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D.D. Douds Jr., J. Lee, J.E. Shenk and S. Ganser

USDA-ARS ERRC, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 [DD, JL]; Shenks Berry Farm, 911 Disston View Drive, Lititz, PA 17543 [JS]; and Eagle Point Farm, 477 Hottenstein Road, Kutztown, PA 19530 [SG].

Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, on-farm inoculum, Ipomoea batatus, sustainable agriculture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 171-175.

Abstract: Vegetable farmers who grow seedlings for later outplanting to the field have the opportunity to incorporate arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inocula into potting media to produce plants ready to benefit from the symbiosis upon outplanting. Inocula of AM fungi are available commercially or may be grown on-farm. The impact of AM fungus inoculum produced on-farm upon yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus L.) was studied in a field experiment over six site-years. Rooted cuttings were inoculated with AM fungi either directly in the planting hole or were grown first in a greenhouse in potting media amended with AM fungus inoculum. Controls received the same compost and vermiculite mixture in which the inoculum was grown. Available P levels in the soil ranged from 242 to 599 kg ha-1. Mean increase in yield of sweet potatoes of the inoculated plants for the experiment was statistically significant at 10.0 1.9 % over uninoculated controls. Further, roots collected at the time of harvest indicated significantly greater colonization by AM fungi of previously inoculated plants than in controls which became colonized by the indigenous population of AM fungi. Utilization of AM fungi produced on-farm reliably increased the yield of sweet potato in high P soils.
H.L. Alvarez, C.M. Di Bella, G.M. Colavita, P. Oricchio and J. Strachnoy

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, National University of Comahue, Ruta 151 km 12, 8303 Cinco Saltos R.N., Argentina Instituto de Clima y Agua INTA Los Reseros y Las Cabaas S/N (B1712WAA), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Key words:

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 176-180.

Abstract: The use of reflective particles on apple fruits has been suggested as a tool to diminish its thermal charge and thus mitigate stress effects caused by high temperature. The products effectiveness is often expressed in terms of damaged fruit, however it is influenced by the sensitivity of the variety, growing conditions and application method. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the temperature of the fruits surface (FST) achieved according to the residue deposited to determine the degree of thermal protection for each product. Moreover, the residue deposited in the canopy enhances the albedo on the leaves reduces the availability of incidental light. The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of reflective particles in the reduction of superficial temperature of the fruits and its effect on net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2) in apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh). The fruits were treated with: one, two and four (1X; 2X and 4X) applications of kaolin (treatment K) or calcium carbonate (treatment C) at 2.5% P/V and untreated fruit as control. The residue effect on ACO2 was evaluated in individual leaves at 2X concentration. Both products showed a thermic protective effect as compared with control. The protection degree depended upon the concentration. The highest temperature of the control was 49.8 C and in these conditions kaolin was significantly more effective than carbonate, the thermic reduction was 1.9 C vs. 1.3 C at 2X and 2.5 C vs 2.1 C at 4X for kaolin and carbonate, respectively. At 1X there were no statistical differences between products. In turn ACO2 is only negatively affected under low intensities of light (< 700 mmoles m2 s-1 of PAR). Higher radiation levels compensate the shading effect over leaves and also the maximun ACO2 (Amax) was not affected.
Bruce L. Dunn, Arjina Shrestha, Carla Goad and Amir A. Khoddamzadeh

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, 358. Ag Hall, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. 74078-6027. Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, 301F MSCS Bldg., Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. 74078-6027. Department

Key words: Blanket flower, fertilizer, plant quality, greenhouse, NDVI, SPAD

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 181-185.

Abstract: Greenhouse production of Gaillardia is becoming increasingly popular for potted production due to growing interests in drought tolerant plant material. The objective of this study was to see if nondestructive handheld sensors could be used to monitor nitrogen (N) status in Gaillardia aristata Arizona Apricot. Topdressed fertilizer treatments of 0, 4, 8, 10, or 12 g of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) 16N-3.9P-10K were added to greenhouse grown plants. Individual plants were scanned from 10 pots per treatment for Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) over eight different sampling dates starting 7 days after fertilizer treatment application (DAT). Height, width, leaf N concentration, and number of panicles were also recorded. Linear, cubic, and quadratic trends were seen for NDVI and SPAD. Plant height was greatest in the 10 g treatment, but was not different than any other treatment. Plant width was greatest in the 12 g treatment, but was not different from the 4 g and 10 g treatments. Number of panicles was highest in the 12 g treatment, but was not different from the 10 g fertilizer treatment. Neither sensor showed correlations with leaf N concentration 7 DAT; however, the NDVI sensor showed the earliest correlation with leaf N concentration starting 14 DAT. Both sensors were correlated with each other at 35, 42, and 56 DAT. Results from this study indicate that 10 g CRF was sufficient for plant growth and flowering. Both sensors can be used to predict N status in potted Gaillardia; however, consistency in sample collection and sampling time may be necessary to correlate values with N status.
Mirta Esther Galelli, Gabriela Cristina Sarti and Silvia Susana Miyazaki

rea de Agroalimentos. Departamento de Biologa Aplicada y Alimentos. Facultad de Agronoma. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Av. San Martn 4453, C1417DSE. Argentina.

Key words: Lactuca sativa, biofertilizer, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii, PGPR activity, biofilm production, glycerol, culture conditions, inmmobilized cells, inoculant, sessile bacteria, planktonic bacteria, rhizosphere.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 186-191.

Abstract: Biofertilizers can be an alternative to chemical fertilizer as they increase sustainable soil fertility without causing pollution; however, their major problem is the poor survival of the free cells in the soil. A possible solution is the use of cells immobilized in biofilms; it provides a more suitable microenvironment for prolonged cell survival and allows the interaction of the bacterium and its metabolites with the plant. In this work, the planktonic Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii showed a PGPR activity on Lactuca sativa, increasing the weight, 64 % the aerial part and 68 % the roots growth. This bacterium was able to produce a thick biofilm using glycerol as a sole carbon source. Different culture conditions were evaluated for biofilm production. The shear stress and the oxygenation during bacterial culture affected negatively the biofilm formation; a mechanically disrupted biofilm never recovered its integrity. The optimum temperature for biofilm production was between 30 C and 37 C. The presence of different divalent cations salts affected the biofilm formation; 2 mM MgSO4 and 1 mM FeSO4 in static growth culture increased the biofilm production 36 % and 72 % respectively, and CoSO4 and CuSO4 affected negatively its formation. The immobilized cells had a PGPR effect; it showed a higher benefit as a biofertilizer than the planktonic form, producing an increment of 39 % of the aerial part and 59 % the roots growth.
M. Munir, S. Iqbal, J.U.D. Baloch and A.A. Khakwani

Fronteir Agriculture, SOYL Precision Crop Production Division, Newbury, RG14 5PX, United Kingdom. Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan.

Key words: Strawberry, Fragaria ananassa, explants sterilization, in vitro bud initiation, media formulation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 192-198.

Abstract: A series of in vitro experiments were conducted using four strawberry cultivars to investigate their survival response to different disinfectants, explants regeneration response to liquid and solid media, in vitro bud initiation response to BAP enriched media, clonal multiplication response to various BAP concentrations in MS and Knop media and bud initiation response to sugars sources. Highest meristem survival (75%) was recorded in cultivars Osogrande and Toro when treated with 0.5% NaOCl for 15 minutes, however, 75% explants of Chandler survived when treated with 1% NaOCl for 10 minutes. Similarly, maximum survival (58-71%) was observed in Chandler, Osogrande and Islamabad Local when internodal segments were treated with 0.5% NaOCl for 15 minutes. However, the survival percentage of these cultivars significantly varied at different NaOCl concentrations when petioles segments were used as explants. The results of second experiment indicated that highest rate of survival (79.20%) was achieved in Toro when meristems were cultured on solid MS media containing 0.5 mg/L GA3. In another experiment, maximum percentage (83) of bud initiation was recorded in Osogrande at 0.5 mg/L BAP. Findings of experiment regarding clonal multiplication of in vitro shoots derived from meristem showed that maximum buds formation per culture (25, 20 and 15) were obtained in MS media containing 1.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L IBA in cultivars Osogrande, Chandler and Islamabad Local respectively, however, similar buds formation response was varied with the cultivars when knop media was used. Similarly, when sugar sources were studied cultivar Osogrande initiated highest number of buds (20) at sucrose based MS media containing 0.8 mg/L Kinetin and 0.2 mg/L NAA, however, cultivars Chandler and Islamabad Local initiated 15 buds at sucrose based MS media containing 0.6 mg/L Kinetin and 0.2 mg/L NAA.
S.J.R. Underhill, and Salesh Kumar

Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558, Australia. Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation,The University of Queensland, St Lucia Qld 4072, Australia.

Key words: Pacific, Fiji, supply chain, postharvest horticulture, food wastage, food security.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 199-204.

Abstract: This paper reports on a detailed case study of postharvest losses along a commercial small holder tomato supply chain in Fiji. It is the first systematic quantification of postharvest horticultural losses undertaken in Fiji. Postharvest loss was measured from harvest through to product arrival at the Suva municipal fruit and vegetable markets, with post-municipal market loss determined using simulated storage conditions. In this study, 32.9% of the harvested product was removed from the commercial supply chain due to rots (8.8%), failure to ripen (8.9%), insufficient volume fill a carton (7.8%), physical damage during transport (0.1%) and fruit being over-ripe (6.4%). Poor temperature management during on-farm product ripening and limited on-farm postharvest hygiene were key contributors to the observed loss. In trace-back studies to identify the end-use of all product removed from the commercial chain, of the 32.9% total commercial postharvest loss, 11.0% was consumed at home and/or traded within the village, 6.3% was fed to domestic livestock, and a further 14.7% ended up as on-farm waste or dumped at the municipal refuge. Based on simulated ambient storage condition, once the fruit arrived at the municipal markets, daily postharvest loss thereafter was between 8.3% and 13.4%. Overall accumulative postharvest losses based on three days post-market ambient storage was 60.8%. Postharvest ripening, storage and transport conditions along the supply chain are discussed.
V. Eyarkai Nambi, K. Thangavel, S. Shahir and V. Geetha

Department of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.

Key words: Banganapalli, ripening, RGB, Lab colour values, colour coordinates, ripening prediction, colour changes, total colour difference

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 205-209.

Abstract: Machine dependent (RGB) and machine independent (CIE-Lab) colours were measured during ripening of Banganapalli mangoes, at 24 h interval and evaluated throughout the ripening period. The machine dependent colour coordinates red (R), green (G) and blue (B) were extracted from the digital images of mangoes taken every day. All the colour coordinates were increasing significantly during the ripening of mango. In total colour difference, major change was observed during 10th day. A steep rise was found in hue angle between 10-11th day of ripening. Croma was increasing up to 20th day and started decreasing. It was found that, the R and G would be more suitable to predict the ripening colour change rather than B value. In case of ratios, the red ratio (R/B), the green ratio (G/B) and both blue ratios would be suitable to predict the ripening of mangoes. These observation could be used as one of the nondestructive tool for mango quality evaluation, mango ripening and optimization studies.
Yoshihiko Shiga, Sakio Tsutsui and Tetsuo Mikami

Hokkaido Agricultural Laboratory for Business Development, Eniwa, 061-1405, Japan.

Key words: Allium sativum L., garlic, genetic diversity, germplasm, morphological characteristics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 210-212 .

Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an ancient and clonally propagated crop that has been under rather continuous selection since antiquity. In Japan, each garlic-growing region had its own local cultivars (clones) at one time. This is still the case in some regions, but with expanding transport networks and the requirements for high yield of commercial quality, only a few clones dominate the garlic production in the country. Here we describe the morphological characteristics of Japanese garlic clones. The review also focusses on the possible ancestry of Japanese garlics inferred from molecular genetic analysis.
Rifat Bhat, Sharbat Hussain, W.M. Wani, F.A. Banday and M.K. Sharma

Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Key words: Intecropping, productivity, quality, leaf nutrient status, apple, relative economics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 213-216 .

Abstract: The present investigations were conducted to assess the effect of intercrops like maize, pea, strawberry, cabbage, red clover, french bean, oats and clean cultivation (control) on productivity, quality, leaf nutrient status and relative economic yield of apple cv. Red Delicious. The results obtained revealed that the intercrops of leguminous nature like (pea, red clover, french bean) resulted in higher productivity, better quality fruits and increased leaf nutrient content in apple as compared to heavy feeder(requiring high level of soil nutrients) crops like maize, oats, strawberry and cabbage. However the apple plants intercropped with control (clean cultivations) performed better than heavy feeder crops. The impact of intercrops on relative economics of apple (system equivalent yield) revealed that the apple plants intercropped with pea gave a net income of Rs 291814.00 per ha with benefit : cost ratio of 1.71 followed by cabbage Rs 224428.00 per ha with the benefit: cost ratio of 1.41 and red clover with a net income of Rs 232395.00 with benefit : cost ratio of Rs 1.40, respectively.
Chandra Kant Sharma and Vinay Sharma

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India-304022.

Key words: Simple sequence repeat, A. marmelos (L.) Corr., heterozygosity.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 217-221.

Abstract: Analysis of diversity by citrus based microsatellite set in Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. was undertaken because molecular markers are DNA based markers and reveal the genetic diversity which is more universal. Genetic diversity of A. marmelos was measured by using 10 microsatellite markers. A total of 47 alleles were detected in A. marmelos across the 10 loci investigated, all these alleles were polymorphic, thus revealing a level of 100% polymorphism. The number of observed alleles assorted flanked by 4 to 7 with mean 4.71.059 alleles at each locus. The experimental no. of alleles intended for every 10 loci gone beyond the effectual no. of alleles that assorted between 1.384 and 3.164 with an average value 1.9950.11. In present study the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.127+0.06, which was not more than heterozygosity (expected). The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.164 (CCSM147) to 0.685 (CT19) with mean value 0.4070.177. Since, observed heterozygosity is less than the expected heterozygosity seems to be due to inbreeding.
A.K. Bera, T.R. Maity, A. Samanta, A. Dolai, B. Saha and S. Datta

Mahishadal Raj College, Mahishadal-721 628, West Bengal, India. Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia-721 657, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Efficient protocol, coconut coir, in vitro corms, Gladiolus, RAPD, genetic fidelity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 222-224.

Abstract: An efficient protocol was developed for mass scale in vitro corm production of Gladiolus (cv. White Friendship) using liquid culture and coconut coir explored as a matrix. The culture was initiated from the basal portion of the innermost leaf of the sprout. The cut surface of responding explant was swelled in MS solid basal media supplemented with 2 mg L-1 NAA. Ten to fifteen shoot buds were observed when the responding explant was transferred in MS media with 2 mg L-1 BAP and 0.2 mg L-1 NAA. The high frequency of in vitro corms were initiated in liquid MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6% sucrose in coir matrix. The corms with highest mean fresh weight (4570 mg) and diameter (25 mm) developed on periodically replaced media (every three weeks) than unchanged media. Using RAPD profiling, the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised corms were tested.
Suchita V. Gupta, Vaishali R. Wankhade, Bhagyashree N. Patil and P.M. Nimkar

Department of Agricultural Process Engineering, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola,444104 Maharashtra.

Key words: Sapota fruit, dimensions, physical properties, post-harvest processing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 225-229.

Abstract: Most of the sapota fruit processing methods employed is still traditional. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view to understand the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. Objectives of this study were to generate data for physical and mechanical properties of sapota fruit (cv. Kalipatti) in order to facilitate the design of some machines for its processing. The moisture content of sapota fruit was found to be 72 to 76% wb. The results showed that linear dimensions varied from 62.19 to 50.10 mm in length, 42.16 to 31.90 mm in width, and 41.42 to 27.40 mm in thickness. Average weight and volume of fruit were measured as 55.50 to 38.20 g and 587.7 to 408.3 cc, respectively. The bulk density, true density and porosity were 0.915 g/cc, 1.053 g/cc and 13.10%, respectively. The geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area were obtained as 41.81 mm3, 0.75, and 19715.81 mm2, respectively. The average static coefficients of friction were measured as 0.20, 0.18, 0.12 and 0.15 on plywood, galvanized iron, glass and acrylic surfaces, respectively. The average peak cutting force, energy used for cutting, specific energy, ultimate cutting stress and deformation of fresh sapota was found to be 73.96 N, 228.42 N cm, 1.23 N/cm, 0.40 N/cm2 and 3.18 cm, respectively. The average peak puncture force, energy used for puncture, specific energy, ultimate puncture stress and deformation of fresh sapota fruit was found to be 62.17 N, 25.50 N cm, 0.13 N/cm, 0.33 N/cm2 and 0.42 cm, respectively.
Simrat Singh, R.K. Dubey and S.S. Kukal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Chemical properties, cocopeat, farm yard manure, leaf mould, potted chrysanthemum, physical properties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 230-235.

Abstract: Restricted pot volume and inadequate gaseous exchange in root zone environment restricts satisfactory growth and development of chrysanthemum plants. To this effect, an experiment was conducted to study the performance of cocopeat amended media mixtures in improving the root zone environment for satisfactory growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. The growing media mixtures such as farm yard manure and leaf mould as base media (25%) were amended with varying proportions each of soil: cocopeat (CP) as 75%:0; 50%:25%; 25%:50% and 0%:75% on volume basis. The media mixtures amended with increasing proportion of CP lowered the pH, bulk density, particle density and weight of the pots. The plants raised in media mixtures with increasing proportions of CP were observed to be well anchored and exhibited excellent quality of flowers. Utilizing 75% CP as a growing media amendment in FYM proved to be the best media mixture for ideal growth and performance of potted chrysanthemum. Better aggregate stability provided by the base media and increased K content in CP coupled with improved physical characteristics of media mixtures provide a suitable reason to utilize CP as a alternative light weight potting media for an ideal display of pot mums.
A. Kaur and H.S. Sodhi

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Key words: Volvariella volvacea, single spore cultures, growth, enzyme activity, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 236-240.

Abstract: Volvariella volvacea is a tropical mushroom with variable biological efficiency which may be stabilized through isolation of single spore cultures. Eighty seven single spore cultures (VAT-1 to VAT-87) of V. volvacea strain VV132 were isolated from three fruit bodies. The single spore cultures were characterized for their growth and enzyme producing capability followed by yield trials. Maximum growth rate was recorded in VAT- 81 and maximum biomass production was recorded in VAT-15 and VAT-82. On the basis of growth characteristics, twelve single spore cultures were selected for enzyme activity and cultivation trials along with the parent strain VV-132. Maximum endo-1,4-?- glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) activity was recorded in VAT-82 (0.158U/h/mg). Maximum xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) activity and exo-1,4-?-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.91) activity were recorded in VAT-15 (0.155U/h/mg and 0.083U/h/mg, respectively). The laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) activity was maximum for VAT-73 (3.66U/min/mL). In comparison to parent strain V. volvacea VV132, five single spore cultures VAT-15, VAT-26, VAT-33, VAT-73 and VAT-81 had shown higher yield whereas the number of fruit bodies was higher for single spore culture VAT-81. During the present study, these five V. volvacea single spore cultures have been identified as high yielding strains.
K.L. Mary Rani, B. Narsimha Rao and M. Rambabu

Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi, Andhra Pradesh., India.

Key words: Oil palm, software, database, irrigation, module, yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 241-242.

Abstract: Oil palm requires adequate irrigation and demands a balanced and adequate supply of nutrients for its growth and yield. Under irrigated conditions, studies were undertaken to standardize fertilizer and irrigation dose through fertigation and micro irrigation to improve nutrient and water-use efficiency, respectively. For these studies, the palm-wise data needs to be compiled and analysed to know the performance of various treatments. Software requirement analysis was done to identify the input and output characteristics of the experiments and related data management. Database modules were designed and developed in MS Access using the Visual Basic for Applications to record the palm-wise data on different characters and to retrieve information in the form of various reports for the selected period like day, month and year. User friendly screens were designed for this purpose. The software enables to retrieve the data on treatment means for various parameters and export it to Excel format for further analysis using any statistical software. The software was tested for its function and is implemented.
Swati Kumari, Mala Trivedi and Maneesh Mishra

ICAR - Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow, India. Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Key words: Transgenic papaya, coat protein, papaya ring spot virus, microprojectile, Agrobacterium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 3, pages 243-248.

Abstract: Papaya is the first fruit crop which was not only successfully genetically engineered but also deregulated and commercialized. Pathogenic derived resistance was utilized for harnessing PRSV resistance. Coat protein gene from PRSV was invariably used to confer resistance against papaya ring spot virus. Microprojectile transformation has been the most preferred pathway. However, several reports are also available involving Agrobacterium pathway. Majority of workers found somatic embryos as the explant of choice for genetic manipulation in papaya compared to other explants. This paper highlights the global status of development of genetically engineered papaya for viral resistance.
S.S. Miller, C. Hott and T. Tworkoski

USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA.

Key words: Apple, carbohydrate, fruit quality, productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 101-105.

Abstract: Light is a critical resource needed by plants for growth and reproduction. A major portion of the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees canopy is subjected to shade during most daylight hours each day and such shade may affect productivity. The current research determined effects of morning, afternoon, and all-day shading on processes that are significant to orchard productivity. In 1996 Ginger Gold/M.9 apple trees were planted in the field near Kearneysville, WV and shade treatments were imposed from 2002 to 2005. Trunk and branch growth were reduced consistently by morning shade (MS) compared to no shade (NS) and full shade (FS) and afternoon shade (AS) had intermediate effects. Total branch growth from 2002 to 2005 was 164, 168, 145, and 157 cm for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Although shade affected yield inconsistently from year-to-year, total yield from 2002 to 2005 was 7.8, 201.6, 72.5, and 110.6 kg/tree for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively. Time of shading clearly affected yield with full shade causing the greatest reduction, followed by partial shade treatments, MS and AS. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, particularly sorbitol, were greater in leaves of AS compared to MS. It is postulated that MS may have adversely affected photosynthesis at a time of day that was most conducive to high net assimilation. Planting and training apple trees to minimize shade, especially morning shade, may benefit orchard productivity.
Eric T. Stafne, Becky Carroll and Damon Smith

Coastal Research and Extension Center, Plant and Soil Sciences Department, Mississippi State University, Poplarville, MS, USA 39470, 1-601-403-8939. 1Agricultural Hall, Department of Horticulture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

Key words: Disease control, disease severity, Guignardia bidwellii, interspecific hybrid, organic, vine stress, Vitis spp.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 106-108.

Abstract: Black rot, caused by Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, and bud cold hardiness are both management issues in eastern U.S. viticulture. Black rot infections lead to vine stress, resulting in premature defoliation and rotten fruit, potentially compromising cold acclimation of the vine. No studies have targeted bud cold hardiness in relation to severity of prior season black rot infection. Thus, in 2011, �Noiret�, a hybrid winegrape, was subjected to four black rot control treatments: conventional (C), organic 1 (O1), organic 2 (O2), and no spray (N). Leaves and fruit were scored for black rot severity. The O1 and N treatments had the highest level of leaf and fruit disease severity and were not significantly different. The C treatment had the least amount of leaf and fruit disease severity and the O2 treatment was intermediate and significantly different from the O1, N, and C treatments. Bud samples were taken in January, February, and March 2012 and exposed to subzero temperatures (-21 �C, -23 �C, -26 �C, -29 �C) in an ethylene glycolbath to assess if prior season black rot infection impacted primary bud hardiness. In January and March nearly all buds were still alive at -21�C and -23�C, but -29�C caused more damage. Black rot control treatments were not a statistically significant factor in the bud hardiness experiment. This could be due to black rot severity being below a critical threshold for impact or the vines had enough time to recover in late summer and fall to reach full mid-winter hardiness.
Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Mohammad Hosein Rezadoost, Amir Hosein Zamani, Mohammad Reza Mirzaii and Ali Reza Afsharifar

Biotechnology Department, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. 2Plant Virology Research Center, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Acetosyringon, vir gene induction, virus induce gene silencing, Citrus tristeza virus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 109-114.

Abstract: Citrus trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates due to their luscious taste, nutritional and medical benefits. Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia and are among the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. Breeding programs including the incorporation of genetic resistance to pests and diseases are necessary in this crop. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is of particular importance due to its rapid epidemic resulting in severe plant damage. The present research was aimed at transforming Citrus aurantinum with a gene encoding virus coat protein from CTV through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. P25 coat protein gene was identified and then isolated from different CTV strains. Two regions of the gene were conserved among the genera and subcloned as a single chimer into a pFGC5941 silencing vector. Epicotyls-originated explants of C. aurantium were transformed by EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Some of the effective factors in gene transformation were examined by inoculation methods with Agrobacterium such as Acetosyringon effect (0, 50, and 100 �M), inoculation time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min), and co-cultivation period (1, 2, 3 and 4 days). Based on our results, maximum number of transformed plants (13.7%) were obtained under combined treatment of 50 �M acetosyringone after 15 min inoculation time and 2 days of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. One of the advantages of the current protocol is regeneration of explants through direct organogenesis which avoid callus phase and consequently somaclonal variation.
Fenghua Wang, Guangyuan Li, Shuangchen Chen, Yan Jiang and Shaoxian Wang

Forestry College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China.

Key words: Radish, mutant, compound leaf, microstructure, SRAP

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 115-120 .

Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, time to flower opening and vase life, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion gross flower opening which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
Randall P. Niedz*, Joseph P. Albano and Mizuri Marutani-Hert

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road Ft. Pierce, FL34945-3030, USA

Key words: Water, nonionic surfactants, gelling agents, malachite green, sodium sulphate, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. paradisi Macf., C. sinensis L. Osbeck

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 121-128.

Abstract: The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined. Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity, malachite green, nonionic surfactants, and sodium sulphate. Tap water, with the highest levels of SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+, resulted in the most shoots compared to the other 5 sources, suggesting a mineral nutrient effect. Carrageenan produced fewer shoots than agar and gellan gum. Explants inserted into the medium produced more shoots than those cultured on the surface, presumably because of better exposure to water and nutrients. Seed size, light intensity, malachite green, and sodium sulphate had no effect on the number of shoots regenerated. Triton X-100 at 0.1 % resulted in significantly fewer shoots; otherwise, nonionic surfactants had no effect.
Widiatmaka, Wiwin Ambarwulan, Atang Sutandi, Kukuh Murtilaksono, Khursatul Munibah and Usman Daras

Department of Soil Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Geospatial Information Agency, Indonesia. 3Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia.

Key words: Geographic information system, horticultural crop, land evaluation, land use planning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 129-139.

Abstract: Cashews have a potential economic value for local people, and as a conservation plant that is appropriate for small islands, which usually have limited resource capacities. The research for this paper was conducted on Lombok Island, Indonesia with the objective to delineate the potential areas for cashew, based on land availability and land suitability. Land availability was analyzed by taking into account the land use and land cover maps interpreted from SPOT-6 imagery, a Forest Areas Status map and a map from the Official Spatial Land Use Plan. The evaluation of the lands suitability for cashews was conducted at a land mapping unit resulting from a soil survey, carried out at a scale of 1:25,000. The suitability analysis was done using a maximum limitation method, where the suitability level was defined by the lowest soil characteristics which determined the plants requirements. The land evaluation criteria were established in previous research, which included this island as an area of criteria establishment. The research results show that the land on this island has suitability status for cashews ranging from S2 (moderately suitable) to N (not suitable). The limiting factors include water availability, nutrient retention, available nutrients and rooting media, some of which can be improved. According to the available and suitable land, an area of 4,075.6 ha can be assigned as first priority, 18,167.3 ha as second priority and 43,582.8 ha as third priority for cashew expansion areas.
S. Abdullakasim, K. Kaewsongsang, P. Anusornpornpong and P. Saradhuldhat

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom-73140, Thailand.

Key words: Dendrobium, cytokinin; BA, inflorescence, pseudobulb, deformed flower

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 140-144.

Abstract: Improvement of flower quality is a major concern which plays a part in the enhancement of the marketability of the Dendrobium cut flower. In this study, both synthetic cytokinins: N-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) and N-6-benzyladenine (BA), were foliar sprayed at rates of: 1, 5 or 10 mg L-1 and 100, 200 or 400 mg L-1, respectively, on current pseudobulbs of the Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul with 45-50 cm in length. The treatments were applied thrice at fortnight intervals, prior to terminal bud initiation. The results revealed that an application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU significantly increased the numbers of inflorescence per pseudobulb (from 1.1 to 1.7 flowers), and the number of flower on an inflorescence was increased from 12.2 to 13.8 flowers. The length and the diameter of flower inflorescence, having 10 mg L-1 CPPU application, also increased from 49.4 cm to 55.1 cm, and 0.57 cm to 0.66 cm, respectively. In addition, the largest flower width and the highest fresh inflorescence weight were also obtained with application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU treatment. Despite the application of BA, at 400 mg L-1, enhancing the highest amount of flower counts of inflorescence (at 14.8 flowers), 33.3% of those inflorescence obtained at least one deformed flower. Overall, the results suggest that CPPU spray has a higher potential to elevate flowers, along with the inflorescence qualities of Dendrobium Sonia Earsakul. Furthermore, according to this study, CPPU has lower effects upon abnormal flower shapes, and their times of harvest.
K. Ranjitha, C.K. Narayana, T.K. Roy and A.P. John

Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.

Key words: Sapodilla, wine, yeast, phenolics, wine clarification, head space volatiles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 145-150.

Abstract: Process was standardized for preparation of fermented beverage from sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill) Foseberg). The starter culture using yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae UCD 522 fermented juice from two sapodilla varieties viz., Cricket Ball and Oval, to obtain wines with 10.1-11.2 % alcohol, 0.44- 0.58 % acidity, 3.6-3.9 pH, 0.26-0.28 % residual sugar, 300-645 mg/L phenolics and <0.09 % volatile acidity in six to nine days at 18 C. Retention of peel while pulping improved the phenolics level; but reduced the sensory quality of wine. Bentonite dosage and period required for clarification was optimized as 0.04 % for 14 days and 0.08 % for 21 days for production of wine from peeled fruits of Cricket Ball and Oval varieties, respectively. Sensory evaluation of dry, sweet, and flavored wines revealed the potential market acceptability of the wines. Head space volatile analysis showed the presence of new odorous compounds like esters and short chain fatty acids during vinification of sapodilla juice. Methoxy compounds and carbonyl fractions were less in the finished wine compared to natural juice.
Khumukcham Joshna and P. Pal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Carotene, Meteorological Standard Weeks, planting time, Tagetes erecta L. cv. Siracole.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 151-154.

Abstract: The investigation was carried out to evaluate the growth, flowering, yield and quality of African marigold cv. Siracole, as influenced by different planting dates. The crop planted on 9th June (T3) was found to have the highest plant height (96.93 cm). Maximum number of primary (5.3) and secondary (14.15) branches/plant, total fresh weight (502.00 g/plant), contribution by stem (385.00 g/plant) to the total fresh weight, higher dry (126.25 g/plant) matter accumulation and also the dry matter accumulation in stem per plant (98.00 g/plant) were found maximum with 12 April (T1) planting. The individual leaf area (4.73 sq cm) on 90 days after planting was significantly higher in the crop planted on 16 May (T2). It took minimum days (13.01 days) from visible bud to colour shown and bud emergence to full bloom (20.16 days), maximum diameter of individual flower (3.99cm) were found with 12 April (T1) planting. Heaviest flower (2.55 g) was recorded with October 12 (T7) planting. 16th May (T2) planting produced maximum number (7434.67) of flowers per plot (6.4 m2). Maximum carotene content was noted with 12th October (T7) planting. Crops planted between 50th MSW (T9) 2011 to 3rd MSW (T10) 2012 produced very less crop biomass, dry matter content and flower yield.
Bhalchandra Waykar and R.K. Baviskar

Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (Maharashtra), India.

Key words: Bee flora, floral calendar, honey flow period, dearth period, Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea, A. mellifera.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 155-159.

Abstract: The study was conducted at Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district during October 2012September 2013 to identify existing bee flora and to determine honey flow and dearth period to develop the floral calendar. The flowering plants were visited and observed for the presence of honey bees and their foraging activities. Plants were reported as bee foraging species when at least three honey bees had visited the flowers within the period of 10 minutes. The result revealed that 63 plant species were useful to honeybees as source of food, out of which 41 were wild and 22 were agro-horticultural plants. The identified flora was further grouped into nectar, pollen and both nectar and pollen supplying plants. Out of 41 wild bee plant species, 17 were nectar producing, 4 were pollen producing and 20 were both nectar and pollen producing. Results also revealed that out of 22 agriculture bee plant species, 6 were nectar producing, 5 were pollen producing and 11 were both nectar and pollen producing. Mid-October to mid-December was identified as honey flow period of the year, having number of flowering plants. Mid-May to mid-August was the critical dearth period with few flowering plants. Based on the availability of flora, major characteristics of these plant species, utility status and flowering duration, the bee floral calendar was developed for Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district. The result indicated that the area has rich bee flora and is suitable for commercial bee keeping. Paithan taluka has four honey bee species, viz., Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea and A. mellifera. Among these, A. florea and A. dorsata were dominant bee species, whereas A. mellifera was introduced species and only few colonies of A. cerana indica were observed.
S.S. Dhage, V.P. Chimote, B.D. Pawar, A.A. Kale, S.V. Pawar and A.S. Jadhav

State Level Biotechnology Centre, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, Maharashtra, India.

Key words: Fig, regeneration, genotype-specific, shoot tip culture, multiple shooting, rooting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 160-164.

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to develop an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol in four fig cultivars viz., Poona Fig, Brown Turkey, Conadria and Deanna. Highest shoot tip establishment was observed in Deanna (100 %), followed by Conadria (79.2 %) and Brown Turkey (76.7 %) on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.5 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3). Establishment of shoot tips was very poor in cultivar Poona Fig (11.7-13.3 %). Further inoculation of shoots on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in both multiple shooting as well as rooting. Significant number of newly formed shoots were observed in Conadria (4.7) and Deanna (3.8) as against in Brown Turkey (1) and Poona Fig (0.6). Highest root induction was observed in Conadria (73.3 %), followed by Deanna (52.2 %), Brown Turkey (26.7 %) and Poona Fig (24.4 %). These results confirmed that the shoot bud establishment and multiple shoot induction in fig is highly genotype specific. As the response of popular cultivar Poona Fig to shoot tip culture was very poor, tender leaf explants were further used for regeneration study. Optimum regeneration was observed using MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for callusing; 7 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.25 mg/L ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shooting and 1.0 mg/L IBA for rooting.
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Regional Centre, Coimbatore-3, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Curry leaf, prepackaging, color scores, physiological weight loss, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 165-168.

Abstract: Curry leaf, which is a leafy spice, used in Asian culinary has limited shelf life. Investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of fresh curry leaf by prepackaging in different packaging materials i.e., polyethylene bags of 38 and 75 micron thickness, polypropylene bags of 20 and 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient (30?2?C) and refrigerated (5 ?1?C) conditions. It was found that prepackaging fresh and stripped curry leaf in polypropylene bag of 20 micron thickness with 0.1 % vent area of 5 mm diameter vent could prolong the keeping quality for 4 days under ambient storage. Also under refrigerated condition, under the same packaging treatment, the sample kept well for a period of 16 days in polyethylene bag of 75 micron thickness.
Kenji Beppu, Hidemi Sumida and Ikuo Kataoka

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: AP3, class B gene, double pistils, PaPI, PaTM6, PI, Prunus avium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 87-91.

Abstract: We isolated APETALA3 (AP3)-like and PISTILLATA (PI)-like cDNA clones called PaTM6 and PaPI from sweet cherry (Prunus avium). PaTM6 showed very high similarity to the TM6 lineage of AP3 of other Rosaceae species. PaTM6 contained three amino acid residues (F, T, M) within the MADS box and the (H/Q)YExM sequence near the K box, both of which are characteristic of the AP3 subfamily. A paleo AP3 motif was present at the C-terminal end of PaTM6. PaPI showed very high similarity to PI of other Rosaceae species. PaPI had the serine residue and the KHExL sequence within the MADS box and near the K box, respectively, both of which are characteristic of the PI subfamily. A PI motif was present at the C-terminal end of PaPI. Both PaTM6 and PaPI genes were expressed specifically in petals and stamens, the same expression patterns as those of class B MADS-box genes. These results indicated that PaTM6 and PaPI are homologues of AP3 and PI, respectively.
So Sugiyama, Shigeto Morita and Shigeru Satoh

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan. 1Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto 619-0224, Japan.

Key words: Flower bud opening, display value, pyridinedicarboxylic acids senescence, spray-type carnation, vase life.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 92-95.

Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, time to flower opening and vase life, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives, which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the third criterion gross flower opening which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open. Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
Ganesh C. Bora, Purbasha Mistry and Dongqing Lin

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA, 1Natural Resource Program, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA.

Key words: Vineyards, sensors, variable rate technology (VRT), tree-sensing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 96-100.

Abstract: Sensors have been used to detect tree sizes for agrochemical and fertilizer applications in grape vineyards. Rugged and reliable sensors are required to measure the size and quality of tree canopy volume for variable rate fertilizer application. Real time sensing is important as size of the tree changes with time due to biological factors and management practices. This study evaluated ultrasonic sensor, optical sensor and a laser sensor for their sensing characteristics and field of view (FoV) in a range of conditions. The FoV was established by moving targets perpendicular to the centerline on both sides. The maximum sensig range of sensors varied from 6 to 8 m with ultrasonic sensor having the highest range. The beam widths for ultrasonic sensors were found to be wide (maximum 950 mm) whereas optical sensor has a narrow maximum beam width of 70 mm. The laser sensor has a sharp beam and did not work well in outdoor environment with plant materials. Statistical analysis was also done for sensors and found that P value is lower than 0.001 and R2 value closer to 1.0 which indicates significant better result in the vineyard for sensing characteristics.
K. Ranjitha, S. Shivashankar, G.S. Prakash, P. Sampathkumar, T.K. Roy, and E.R. Suresh

Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Division of Fruit crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.

Key words: Vitis vinifera, Pinot Noir, aroma, GC MS, mesoclimate, headspace volatiles, phenolics.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 03-06.

Abstract: The effect of vineyard shading on the composition, sensory quality and volatile flavours of grape wines from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir under Bangalore conditions, a region endowed with mild tropical climate, was studied. Wines from 50 and 75 per cent shaded vineyards were found to have better sensory appeal, significantly higher titratable acidity and lower levels of phenolics than those from open conditions. The wine colour parameters viz., hue and chroma, were significantly superior in wines prepared from berries of open vineyards. Head space volatile analysis showed that wines from shaded vineyards possessed higher levels of Pinot Noir aroma varietal specific compounds such as phenyl ethyl alcohol, methyl anthranillate, methyl and ethyl hexanoate, linalool, octanoic acid, and decanoic acids. The study showed the possibility of improving Pinot Noir wine quality by vineyard shade management in warmer viticulture areas...
Bruce L. Dunn, Arjina Shrestha and Carla Goad

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078-6027. USA. Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 74078-6027,USA.

Key words: Pelargonium, nutrition, plant growth, reflectance sensors, NDVI, SPAD, CRF

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 07-11.

Abstract: Greenhouse production of geraniums is popular for sales in the spring, and monitoring plant nutrition is important for high quality plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate if nondestructive handheld sensors could be used to quantify nitrogen (N) status in Pelargonium hortorum Maverick Red using controlled release fertilizer (CRF). Fertilizer treatments of 0, 4, 8, 10, or 12 g of 16N-9P-12K were topdressed on greenhouse grown plants. Individual plants were scanned from 10 pots per treatment for Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) over eight different sampling dates starting 7 days after fertilizer treatment application (DAT). Height, width, number of flowers, number of umbels and leaf N concentration were also recorded. Linear and quadratic trends were seen for both NDVI and SPAD. Plant height and width was highest in the 12 g treatment, but was not different than the 8 g or 10 g treatments. Number of flowers was highest in the 10 g treatment, but was not different from the 8 g and 12 g treatments. Number of umbels was not significantly different among fertilizer treatments, but all were greater than the control. For all measurement dates, a correlation was seen for fertilizer rate and leaf N concentration. Neither sensor showed correlations with leaf N concentration at 7 DAT or 14 DAT; however, both were correlated with each other and leaf N concentration starting 28 DAT. Results from this study indicated that 8 g CRF produced the best quality plants. Both NDVI and SPAD can be used to predict N status in potted geraniums grown with CRF, but consistency in sample collection and sampling time may be necessary to correlate the values with N status.
S. Naganeeswaran, T.P. Fayas, K.E. Rachana and M.K. Rajesh

Bioinformatics Centre, Division of Crop Improvement, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, P.O. Kudlu, Kasaragod 671124, Kerala, India.

Key words: miRNAs, RNA, gene expression, in silico, miRBase, coconut, leaf transcriptome

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 12-17.

Abstract: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded, small and non-coding endogenous RNA molecules, which control the gene expression at the post-transcriptional level either by suppression or degradation. Because of its highly conserved nature, in silico methods can be employed to predict novel miRNAs in plant species. By using previously known plant miRNAs available at miRBase, we predicted 16 miRNAs, which belongs to 11 miRNA families, and also targets for seven potential miRNAs in coconut leaf transcriptome. A majority of these seem to encode transcription factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of in silico prediction and characterization of miRNA from coconut. These findings form an useful resource for future research into miRNA prediction and function prediction in coconut and for studies on their experimental validation and functional analyses.
B.S. Sekhon and C.B. Singh

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004.

Key words: Potato, India, complex fertilizer, farmyard manure, irrigation, contrasts

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 18-21.

Abstract: India is the second largest producer of potatoes in the world. Shallow root system makes potato crop an inefficient nutrient consumer and sensitive to water stress. Anecdotal evidence hints that many potato growers of northwest India prefer complex NPK fertilizers or compound NP fertilizers over the straight fertilizers because they believe the former to be more efficient on agronomic basis. Thus, this study was aimed at conducting a comparative evaluation of various fertilizer sources across different irrigation and FYM regimes over two years on a loamy sand soil. A field experiment in split-split plot design was used with one additional blocking factor of soil variability. The main plot involved two FYM levels (0 and 50 t ha-1) and three irrigation water pan evaporation (IWPE) based irrigation regimes (IR1 with IWPE 2.0, IR2 with IWPE 1.4, and IR3 with IWPE 0.8) in sub-plots. Four fertilizer treatments in sub-sub plot involved a check (T0); T1 with N,P, and K respectively from straight fertilizers urea, single superphosphate (SSP), muriate of potash (MOP); T2 with P from DAP, remaining N from urea, and K from MOP; T3 with P from NPK complex (12:32:16) fertilizer and the remaining N from urea and K from MOP. General trends in tuber yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) during the year 2011 and statistically proven results of various a priori single degree of freedom contrasts showed that NPK complex fertilizer and NP compound fertilizer performed better than straight fertilizers.
S. Caruso and G. Iapichino

Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo.

Key words: Plumeria rubra, propagation, adventitious roots, bottom heat, cutting size, frangipani

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 22-25.

Abstract: Root development of hardwood cuttings of Plumeria rubra was investigated in relation to basal heat and the size of cuttings. Terminal cuttings of a clone grown in Sicily were trimmed to various lengths, ranging from 10 to 26 cm. To verify the cutting rooting response to basal heat, half of the cuttings were placed on a basal heated bench (283 C, constant temperature) while the remaining were placed on an unheated bench (16-18 C during the night and 20-22 C during the day). Percent rooting and cutting survival were not affected by basal heat and cutting length. However, basal heat positively affected number of roots, length of longest root and bud growth. Increases in the length of the cutting resulted in a parallel increase in adventitious root formation. Medium (16-20 cm) and long (22-26 cm) length cuttings exposed to basal heat exhibited the best development in terms of number of roots, root length and bud growth. We suggest that in the Mediterranean region the use of basal heat and of medium/long size cuttings may be beneficial to propagators wishing to produce P. rubra rooted cuttings with well-developed root system.
Maureen N. Situma, Mariam Mwangi and Richard M.S. Mulwa

Department of Crops, Horticulture & Soils, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536, Egerton - 20115, Kenya.

Key words: Lily, bulb, dormancy, gibberellic acid, benzyl adenine, chilling, flowering

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 26-30.

Abstract: Dormancy in Oriental lily bulbs (Lilium spp) is a major bottleneck in lily flower production by small scale farmers because they cannot afford expensive chilled bulbs that have been induced to break dormancy. Thus for developing alternative and low cost dormancy mitigation techniques, the study investigated the effects of lily bulb pre-treatments with benzyl adenine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) on dormancy breaking, emergence rates, time to flowering and bulb multiplication. Bulbs were pre-soaked for 24 hours in prepared solutions of various concentrations of BA and GA3 (0; 25; 50; 100 and 150 mg/L) and their combinations, plus a positive control of chilled bulbs. An unbalanced factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The experiment was repeated in two seasons. Results showed that treating bulbs with BA and GA3 significantly influenced dormancy breaking in both the trials and was comparable with the chilling treatment. The highest sprouting was observed in bulbs treated with 50 mg/L BA (92%) and 50 mg/L GA3 (96.67%) in both trials; compared to chilled bulbs with 100% sprouting. The number of days to 50% bulb emergence was significantly reduced in trial 1 with various combinations of GA3 and BA (50 mg/L:100 mg/L; 150 mg/L:100 mg/L and 150 mg/L :150 mg/L ). Combining the plant growth regulators also decreased the number of days to flowering; with 25 mg/L BA + 150 mg/L GA3; 50 mg/L BA + 100 mg/L GA3; 50 mg/L BA + 150 mg/L GA3 and 100 mg/L BA + 100 mg/L GA, respectively, significantly decreasing the number of days to flowering to 124 compared with 132 for the control in trial 2.
P. Kaur, N. Singh and D. Mukherjee

Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana, India.

Key words: 5-Sulfosalicylic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ethanol, guaiacol peroxidase, malondialdehyde, membrane stability index, protein, senescence, sucrose, superoxide dismutase and vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 31-39.

Abstract: This investigation was carried out to assess not only the efficacy of ethanol (EtOH) with that of sucrose (both are the product of plant metabolism) but also with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (5-SSA) which are well known plant growth regulators (PGRs) to minimize the decline in certain antioxidant enzymes in the cut flowers of Calendua officinalis L. and Salvia splendens Sellow ex J. A. Schultes. An effect of sucrose was also studied when it was present either alone or in combination with other chemicals (EtOH/6-BAP/5-SSA) in the vase solution. Control cut C. officinalis flowers looked fresh for 1-day, while flowers in sucrose solution lasted for about 2-day whereas other chemicals could extend the vase life from 4 to 7 days. The order of effectiveness of applied chemicals was EtOH + sucrose (Suc) > 5-SSA + Suc > EtOH/5-SSA > 6-BAP > 6-BAP + Suc > Suc in C. officinalis whereas it was EtOH/EtOH + Suc > 5-SSA > 5-SSA + Suc > 6-BAP + Suc > 6-BAP > Suc in S. splendens. In both the plants, petals of untreated flowers exhibited a gradual reduction in activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD); and protein levels and membrane stability index (MSI) values whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) level and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) activity registered increment. However, individual treatment of metabolites like ethanol and sucrose, plant growth regulators like 6-BAP and 5-SSA were able to reduce not only protein content but also activities of APX, CAT and SOD. The combined effect of EtOH + Suc was more effective than 6-BAP + Suc or 5-SSA + Suc.
P. Verdi, M. Cano and E. Liem

Canadian Humalite International Inc., 15723-116 Ave, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5M 3W1.

Key words: Lactuca sativa L., deep water culture growing units, humic substances, plant, root, leaf, growth

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 40-43.

Abstract: Seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) variety Grand Rapids were grown in deep water culture growing units. The units contained growing solution with limited amount of nutrients and different concentrations of humic substances. Six treatments and one control, 12 replications each, were evaluated in a two month period. Only one plant perished from a total of 84, indicating that the growing units were effective. A liquid product containing 13,800 mg L-1 humic substances of small particulate sizing (1.1 0.64 ?m in mean diameter) was utilized as a source of humic substances. Significant plant (root and leaf) growth was observed at low product rates between 70 and 500 mg L-1, corresponding to 1 and 7 mg L-1 humic substances. At increased rates, the growth was reduced. At much higher rates, plant growth was again observed, that was likely caused by the presence of nutrients in the product. These experiments demonstrated the efficacy of humic substances on plant growth, a critical finding in the context of sustainable horticulture, in which maximum yields from minimum input would be desired.
N.D. Polara, N.N. Gajipara and A.V. Barad

College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001 (Gujarat), India.

Key words: African marigold, chlorophyll content, flower yield, nitrogen, phosphorus, variety

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 44-47.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of N and P2O5 nutrition on growth, flowering, yield and chlorophyll content of different varieties of African marigold on the medium black calcareous soil during two consecutive years. The treatments consisted of all combination of three levels of nitrogen (100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1) and three levels of phosphorus (50, 100 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) with three varieties of African marigold viz., Local Orange (V1), Pusa Basanti (V2) and Pusa Narangi (V3). The growth parameters like plant height, number of primary and secondary branches as well as leaf area exhibited increasing trend with increase in nitrogen level which were highest at N3 (200 kg N ha-1). The phosphorus application failed to influence the growth of plant except plant spread. The maximum total chlorophyll content, 1.452 and 1.431 mg g-1, respectively was found due to addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. The higher number of flowers, diameter of flower, number of ray florets per flower and flower yield was recorded at higher level of each nutrient i.e. N3 (200 kg N ha-1), and P3 (150 kg P2O5 ha-1). Number of days to first flower was advanced with increasing levels of N. Variety Pusa Narangi produced the biggest flower diameter (6.20 cm), highest number of flowers per plant (56.34), flower yield (183.0 quintal ha-1), leaf area (13.89 cm2) and total chlorophyll content (1.432 mg g-1) in leaves. The interaction effect of N and P was found significant for plant spread at 60 DAT and at the end of harvest season. The combination N3P3 (200 kg N ha-1 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) recorded maximum plant spread (42.87 and 56.65 cm) at 60 DAT and at the end of harvest season, respectively. Treatment combination N2P3 (150 kg N ha-1 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) recorded significantly larger flower diameter (7.79 cm).
D.B. Singh, N. Ahmed, A.A. Pal, R. Kumar and A.A. Mirza

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar-1900 07. J & K. India.

Key words: Apple, Red Chief, anti browning agents, drying, quality, ascorbic acid, citric acid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 48-51.

Abstract: Apples of Red Chief variety after stabilization at room temperature (202 C) were initially washed with chlorinated water (100 ppm sodium hypochlorite) to prevent surface contamination. After manual peeling, apples were cut in to disc shaped slices of 2 and 3 mm thickness (having uniform diameter of 20 mm) and treated with 1% ascorbic acid and 1% citric acid (anti browning agents) for studying their effect on drying time and quality of apple slices. Slice size and pre-drying treatments of ascorbic acid and citric acid has resulted in significant (P<0.05) variation for drying time, rehydration, dry matter contents, firmness, quality and total colour change. Significantly minimum time (300 minutes) for drying of apple slices, maximum rehydration ratio (4.9), and maximum firmness (11.9 RI) was recorded in case of 2 mm slices treated with 1% ascorbic acid and 1% citric acid. Maximum TSS (18.9 Brix) was recorded in 2 mm slices and 3 mm slices (18.7 Brix) treated with citric acid and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid and citric acid were effective to stabilize the ascorbic acid content and maximum (18.0 mg/100g) was recorded in case of slices of 2 mm thickness treated with 1 % ascorbic acid and 1% citric acid. Similarly size of slices and anti browning agents were significantly effective to reduce the total colour change in apple slices and minimum colour change was observed in 2 mm slices (10.0) treated with 1 % ascorbic acid and citric acid and 3 mm slices (12.25) treated with 1% ascorbic acid and 1% citric acid. It can be concluded that apple slices of 2 mm thickness and pre drying treated with 1% citric acid and 1% ascorbic acid as anti browning agents took minimum time for dehydration with minimum changes in colour, firmness, quality, and retained maximum compositional attributes with minimum browning.
Ravindra Kumar, R. Chithiraichelvan, S. Ganesh, K.K. Upreti and V.V. Sulladmath

Division of Fruit Crops; Division of Plant Physiology & Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore-560 089, Karnataka, India. Faculty of Agriculture, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed University), Gandhigram,

Key words: Fig, growth characters, pruning, fruit quality, tree spacing, fruit yield, photosynthesis, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 52-57.

Abstract: Effects of tree spacing (5x2 m, 5x2.5 m, 5x3 m, 5x3.5 m and 5x4 m) and pruning (8 buds/cane, 6 buds/cane and 4 buds/cane) on growth, physiological parameters, fruit yield and quality were studied in fig cv. Poona during 3rd and 4th years of planting. Results indicated that the fig responded more to tree spacing than the pruning levels in terms of morpho-physiological characters and yield. With increase in in-row tree spacing from 5x2.5 m to 5x4 m, the vegetative growth parameters like leaf number, shoot length, internodal length, tree spread, tree height and tree circumference and the fruit yield both in terms of fruit number and fruit weight per tree declined under different pruning levels and closer tree spacing of 5x2.5 m recorded higher values. Physiological parameters like photosynthesis rate and leaf water potential remained at higher levels under closer spacing as compared to the wider spacing under different pruning levels. The increased pruning levels from 8 buds/cane to 4 buds/cane resulted in reduction of tree height while yield characters were marginally influenced by the pruning. The interaction effects between pruning and spacing levels were, however, non-significant. Under 5x2.5 m, the average fruit size and TSS recorded the highest values with no marked differences in acidity. The fruit yield calculated on per tree basis showed highest fruit number of 84.3-253.0 and 232.3-321.5 and fruit weight of 2.69-8.61 and 7.43-9.44 kg, respectively during 3rd and 4th year of planting under closer spacing of 5x2.5 m with 8 buds/cane pruning. The yield per hectare under various pruning levels recorded high values under the closer spacing of 5x2.5 m or 5x2.0 m with 8 buds/cane pruning. Overall results showed that 5x2.5 m tree spacing in combination with light pruning level of 8 buds/cane is ideal for achieving higher growth and yield in fig during 3rd and 4th year of planting.
S.K. Dwivedi and Enespa

Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025, U.P., India.

Key words: Wilt disease, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, cellulolytic enzyme, pesticides, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculantum

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 58-65.

Abstract: Soil-borne pathogens (Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were isolated from the diseased plants of brinjal and tomato, identified by morphological analysis viz., PCM (Phase contrast microscopy) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). These pathogens produced cellulolytic enzyme in vitro and the activity of this enzyme increased with the increase in age of the culture. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produced more cellulolytic enzyme than F. solani. The activity of cellulolytic enzyme by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was more in 14th day-old culture and decreased with the increase of culture age whereas the activity of cellulolytic enzyme produced by F. solani did not decrease and enzyme activity increased with the increase in the age of culture (23rd day-old culture). In vitro efficacy of systemic fungicides viz., Roco (Thiophanate methyl 70% WP) and Chlorothalonil (non-systemic fungicide), herbicides viz., Syncore (Metribuzin 70% WP), 2, 4- D (2, 4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and insecticides viz., Nuvan (Dichlorvos 76% EC), Prima (Acetamiprid 20% SP) against F. solani and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were evaluated using poisoned food technique at 100, 200, 400 ppm concentrations on 7th day of inoculation. The fungicide (Chlorothalonil) inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani by 82.34%, while Thiophanate methyl inhibited F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by 77.96% respectively at 400 ppm concentration. Herbicide (Metribuzin) inhibited the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. solani by 75% and 62.50%, respectively at same concentration followed by insecticides Dichlorvos (56.87%) and Acetamiprid (53.12%), respectively.
Shivali Sharma, K. Kumar and Amit Kumar

Department of Fruit Science, UHF, Nauni-Solan (Himachal Pradesh), Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Jammu, India.

Key words: Growth, divergence, exotic cultivars, local selections, walnut germplasm

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 66-69.

Abstract: Exotic cultivars introduced from abroad and local selections from seedling population of walnut were subjected to Non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis based on 12 nut and kernel characters. Studied accessions were grouped into four clusters, where cluster 1 and 3 had majority of the accessions. The clustering pattern of walnut genotypes belonging to the same eco-geographical region revealed their distribution in more than one cluster showing between geographic and genetic diversity. The first component presented maximum eigen root value and per cent variation. The mean intra and inter cluster distance (D) revealed that cluster 4 had highest intra cluster distance (2.206), while the inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster 3 and 4 (5.806). Maximum mean nut yield, nut length, nut weight and kernel weight was recorded in cluster 4, whereas, maximum kernel percentage and fat percentage was recorded in cluster 1 and 2, respectively. Minimum shell thickness was observed in cluster 2. The accessions of cluster 3 and 4 were found highly diverse from each other and will give better segregants after hybridization which can be used as a parent in further breeding programme.
Srilatha Vasanthu, K. Sunil Kumar, B. Padmodaya and C. Kiran Kumar Reddy

KVK, ANGR Agricultural University, Utukur, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh-516003. ARS, ANGR Agricultural University, Utukur, Kadapa Andhra Pradesh-516003

Key words: Papaya, boron deficiency, leaf boron, deformed fruits and yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 70-75.

Abstract: Boron deficiency in papaya causes deformation of apical meristem, distortion of young leaves, dwarfing of plants, fruit deformities and uneven fruit ripening that severely reduces the yield and quality. Hence, an experiment on effects of foliar application of boron on yield and quality of papaya with a commercially important variety Red lady was conducted at fifteen locations of Andhra Pradesh where the boron deficiency is wide spread due to tropical climate and high soil pH. Foliar application of 0.03 % borax at every 60 days interval from planting to harvest recorded significant increase in the leaf boron content from 18.44 mg kg-1 to 26.62 mg kg-1. Borax application recorded 29 % more number of fruits per plant, 37 % higher yields (65.28 kg plant-1) and reduced deformed fruits (13.58 %) compared to control (21.34 %). The study clearly indicated that, the regular supply of boron through foliar application in tropical climate is vital for realizing higher yields in papaya.
D. Singh, M.I.S. Gill, R.S. Boora and N.K. Arora

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab. PAU Regional Fruit Research Station, Bahadurgarh, Patiala, Punjab

Key words: Psidium guajava, genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 76-78.

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation coefficient among 35 guava (Psidium guajava L.) genotypes, evaluated for tree, vegetative, reproductive, fruit and seed characters during 2010 to 2013. Wide range of phenotypic variability in the studied material was observed as phenotypic coefficients of variation for different traits ranged from 8.17 for fruit width to 35.00 for number of seeds per fruit. Genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters ranged from 6.95 to 33.11 percent. Heritability ranged from 73.97 to 99.77 percent. Very high heritability estimates were obtained for fruit length to width ratio. The genetic advance as per cent of mean was highest for number of seeds per fruit (64.52 %). Characters like seed weight per 100 g fruit, seed weight per fruit, 100-seed weight, thickness of outer flesh and fruit weight had high heritability and higher genetic advance, which indicate that the expression of these characters is governed by additive gene action. Genotypic correlation coefficients, in general, were higher in magnitude than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients indicating an inherent association among various characters under study. Presence of genetic variability along with high heritability and genetic advance indicate that these genotypes can be further utilized in guava breeding programme, keeping in mind the inherent association of various agronomical important traits to combine the desired traits into a single line/cultivar.
Angrej Ali and B.P. Singh

Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh-224 229 (India).

Key words: Cape gooseberry, crop residue, NPK fertilizers, Physalis peruviana L., plant spacing, soil properties

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 1, pages 79-84.

Abstract: The cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), a quick growing herbaceous crop, leaves behind a good amount of crop residue in the field after fruit harvest that can be utilized as organic source of plant nutrient supply to next crop to be cultivated. In present investigation, crop residue of cape gooseberry grown in sodic soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh (India) at three planting density (S1 - 75 x 60 cm, S2 - 75 x 75 cm and S3 - 90 x 75 cm) and four levels of NPK fertilizers (F0 - without fertilizers, F1 - 60:40:40, F2 - 80:60:60 and F3 - 100:80:80 NPK kg ha) was estimated. Soil properties were also studied before and after cropping seasons. Mean data of two consecutive years recorded crop residue (fresh biomass) production 34.51, 29.7 and 27.95 t ha-1 at S1, S2 and S3 plant spacing, respectively. The application of NPK fertilizers significantly increased crop residue production and mean value recorded with fertilizer level F0, F1, F2, and F3 was 22.00, 28.71, 34.24 and 36.63 t ha-1, respectively. Increased plant population per unit area as well as higher doses of NPK levels showed a little improvement in bulk density, porosity, organic carbon, pH and EC of soil but influence was non-significant, however, plant spacing and NPK fertilizer treatments exhibited significant improvement in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of the soil at the end of the second cropping season.

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