems, Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on !/2 MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar under two lighting sources at 45 |amolm-2s-1. After three weeks of culture, the shoot and root length, leaf area and fresh weight of strawberry plantlets under Compact 3U system were significantly higher than those grown under Neon system. To clarify the effect of irradiance of Compact 3U system on the development of plantlets, Cymbidium 'Tim Hot' shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA, 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 100% coconut water, 25 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar, Lilium longiflorum and Fragaria vesca cv. 'My Da' shoots were cultured on V MS medium supplemented with 1 gl-1 activated charcoal, 30 gl-1 sucrose and 8 gl-1 agar at different irradiances: (1) Neon at 45 |amolm-2s-1 (control), and Compact 3U at: (2) 45 ^molm-2s-1, (3) 60 |amolm-2s-1, and (4) 75 ^molm-2s-1. The results showed that plantlets of the three genera adapted differently to irradiances and lighting sources, but in all, the growth of plantlets were better under the Compact 3U system. Futhermore, ex vitro plantlets derived from Compact 3U system also developed better than those from Neon system.
Lotte von Richter and CatherineA. Offord

Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Mount Annan Botanic Garden, Mount Annan Drive, Mount Annan, NSW2567, Australia.

Key words: Nutrition, controlled-release fertiliser, nitrogen, Actinotus helianthi, flannel flower, cut flower

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 21-24.

Abstract: Two controlled-release fertiliser (CRF) formulations, Nutricote Total ? 13N : 5.7P : 10.8K (N13) and Nutricote Total ? 18N : 2.6P : 6.6K (N18), were applied at 0, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 5 and 10 kg m-3, to flannel flower (Actinotus helianthi Labill.) seedlings grown in soil-less potting mix in containers. After five months, during peak spring flowering, a number of characters relating to the quality of the cut flower product of this species were assessed. As the rate of fertiliser application increased, the plant height, total number of stems, number of flowering stems and number of flowers and buds increased. There were significantly more stems and flowers overall, and more flowering (saleable) stems, in the N18 treatments at all application rates. Plant height was not affected by fertiliser formulation. Basal foliar necrosis, which scored highly in the control treatment (0 fertiliser), was reduced by fertiliser application.
Muhammad Munir and Farhat Naz (United Kingdom &

School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK. Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. Pakistan.

Key words: Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, apical dominance, growth, flowering.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 25-28.

Abstract: Plants of an early flowering Antirrhinum cultivar 'Chimes White' were pinched at 4, 5, 6, and 7 leaf-pair stage to observe the effects on flowering time and plant quality. Though control plants flowered earlier (81 days) than the pinched ones, they produced less number of flower buds. Flower time and rate of progress to flowering in pinched plants increased linearly and significantly. The quality of pinched plants regarding branch numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant fresh weight etc. was significantly improved in all treatments. Many plant growth parameters were successfully fitted by the second degree polynomial model whereas linear model indicated a good fit in reproductive development.
Y A. Batta

Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, P. O. Box 425 (Tulkarm), West Bank, Palestine

Key words: Grape, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor piriformis, Trichoderma harzianum, difenoconazole, captan, cyprodinil + flodioxonil, metalaxyl + mancozeb, postharvest

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 29-32.

Abstract: The present research deals with the effect of postharvest treatment of grape berries with four commonly used fungicides and two forms of Trichoderma harzianum on the infection with soft-rot fungi- Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor piriformis. This effect was evaluated by comparison of the external diameter of rot-lesion in treated and untreated berries, in addition to comparison of percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control. Results indicated that the infection with R. stolonifer and M. piriformis was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all treated berries in comparison with untreated control berries. The highest reduction in mean external rot-lesion diameter was obtained for both R. stolonifer and M. piriformis when inoculated berries were treated with Score? (difenoconazole) applied at 0.35%(v/v) or Switch? (cyprodinil + flodioxonil) applied at 0.20%(w/v) or formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion applied at 9.6x108 conidia/ml of formulation (13.5, 13.2, and 19.3 mm, respectively for R. stolonifer; 7.2, 7.5, and 19.2mm, respectively for M. piriformis). The greatest decrease in percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control was also obtained for both the fungal species when inoculated berries were treated with the same type of fungicides (Score? and Switch?) and Trichoderma (formulated T. harzianum in invert emulsion) (60.9, 61.7, and 44.1%, respectively for R. stolonifer; 74.5, 73.4, and 31.9%, respectively for M. piriformis). Overall results indicate that the most effective treatment obtained on grape berries could be integrated with other control measures being usually used in grape berry-rot management plans by alternating fungicidal treatment (e.g. Score? or Switch?) with application of formulated T. harzianum conidia in invert emulsion.
E.M. Khah, E. Kakava,A. Mavromatis, D. Chachalis and C. Goulas

University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytoko Street, 38446, N. Ionia, Magnesias, Volos, Greece;**NationalAgricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), PlantProtec

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon hirsutum, grafting, rootstock, scion, tomato, yield.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 3-7.

Abstract: Seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. 'Big Red' were used as scion and rootstock (self-grafted) and non-grafted control, while two hybrid tomatoes 'Heman' and 'Primavera' were used as rootstocks. Grafted and non-grafted plants were grown in the greenhouse and in the open-field. Grafted plants (BH and BP) were more vigorous than the non-grafted ones in the greenhouse as well as in the open-field. Plants grafted onto 'Heman' and 'Primavera' produced 32.5, 12.8% and 11.0 and 11.1% more fruit than the control (B) in the greenhouse and the open-field, respectively, whereas self-grafted plants BB had a lower yield in both cultivation conditions. However, the self-rooted plants B presented earliness in their performance, probably due to the lack of stress that followed the grafting operation. Quality and qualitative fruit characteristics were not affected by grafting.
Liu ZhaoPu, Zhao GengMao, Liu Ling, Zheng QingSong

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China.

Key words: Amino acid, aloe qualities, nitrate, protein, total nitrogen

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 33-36.

Abstract: Diluted seawater such as 10% (10 volumes of seawater and 90 volumes of freshwater), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used to irrigate Aloe vera L. during four successive years in Ledong region, Hainan Province of China. The effect of seawater irrigation on nitrogen metabolism of aloe plant was studied. Total nitrogen content of aloe leaves ranged from 1.48 to 1.56 % of dry matter, and no significant differences were observed between control (freshwater irrigation) and seawater treatments. The total nitrogen content of aloe roots, in the range of 0.74 to 0.85 % of dry matter, was much lower than that in the leaves. There was no significant difference in total nitrogen content of roots between control and seawater treatments. It is suggested that seawater treatments do not affect nitrogen uptake and transport in aloe plant. The nitrate content in aloe leaves irrigated with seawater was much lower than that with fresh water irrigation, and a continuous decline in nitrate content was noted with increasing seawater concentration. The nitrate/total nitrogen ratio also tends to decrease in leaves suggesting that nitrate has been assimilated into osmoregulated substances under seawater stress. The amino acid content of aloe plant was not affected, while the ratios of amino acid/total nitrogen significantly increased under seawater stress as compared with control. The protein content and protein/total nitrogen ratios were not affected by seawater treatment except for 100%, suggesting that there was a favourable transformation from amino acids to proteins under salt stress. It is concluded that a long term irrigation by diluted seawater on leachable sandy soil with excessive annual rain precipitation could effectively maintain yield and improve the quality of aloe.
L.Andrews and R.A.I. Brathwaite

Caroni Research Station, Waterloo Road, Carapichaima, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus

Key words: Citrus, Valencia, Ortanique, mandarin, mineral nutrition, yield, fruit set, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 37-41.

Abstract: Low yields of citrus in Trinidad prompted an investigation to determine whether infield yield variation in citrus was due to differences in plant nutrition induced by field variability. Selected trees of three cultivars (Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis), Portugal mandarin (C. reticulata) and Ortanique tangor (C. sinensis x reticulata) were monitored for one to two years and indicators of yield such as percent fruit set, fruit count and fruit quality measured. Leaf nutrient content of the trees and nutritive factors of the soil in the root zone were also determined. Nutrient deficiencies were found in the fields of all the three cultivars. The most common deficiencies were of calcium, zinc and magnesium. There was limited evidence of yield correlation with soil pH (P = 0.012), and leaf phosphorus content (P = 0.02), Zn (P = 0.005) and N (P = 0.001). DRIS analysis supported the notion that infield yield variability was associated with nutrients that were limiting. Percent fruit set was associated with Ca/Mg ratio (r = 0.542, P = 0.045; r = 0.607, P = 0.016) and foliar concentration of micro elements Cu (r = 0.738, P = 0.003; r = 0.667, P = 0.007) and Fe (r = 0.507, P = 0.064; r = 0.573, P = 0.026) in 1997 for one field each of Valencia orange and Portugal mandarin, respectively. The most commonly derived relationship for fruit quality was a negative relationship of leaf nitrogen concentration with fruit weight. A positive relationship between leaf concentration of manganese and peel thickness occurred in Portugal mandarin for the two years of the study.
Esmaeil Chamani, Donald E. Irving, Daryl C. Joyce, MosaArshad

Centre for Native Floriculture, School of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queens?land 4343, Australia; 'Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Mohaghghegh Ardebil University, Ardebil, Iran, ''Horticulture Department

Key words: Postharvest, thidiazuron, vase life, Rosa hybrida, lateral shoot, pulse treatment, cut flower, longevity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 42-44.

Abstract: Effects of postharvest-applied thidiazuron (TDZ) on the vases life of 7 rose cultivars (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. Cut rose flowers were pulse-treated with TDZ for 24 hours at 22 oC. Application of 20, 60 and 100 uM TDZ to 'Memoire' rose did not affect vase life when compared with the control (0 uM TDZ). Similarly, pulse treatments with 10 uM TDZ did not affect the vase life of cvs. 'Champagne', 'Laser', 'Magnum', 'Neon' and 'Tresor 2000' roses compared with their untreated controls, but did increase the vase life of 'First Red' by 2 days (+11.5 %). Lateral shoot development was a common side effect of TDZ treatment.
Ahmed A. ElObeidy

Department of Fruit Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Apple cactus, Cereus, drought resistance, hyper-arid environment, water use efficiency.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 45-49.

Abstract: Introducing new crop with high water use efficiency into the hyper-arid environment will participate in curb rising demand of water. Apple cactus (Cereus species) characteristics fit with most of the requirements of a drought tolerant crop with very high water-use efficiency. Several Cereus species were introduced into a desert, characterized with rare rainfall and high temperatures. The introduced fruiting species were Cereus hexagonus, C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. validus. C. pachanoi was introduced as a rootstock. C. peruvianus cuttings survived storage up to eight months. Horizontal position of the cuttings during storage encouraged the development of lateral branches. Plants were propagated by cuttings, acclimatized and then transplanted into the field in the desert. Growth and development of the introduced species were assessed under the new environment. All the introduced species grew successfully except C. validus that was eliminated during the first summer. C. peruvianus monstrose was characterized with dramatic contraction of the stem in the dry condition. The main stem of C. peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose, C. hexagonus and C. pachanoi grew 9.2, 10.2, 8.1 and 15 cm/month, respectively. C. peruvianus developed the highest number of sprouts. C. Peruvianus, C. peruvianus monstrose and C. hexagonus unite with the C. pachanoi to form successful grafts with percentage of success 80, 53 and 86.5, respectively. C. validus failed completely to unite with C. pachanoi. C. peruvianus and C. peruvianus monstrose were the most promising in the new hyper-arid environment in terms of adaptability and healthy growth.
Manjusha Dhane, S.A.Tamhankar, S.G. Patil, G.S. Karibasappa and V.S. Rao

Genetics Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar Road, Pune-411004.National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm, Pune-412307.

Key words: Diversity, genetic relationships, ISSR markers, grape varieties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 50-52.

Abstract: As a result of large-scale introduction, the origin and authenticity of many grape varieties is unclear and the subject of some controversy. This has led to confusion regarding their correct identification. Molecular markers have proved to be useful to analyze the genetic relationships as well as diversity between different grape varieties. In the present study, 34 grape varieties have been characterized using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 93 ISSR primers screened initially, 11 showed good polymorphism. Total 174 bands were obtained, out of which 145 were polymorphic. The pair wise similarity indices were calculated from the band data. Cluster analysis of the varieties resulted in the formation of two main clusters, one belonging to Vitis vinifera and other to V. labrusca. Varieties belonging to V. vinifera appeared more diverse and formed distinct sub-clusters based on their colour, flavour and seeds. Out of 34 varieties screened, 10 varieties with green/yellow berries were grouped together in one subcluster and 15 with red/black berries in the other. Three varieties with green/ yellow berries, Italia, Queen of Vineyard and Thompson seedless were grouped with the varieties with red/black berries. The cluster of labrusca varieties showed homogeneity and had five varieties except Dakh, which belongs to vinifera. Concord separates initially from all other varieties. Incidentally, Concord is a pure selection from V. labrusca, while other varieties like Bangalore Blue, Black Muscat, Catawba and Muzzafar Nagar in labrusca group, may be the hybrids of V. abrusca x V. vinifera. The current study thus revealed that genetic relationships among grape cultivars could be assessed using ISSR markers.
K.H. Mohsen, Ebrahim, IbrahimA. Ibrahim, HamdyA. Emaraand Ewald Komor

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Egypt, Department of Plant Physiology, Bayreuth University, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany

Key words: Banana (Musa spp. L.), medium (solid/liquid), micropropagation, osmotic stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG), proline, sugars

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 53-57.

Abstract: Shoot tip explants of the Egyptian banana cultivars Maghraby, Valery, Grand Nain and Hindy were tested for their tolerance to water stress. Shoot survival, shoot growth and root growth stimulation in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was strongest in cultivar Hindy followed by Grand Nain, Maghraby and Valery. The accumulation of soluble sugars and proline in shoots was positively correlated with the applied polyethylene glycol concentration, while the reverse was true for N, P and K content. The cultivar Hindy exhibited higher metabolite accumulation response and cultivar Maghraby the least. The effects were most clear on liquid medium whereas solid (agar) medium exerted some additional effects increasing the osmotic stress at low PEG concentrations and alleviating the PEG effect at high PEG concentrations. In conclusion, the cultivar Hindy appeared to be the most tolerant to water stress because of strong accumulation of compatible solutes and greater stimulation of root development.
Fredah. K. Rimberia, S. Adaniya, M. Kawajiri, N. Urasaki, S. Kawano, T. Etoh and Y. Ishimine

Facultiy of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Southern Plant Co., Ltd., Kochinda, Okinawa 901-0401, Japan. Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Sakiyama, Naha, Okinawa 903-0814, Japan. Facultiy of

Key words: Fruit swelling, gibberellins, papaya (Carica papaya), parthenocarpy, sex types.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 58-61.

Abstract: To improve the productivity of vegetable papaya in subtropical regions, 1) fruit setting rate (parthenocarpic ability) and fruit productivity between sex types (females and hermaphrodites) and among cultivars; and 2) effect of gibberellins (GAs) on fruit swelling, was studied. In both sex types, the number of fruits per tree correlated more closely with fruit yield than with individual fruit weight. Females produced higher number of fruits per tree, thus attaining a higher fruit yield than hermaphrodites. A variation in parthenocarpic ability was observed among cultivars, and this ability was higher in female plants than in hermaphrodites. These results suggest that it is possible to grow female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability. However, parthenocarpic fruits were significantly smaller than those produced by pollination. GA treatment was found to be effective for promoting fruit swelling under greenhouse conditions. Thus, in the greenhouse production of papaya, GA treatment was more efficient than hand pollination. Based on these results, we suggest that in subtropical regions, efficient production of papaya fruit for use as a vegetable may be realized by selection and cultivation of female cultivars with high parthenocarpic ability and promotion of fruit swelling by GA treatment.
Mohammad E. Amiri

Department of Horticulture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

Key words: Hyperhydration, medium composition, multiplication, root formation, tissue culture, Prunus amygdalus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 62-64.

Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the potential of mineral dependent growth of almond in vitro. Shoot-tip of almond (Prunus amygdalus L. var. Binazir) was subcultured on four different concentrations (4, 6, 8, 10 gl1) of gelled modified de Fossard medium (de Fossard, 1976) with four relative concentrations (0X, 0.2X, 1X and 2X basal medium) containing BA 0.75 mgl-1 and NAA 0.75 mgl-1. As mineral concentration increased, both growth and multiplication rate significantly (P=0.05) increased. But increase was not proportional. There was a negative relationship between mineral concentration and root formation. Agar concentration affected the percentage of root formation and hyperhydration. The greatest amount of growth (fresh weight 29%, and dry weight 0.30%) were obtained in the high (2X) mineral concentration with low agar (6 gl-1) treatment after 8 weeks culture period. The highest multiplication rate (7-8 number month-1) was also obtained in the same treatment (2X mineral and 6 gl-1 agar concentrations). No hyperhydration was observed in high agar concentration treatments. This means, increasing agar concentration resulted in decreased hyperhydration phenomenon, however, growth and multiplication rate decreased as agar concentration increased. Highest percentage (68%) of root formation was obtained in low mineral and low agar concentration treatment. Multiplication rate was 2-4 month-1 at low (0.5X) concentration and increased to 7-8 at high (2X) concentration.
M.I..Sai, A. Fardous. M. Muddaber. S. El Zuraiqi L. Al Hadidi. I. Bashabsheh

Water Management and Environment Research Program. National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer "NCARTT". Jordan, BALQA -Baq'a, P.O.Box 639, 19381.

Key words: Rose, R. indica, R. canina, R. hybrida, salinity, reclaimed water, media, rootstock, sodium, tuff

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 65-69.

Abstract: The effect of three irrigation regimes of low quality water (the effluent of reclaimed wastewater from Ramtha treating plant) on soil, drained water and plant tissue chemical composition of First Red cut flower rose cultivar grown on three rootstocks Rosa indica, Rosa canina, and Natal Briar was investigated for two successive years 2003 and 2004 in two planting media soil and Zeotuff. Phosphorus showed intermediate levels in both depths. Potassium in soil accumulated at high levels, especially at 0-20 cm depth. Manganese, copper, and zinc showed no accumulation in soil, iron reached high levels in both depths of soil. Less salinity build up was shown by the three irrigation treatments in soil than water drained from tuff beds regardless of rootstock used for the First Red rose cultivar during the first year, 2003. Both EC and SAR reached a steady status throughout the second year 2004. Based on the nutrient standards mentioned for rose tissue in the literature, the only macro and micro element accumulation was recorded for sodium in the tissue of First Red rose planted in both media during both years and iron in both media during the first year only, regardless of water treatment.
J. M. Onguso, F. Mizutani,A.B.M. Sharif Hossain andA. R. ElShereif

The Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 498 Ko, Hattanji, Matsuyama City, Ehime 799 - 2424, Japan.

Key words: Brix, dwarfing techniques, liquid nitrogen, partial ringing, total shoot length

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 70-74.

Abstract: Effect of partial ringing and liquid nitrogen application on the growth and fruit quality of peach was studied. Twelve five-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch.), cv. 'Hikawa Hakuho' grafted on wild peach rootstock were randomly selected for this experiment in April 2004. A 4 cm wide partial ring of bark was removed from eight of them at a height of 25 cm above the graft union leaving a 5 mm connecting strip. Four of the ringed trees were treated with liquid nitrogen at the ringed portions while the rest were intact trees as controls. Both partial ringing and partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen treatment led to reduced shoot length, fruit acidity, total shoot length and weight of pruned branches but increased soluble solids content. Liquid nitrogen had little additive effect on partial ringing in terms of these parameters. Both treatments had a similar effect on tree and fruit characteristics as evidenced by similar bark width recovery and fruit diameter. The use of partial ringing plus liquid nitrogen application in commercial peach orchards promises to be slightly more efficient in causing shoot length reduction while improving fruit quality.
J. Muhtaseb, H. Ghnaim and A. Sheikh

Irrigated Agriculture Research Program,National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), Jordan. Ministry of Agriculture, Jordan.

Key words: Fruit quality, rootstocks, sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, juice content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 75-77.

Abstract: Fruit quality of three orange varieties: 'Salustiana', 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin' grafted on four rootstocks viz., Sour orange (Citrus aurantium), 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata), C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla were evaluated in Jordan Valley. Results indicated that sweet orange grafted on C. macrophylla and C. volkameriana gave the largest fruit weight, diameter and length, while those grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the smallest fruit. In addition, 'Salustiana' on C. macrophylla, 'Pineapple' on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Hamlin' on both C. volkameriana and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest juice percentage, however, 'Salustiana' on sour orange, 'Pineapple' on C. macrophylla and 'Hamlin' on sour orange and C. macrophylla had the least. Orange trees on sour orange and 'Cleopatra' mandarin gave the highest TSS percentage, while on C. volkameriana and C. macrophylla it was low. Moreover, 'Salustiana' grafted on C. macrophylla gave low juice pH while on 'Cleopatra' mandarin it gave high juice pH, the opposite was observed for 'Pineapple' and 'Hamlin'
Sunita Singh and S.D. Kulkarni

Agro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal (MP), India.

Key words: Banana handling, artificial ripening, texture, Ethephon, banana beverage, texture, and banana grades.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 78-81.

Abstract: This study relects on varied maturity levels of available raw and ripe bananas at market level, scope of improvements in quality of bananas by ripening technique and to generate newer avenues for value addition. Raw bananas from the market were ripened in June month both by crude market and standard BIS methods. The final ripeness textural range differed due to ripening methods used {28.56 N (crude market method) and 46.57 N (BIS method) a 63.06 % increase} as compared to available ripe grades in market (same month -June) (13.01 ? 0.99 N) entering after ripening by crude method. Initial texture of available raw grades used as above (June month) was 99.36 ? 10.84 N. The over-ripe bananas (~15 % of bananas available for sale in mandi) if used for beverage yielded an alcoholic drink (with ~8 % alcohol). The processed over-ripe bananas were compared to sale of over-ripe bananas to show potential value addition.
Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes and Charles de Araujo

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal, 36570-000, Vi?osa-MG. Brazil

Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, unheated greenhouse, drip irrigation, SPAD, plant nutrition

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 8-11.

Abstract: This study evaluated the feasibility of using SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter and plant visual aspect for N management in drip fertirrigated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under unheated greenhouse. Two separate experiments were carried out at Universidade Federal de Vi?osa - MG ? Brazil in leached and non-leached soils under greenhouse. Six treatments were evaluated in a randomised complete-block design with four replicates. In treatment 1, N was applied at the time SPAD reading in leaf dropped below a critical value previously established for the specific plant physiological stage (SPAD-1). In treatments 2 and 3, SPAD critical values were increased 20 % (SPAD-2) and decreased 10% (SPAD-3), respectively. In treatment 4, the visual aspect of tomato plant (PVA) was utilized as a criterion of N management. In treatments 5 and 6 (check), N rates were 280 and 0 kg N ha-1, respectively. Total applied N rates ranged from 0 to 594 kg N ha-1. In both the experiments, total and marketable fruit yields were highest in SPAD-1 treatment which only differed from the check plot. All five criteria allowed high total tomato fruit yields but, as experiments average, N use efficiency was highest with the PVA treatment. The highest net income was obtained with SPAD-1 treatment and was associated with the highest yield. The results indicate that a SPAD meter can provide a quantitative measure of the N requirement of the tomato plants as long as appropriate SPAD critical values are established. Visual ratings of plant canopy needs to be more evaluated and improved.
Reza Sedaghat and S. Suryaprakash

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute, Iran, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Key words: Pistachio, Iran, export, production problems, productivity, economics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2006, volume 8, issue 1, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Pistachio is one of the most important agricultural crop in Iran. The country earns sizable income from pistachio export. To be globally competitive, the production and trade of pistachio must be economically viable especially in long run. This paper aims to analyze the constraints in production and marketing of Pistachio in Iran. Necessary data were collected through personal interview of randomly selected sample of farmers and exporters/ processors. One hundred farmers and ten processor/ exporters interviewed in Kerman province and Tehran city (Iran), in the crop year 2003-04. The Garret ranking technique was adopted to identify the constraints. Farmers and traders were asked to rank the problems considered. Farmers ranked 14 problems into 9 different categories. Differences between scores adopted for different categories were low and they varied from 74 to 87, indicating that all the problems are important from producer's point of views. On the other hand, traders ranked only 12 given problems among 17. They classified each and every problem into a distinct category. Score variations were comparatively high varying from 19 to 60 indicating that there is significant difference between different categories of problems. The results of tabular analysis of export data showed that pistachio industry of Iran was facing a negative growth rate of production, productivity, export quantity and export value during the period 1991-2002.

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