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Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1.

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, precision viticulture, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 167-192 .

Abstract: The possible influence of vine water status upon berry composition was studied in ten commercial vineyard blocks of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet franc in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario from 2005 to 2007. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, soil moisture and leaf water potential (?), as an indicator of vine water status, were determined on ? 80 sentinel vines in each vineyard. In each block, water status zones were identified in GIS-generated maps using leaf ? and soil moisture measurements. Areas of low soil and vine water status were positively correlated linearly and spatially with areas of high Brix, color intensity, anthocyanins and phenols, and were negatively correlated with titratable acidity. In most vineyards, areas of high and low color intensity were positively correlated linearly and spatially with areas of high and low anthocyanins and phenols. Temporal stability was also noticeable for several variables including soil moisture, yield, berry weight, Brix, anthocyanins, and phenols. These data suggest that low soil moisture and low vine water status zones in vineyards are related to corresponding areas of superior berry composition. These data further suggest that precision viticulture techniques may be utilized in this region to delineate vineyard sub-zones of differing quality levels.
Kathryn Kamo, Kanniah Rajasekaran and Jeffrey Cary

Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, U.S. National Arboretum, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bldg. 010A, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA. Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orle

Key words: Flower bulbs, biolistics, transgenes, regeneration, tissue culture, corms, ornamentals, gene gun bombardment, callus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 193-198 .

Abstract: The growth characteristics of transgenic Gladiolus plants cvs. �Peter Pears� and �Jenny Lee� were compared to non-transformed plants either regenerated from embryogenic callus or micropropagated in vitro. Micropropagated and regenerated plants of �Peter Pears� showed similar sprouting percentage of corms in vitro and daughter corm production after one season in the greenhouse. Differences were found in the weight of corms produced in vitro and the length of leaves with the regenerated corms weighing less and having shorter leaves than those of micropropagated plants. Transgenic plants of �Peter Pears� had similar corm weights to those from regenerated plants, but the greenhouse sprouting percentage, leaf length, and daughter corm production was less than that of regenerated plants. Micropropagated plants of �Jenny Lee� were similar to regenerated plants in weight of corms grown in vitro, sprouting efficiencies, and the length of leaves. Transgenic plants of �Jenny Lee� produced larger corms in vitro than regenerated plants, and both the final weight of transgenic corms and leaf length after one season in the greenhouse were comparable to that of regenerated plants of �Jenny Lee�. �Jenny Lee� plants were less affected by the regeneration and transformation conditions than �Peter Pears�.
V.P. Sosa-Flores, F. Ramrez-Godina, A. Benavides-Mendoza, H. Ramrez

Departamento de Horticultura, Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autnoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, C. P. 25315, Mxico.

Key words: Irradiance, photoreceptors, signaling, seed irradiation, seed priming, Cucumis melo.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 199-204 .

Abstract: It is well known that exposure of plant seedlings or plants to UV-B radiation induces changes in gene expression resulting in biochemical and morphological modifications. However, there is little information on the effects and potential utility of irradiation of seeds with UV-B. The aim of this study was to apply UV-B radiation in melon seeds using various irradiation times and then assess the effect on growth and morphology of the plant. Seeds of cultivar Topmark were exposed to UV irradiation with wavelength centered at 302 nm, for periods of 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes (UV dosages of 0, 99, 198 and 297 mJ cm-2, respectively). The irradiated seeds were seeded in a mixture of peat moss and perlite for greenhouse germination. Morphological parameters such as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights were evaluated. Stomatal frequency, stomatal index, and length and width of stomata were studied. Histological analyses were conducted to determine the areas of the stem vascular bundle and xylem vessels, width and length of vascular bundles, and the area of the lumen of xylem vessels. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences between treatments, with the treatment of 15 minutes (99 mJ cm-2) of seed exposure to UV-B radiation generating 24.87 and 32.42 % more fresh and dry weight of the plants, respectively. Stomatal index was augmented on the adaxial surface by 52.26, 7.14 and 13.55 %, in the treatments of 99, 198 and 297 mJ cm-2, respectively, in contrast with the control treatment, while the length of stomata was increased by 6.99% in the treatment with 30 minutes exposure time (198 mJ cm-2). Stomatal frequency was unchanged by exposure to radiation. The irradiation of the seeds caused decrease in P, Ca and Na in the leaves of plants.
Yun-wen Wang, Bruce L. Dunn, Li Jiang and Daryl B. Arnall

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, The People�s Republic of China. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK 740

Key words: Euphorbia pulcherrima, NDVI, bract colour, greenhouse

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 205-209 .

Abstract: Normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) values are vegetative indices, calculated from active canopy sensor measurements using the reflectance values for red and near-infrared. Use of NDVI sensors offers the possibility of rapid, non-destructive readings that correlate with plant properties such as plant biomass and plant nutrition when plants are green, however, the affects of color on NDVI sensor readings has not be investigated. Poinsettia cultivars �Enduring Marble�, �Ice Punch�, �Winter Rose Early Red�, �Prestige Red�, �Prestige Maroon�, �Peterstar White�, �Maren�, and �Orange Spice� were analyzed by an NDVI sensor starting four weeks after transplanting and through bract color development. The results indicated that cultivar effect, time effect and the interaction of cultivar and time on NDVI value were significant (P < 0.0001). An increase of NDVI value occurred from initial measuring date, and reached the greatest value (ranged from 0.718 to 0.837) between week 6 and week 7 for all cultivars except �Orange Spice� and �Winter Rose Early Red�. From the peak readings, all NDVI values in tested cultivars declined significantly, especially after bract coloration. This result demonstrated an inverse relationship with increased bract coloration and reduced NDVI readings, so use of NDVI readings to detect N deficiencies should be before bract coloration in poinsettias. However, the NDVI sensor could be used to monitor bract colour development. Because the effects of cultivar, time, and the interaction between cultivar and time were significant, standards using a pocket NDVI sensor in specific cultivars during determined growth stages may need to be established at each growing facility.
F. Koohkan, N. Ahmadi and S.J. Ahmadi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Jaber Ibne Hayyan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Key words: Chlorophyll, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), vase solution, ethylene

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 210-214 .

Abstract: Most of the carnation cultivars are sensitive to exogenous ethylene and their petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production during senescence. Compounds containing silver have been shown to act as anti-ethylene agent in improving postharvest characteristics of cut flowers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications by applying four concentration of silver nano-particles in vase solution of cut carnation cultivar �Miledy�. ICP-AES analyses revealed that the higher amount of silver was absorbed in various tissues of plants treated with 5 mg L-1, compared to other concentrations. Cut stems of �Miledy� cultivar receiving 5 mg L-1 of silver nano-particles showed the highest vase life and the lowest rate of ethylene production. The tissue accumulation of Ag element was generally higher in basal stem ends and leaves treated with 5 mg L-1 than other concentrations. The results of ICP and ethylene measurement showed that silver nano-particles reduced ethylene production as well as bacterial growth in vase solution and resulted improved vase life of carnation.
R. Dasmohapatra, S. Rath, B. Pradhan and G.R. Rout

Department of Fruit Science, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 003, Odisha, India,

Key words: Cashew, genetic similarity, molecular marker, genetic variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 215-221 .

Abstract: Morphological and PCR based molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of cashew (Anacardium occidentales L.) genotypes of India. Wide genetic variation was observed in respect to nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage, plant height, trunk girth of the potentially superior genotypes. A wide variation was noticed with regards to fruit quality, colour of fruits, nut yield, nut weight, shelling percentage and apple weight. Twenty RAPD primers and 14 ISSR primers were used to detect the genetic variability among and between the genotypes. One hundred eighty-eight polymorphic bands and 31 monomorphic bands were observed by using both RAPD and ISSR primers. Twenty RAPD primers yielded 19 monomorphic and 84 polymorphic bands with percent of polymorphism was 81.55%. Of a total 116 ISSR bands generated by using 14 ISSR primers, 104 bands (89.65 %) were found to be polymorphic. Cumulative data generated from these two markers precisely arranged genotypes into 14 clusters. It was also noted that the var. BBSR-1 and Vengurla-7 were grouped into a single cluster and phenotypically they are similar with each other. Two dimensional scaling by principal component analysis indicates that some of the genotypes are out grouped. The major bands having 300 - 600 bp generated with PCR based markers can be used for identification of genotypes. This information will be useful for cashew improvement program as well as to assess the variety purity certification program.
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering-Regional Centre, Coimbatore-641 003.

Key words: Curry leaf, drying, temperature, air velocity, rehydration ratio, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 222-224 .

Abstract: In the present investigation, the effect of drying temperature and air velocity on the quality of Murraya koenigii leaves was studied. Freshly harvested, washed and stripped M. koenigii leaf (curry leaf) was dried at different air temperature of 40, 45 and 50 oC temperature and at 2, 3 and 4 m/s air velocity in a fluidised bed dryer from an initial moisture content of 184.5 % (dry basis) to a final moisture of around 5% (dry basis). The drying rate decreased with the decrease in the moisture content at all drying temperatures. Drying studies revealed that fluidised bed drying at 45 oC and 4 m/s air velocity was found to maintain the quality of dried curry leaf in terms of rehydration ratio and volatile oil content. The dried leaves packed in 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient condition (30.2 oC) for a period of one month resulted in better product as seen from the volatile oil content and overall acceptability for 4m/s fluidised bed dried sample at 45 oC.
S. Muthu Kumar, V. Ponnuswami and M. Jawaharlal

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Pulsing, 1-MCP (1-methyl cyclo propene), packaging, physiology, vase life

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 225-230 .

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of different pulsing, pre packaging (1-Methyl Cyclo Propene) and packaging treatments on postharvest physiology, quality and vase life of cut rose flowers cv. First Red. Among the treatments, W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) was found superior and it was associated with the highest values for appearance (score 5 - excellent), stem strength (900 angle), relative water content (92.95 per cent), water uptake (11.53 g stalk-1), freshness of flowers (100 per cent) and vase life (6.3 days). The same treatment W1 (Pulsing with 200 ppm 8-HQC and 10 % sucrose + pre packaging treatment with 0.18 % of 1 - MCP/m3 for 6 hours + polythene wrapping) exhibited the lowest values for physiological loss in weight (3.58 per cent), transpirational loss of water (2.01 g stalk-1), loss of membrane integrity (7.48 per cent) and peroxidase activity (0.016 units g-1 of fresh weight of flowers).
P. Chaturvedi, D. Bisht and S. Tiwari Pandey

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Agronomy, G.B.P.U.A.&T., Pantnagar-263145, India.

Key words: Artemisia annua, artemisinin, seed germination, moisture stress, salinity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 231-234 .

Abstract: Each plant species has its own set of germination requirements consisting of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of various extrinsic factors viz., temperature, moisture and salt concentrations affecting ex situ seed germination of different populations of Artemisia annua growing in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. All the populations were susceptible to changes in abiotic conditions viz., moisture and salinity levels in dose dependent manner. All, invariably, showed maximum germination at alternate day/night temperature (25/20 oC) than under constant temperatures. Among the different populations, V-IV, a non-pigmented, early flowering population was the most tolerant one as it showed broader range of germination percentage ranging from 66�6.1 at -5 bar to 40.0�7.6 at -15 bars and 62.7�7.0 at 0.2% NaCl to 9.3�1.3 at 0.8% NaCl, respectively.
Vinod Kumar, Ajit Kumar Dubedi Anal and Vishal Nath

National Research Centre for Litchi, Mushahari, Muzaffarpur, Bihar-842002, India.

Key words: Litchi, red weevil, looper, leaf folder, bagworm, leaf and twig blight

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 235-240 .

Abstract: Studies were conducted to assess the prevalence and damage caused by four threatening pests viz., red weevil (Apoderus blandus), looper (Perixera illepidaria), leaf roller (Dudua aprobola), bagworm (Eumeta crameri) and one disease, leaf and twig blight (caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., and Gloeosporium sp.) at National Research Centre for Litchi (NRCL) that were hitherto either unnoticed or of minor importance. Fixed plot surveys at the NRCL Experimental Farm and scouting surveys in farmers litchi orchard in major litchi growing areas of Bihar state were conducted during 2011-2012. The studies revealed the damaging potential and period of occurrence of these pests and disease in the major litchi growing areas. A. blandus was prevalent round the year except during extreme cool and hot weather months whereas P. illepidaria was prevalent from September-November and E. crameri during November-February. Peak infestation of D. aprobola was during July-February. Infestation of A. blandus, D. aprobola, and E. crameri drastically affected the growth of tree whereas P. illepidaria damaged the September flush that bears panicle in the ensuing season. The leaf and twig blight disease was prevelent from the beginning of August to the end of February. These pests and disease are now important not only in Bihar but also other litchi growing states of India. Considering their importance, there is a need for continuous surveillance particularly during the likely period of occurrence so that effective management strategies can be adopted. This paper reports occurrence of E. crameri on litchi for the first time from India.
V. Vijayalakshmi, S. Poonguzhali, K. Ramamoorthy and N. Natarajan

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

Key words: Tomato hybrid CO-3, accelerated ageing, physiological parameters, correlation, germination

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 3, pages 241-244 .

Abstract: The effect of physiological and biochemical changes were studied in seeds of TNAU tomato hybrid (CO-3) exposed to accelerated ageing for a period of 10 days and investigated for speed of germination, per cent germination, shoot, root length, dry matter production and biochemical attributes viz., free amino acids (FAA), electrical conductivity (EC), volatile aldehydes production - seedling length bio assay (BA), dehydrogenase (DH) and peroxidase (POD) activity against untreated control (fresh) seeds. E.C., FAA and BA were negatively correlated with speed and percentage germination, root/shoot lengths, dry matter production, DH and POD activity. Speed of germination was highly and positively correlated with per cent germination (0.923), root length (0.971), dry matter production (0.940), dehydrogenase (0.776) and peroxidase activity (0.676) and it was negatively correlated with free amino acid content (-0.990) and electrical conductivity (-0.936).
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester and Thomas M. Elias

Pomology and Viticulture Program, University of Idaho, Parma Research and Extension Center, 29603 U of I Lane, Parma, ID 83660, USA

Key words: cultivar performance, fruit flavor, nectarine selection, stone fruit adaptability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 103-106 .

Abstract: White-fleshed nectarines have gained popularity in recent years but there is limited information on their adaptability. Thus, the objective of this trial was to investigate growing degree-days (GDD; base temperature of 4.4 oC), full bloom and harvest dates, fruit quality, and yield of five white-fleshed nectarines [(Prunus persica var. nectarine)] under conditions of southwest Idaho in the Intermountain Region of the United States during 2003-07. The average response analyses over these years indicated that Arctic Jay and Arctic Pride bloomed earlier, while Arctic Mist bloomed later than other cultivars. Arctic Jay was the earliest and Arctic Snow was the latest cultivar to harvest and needed 136 days and 181 days between full bloom and harvest, respectively. On average, Arctic Pride, Arctic Mist, and Arctic Snow were harvested after the second half of September, and the periods between bloom and harvest for these cultivars were 166, 180, and 181 days, respectively. The difference between the earliest and latest cultivar for full bloom dates was only 2 days or 14 oC GDD, while the range for harvest dates was 16 days or 608.2 oC GDD. Arctic Jay had excellent fruit quality attributers and on average, was harvested on 21 August. Arctic Pride had moderately large fruit size and high SSC and extremely attractive skin and flesh color, but had moderately low yield. Considering all factors evaluated in this project, Arctic Jay, Arctic Queen, and Arctic Pride were suitable choices for early, mid, and late season cultivars, respectively. Arctic Mist could have some potential for planting in this study. The growing season was not sufficient to mature Arctic Snow and thus not recommended for the region.
Neeraj Dwivedi, Rajesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Major Singh

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Post Bag-01, PO- Jakhini (Shahanshahpur), Varanasi-221 305, India. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

Key words: Carotenoids, pepper, Simple Sequence Repeats, Quantitative Trait Loci

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 107-111.

Abstract: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for oleoresin content were mapped in intraspecific advance recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of chilli derived from cross between two contrasting parents California Wonder and LCA235. Oleoresin content of each RILs were estimated for 2 years (F8 and F9) along with parents. Three classes of molecular markers; simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to generate linkage maps. A total of two QTLs for oleoresin content were mapped on two linkage group (LG). QTL Qole.iivr-2.1 and QTL Qole.iivr-3.3 contributed a minimum and maximum phenotypic variation of 8.74 and 32.4%, respectively over the years. The results of this investigation may be useful in improving the nutritional quality of pepper. The genomic regions of stable QTLs identified may serve as potential target regions for fine mapping and development of molecular markers for manipulation of yield and morphological traits in pepper.
A.K. Harit, M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry 605014, India.

Key words: Vermicast properties, vermicast storage, Eudrilus eugeniae, neem leaf litter, nutrient

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 112-116.

Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that vermicast has beneficial effect on plant growth but little is known on how the manner and duration of storage affect the vermicast quality. In an attempt to cover this knowledge-gap we have carried out a study on changes in physical and chemical properties of vermicast as function of ageing when it is stored. The study revealed that most of the characteristics of the castings were retained during the first 60 days of storage. Further as storage was continued, the physical properties such as total and water filled pore space were reduced by 11 and 40%, respectively. The water holding capacity of castings also reduced about 82% and exhibited high degree of water repellency. Whereas, the bulk density and particle density of castings increased two-fold. These changes may impede the water availability, oxygen diffusion and plant root penetration in the field. The nitrogen loss of 49% was recorded due to intense ammonia volatilization. There was more than 75% loss in potassium and phosphorus content and a significant reduction in the concentration of minor and trace nutrients. These changes in the properties of castings reduced the beneficial impact of vermicast on plant growth.
C. Krishnamoorthy and K. Rajamani

Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Theobroma cacao L., fertigation, drip, micro sprinkler, water soluble fertilizer, straight fertilizer, pod characters

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 117-121.

Abstract: A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler of N, P and K fertilizers on pod characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at Coimbatore, India during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. The study revealed that, fertigation with 125 per cent RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) as water soluble fertilizer by drip irrigation (T4) recorded the highest pod length (17.72 cm), pod girth (28.69 cm), pod weight (541.88 g), husk weight (387.83 g), pod volume (610.55 cc) and number of pods per tree per year (59.49) as against 12.98, 12.76, 31.69, 29.51, 34.66 and 21.05 % increase over the control (T1), respectively. The same treatment (T4) recorded the lowest number of cherelles per tree (9.59) and pod value (16.11).
Gurpreet Singh, N.K. Arora and M.I.S. Gill

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India.

Key words: Grape, Vitis vinifera, pruning, fruitful buds, anthocyanin, H-516, Punjab Purple.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 122-125.

Abstract: The present study was conducted to standardize the pruning technique in recently released grape hybrid H-516 for processing purpose. The grapevines trained on bower system of training were pruned at 2, 3, 4 and 5-bud level during last week of January. The maximum per cent fruitful buds were recorded at 2-bud level followed by 3, 4 and 5-bud pruning level. The significantly higher number of bunches per fruitful bud (2.23 at 4th node) were observed in pruning done at 4-bud level. The yield per vine was highest (15.2 kg yield per vine) in pruning treatments where 4-buds were retained. Bunch weight and size did not differ significantly with various pruning levels. Anthocyanin (52.24 mg/100g) and total soluble solids content (18.13%) was maximum whereas, acid content (0.53%) was minimum with 4-bud pruning treatment. Present study suggested that in grape hybrid H-516, at the time of pruning, 4-buds per cane should be retained for better yield and improved fruit quality.
M. Dayarani, M.S. Dhanarajan, K. Arun, S. Uma and Padma Narayani

Sathyabama University, Chennai, Jaya College of Arts & Science, Chennai. National Research Centre for Banana, Trichy, India.

Key words: Banana, M. ornata, seed germination, embryo rescue, in vitro germination, Rhodochlamys.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 126-130.

Abstract: Seed set in Musa spp. is known to vary greatly among seed-fertile cultivars, but germinate at an intractably low rate in soil thus making breeding of plantains and bananas difficult. Hence, there is an increased interest in in vitro germination of both intact seeds and excised zygotic embryos. The present work deals with the influence of maturity and hormonal factors on germination and regeneration of Musa ornata seeds through embryo culture and embryo rescue. Embryos extracted from seeds harvested at various maturity stages were cultured in MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Good embryo recovery was seen in seeds from 80 and 100% mature fruits. Maturity status of embryos played a key role in direct and indirect regeneration. Medium rich in auxins led to callus (M8) formation at all maturity levels, leading to indirect regeneration. Good direct regeneration was observed from 100% mature embryos, in media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (M4). Study revealed that zygotic embryos of M. ornata could be rescued and regenerated through callus when harvested at 80% maturity and media augmented with Kinetin (M6) gave the best regeneration. In general, medium rich in auxins led to callus formation at all maturity levels. Therefore, in vitro embryo culture and embryo rescue provide a potential tool for recovery and perpetuation of wild Musa species.
Anjali Chauhan, Praveen Pal Balgir and Chand Karan Shirkot

Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (HP), Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab).

Key words: Bacillus, Aneurinibacillus, PGPR, antifungal, antibiotic resistance, Valeriana jatamansi

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 131-135.

Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are commonly used as inoculants for improving the growth and yield of agricultural crops. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Thus the present study focuses on the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of potent PGPR isolates with multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits and antifungal potential against different phytopathogenic fungi. Biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of four effective PGPR isolates (CKMV1, CKMV2, CKMV3 and CKMV4) of Valeriana jatamansi demonstrated that three strains belonged to genus Bacillus spp. and one belonged to Aneurinibacillus spp. The strain CKMV1 identified as (Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus) on the basis of 16S rDNA homology showed a considerable antifungal potential against different phytopathogens along with multiple PGP traits like phosphate solubilization, IAA production, HCN production, siderophore production. Significant growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by CKMV1 was obtained in the order Sclerotium rolfsii > Rhizoctonia solani > Phytopthora cactorum > Alternaria spp. > Fusarium oxysporum. Thus, the secondary metabolite producing A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 exhibited innate potential of plant growth promotion and biocontrol activities in vitro which can further be used as biofertilizer as well as biocontrol agent.
Tarique Hassan Askary, Mohammad Islam Shah Waliullah and Mohammad Maqbool Mir

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Campus, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Division of Pomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Main Ca

Key words: Phytonematodes, distribution, stone fruits, nut fruits, soil, rhizosphere, peach, plum, apricot, walnut, cherry, almond

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 136-140.

Abstract: Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of stone fruits viz., peach, plum, apricot, cherry and nut fruits viz., almond and walnut from three year old nurseries at five different localities of Kashmir valley and processed to assess the population density of phytonematodes at each locality. Ten species/ genera of plant parasitic nematodes viz., Pratylenchus penetrans, Paratylenchus juglansi, Meloidogyne hapla, Tylenchorhynchus spp., Criconema spp., Rotylenchus spp., Xiphinema basiri, Longidorus spp., Hoplolaimus spp. and Helicotylenchus indicus were recorded. The most common nematode species which was frequently found in the rhizosphere of the surveyed fruit crops were Pratylenchus penetrans and Helicotylenchus indicus. Meloidogyne hapla was also common in all the fruit crops except peach and walnut. Paratylenchus juglansi was reported from the rhizosphere of walnut only. Absolute frequency of P. penetrans and Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond and H. indicus in walnut was 100% in three different localities. Absolute density and prominence value of H. indicus was highest i.e. 665 in walnut followed by 623 of P. penetrans in cherry and 618 of Tylenchorhynchus spp. in almond at separate localities of the survey. Presence of varying densities and types of plant parasitic nematodes associated with stone and nut fruits reveal that plant parasitic nematodes form an important component in temperate fruit ecosystem which needs to be investigated for assessing the role of relative virulence of a particular species, host specificity and tolerance level in host.
T. Shanmugasundaram and K. Haripriya

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: Banana, post harvest loss, osmotic dehydration, value addition.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 141-145.

Abstract: The study was undertaken on osmotic dehydration of banana varieties viz., Poovan (AAB) and Dwarf Cavendish (AAA) to investigate the effect of temperature, sample thickness and osmotic time on the rate of osmosis. The results revealed that the maximum water loss and solid gain after osmosis were 57.9 and 15.5 per cent in Poovan and 53.1 and 11.8 per cent in Dwarf Cavendish. The moisture content of Poovan slices reduced from 2.03 kg H2O kg-1 dry matter (DM) to as low as 0.31kg H2O kg-1 DM when osmosed in 60 B syrup at 75 C. In case of Dwarf Cavendish, the moisture content reduced from 2.84 to 0.38 kg H2O kg-1 DM under similar conditions. Subsequent air dehydration resulted in further loss of moisture and the moisture content was reduced to a range of 0.03 to 0.18 kg H2O kg-1 DM after 4 to 8 h of drying.
Dimpy Raina, W.S. Dhillon and P.P.S. Gill

Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

Key words: Pyrus species, correlation, heritability, genetic advance, variability

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 146-148.

Abstract: A study was undertaken to analyze the variation, heritability and correlation for vegetative and fruit characters for forty seven genotypes of pear at PAU, Ludhiana. Highest range of variation was recorded in fruit weight (70.0-213.0), TSS/acid ratio (19.7-69.0) and acidity (0.2- 0.5) with the mean of 151.11g, 43.70, and 0.29%, respectively. The PCV and GCV were observed maximum for the fruits number per spur, acidity, fruit weight and TSS/acid ratio. Heritability estimates were observed high for fruit weight (100%), flower number per spur (99.95%), TSS/acid ratio (99.79%), leaf breadth (99.73%) and fruit breadth (99.24%). A highly significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation was observed for fruit length with fruit weight (0.7463 and 0.7439), fruit breadth (0.5345 and 0.5318), TSS (0.2684 and 0.2667) and low significant with TSS/acid ratio (0.1796 and 0.1740). Similarly, positive significant genotypic correlation of fruit number per spur and flower number per spur was recorded with leaf breadth (0.2816 and 0.2814) and leaf length (0.5823 and 0.3598), respectively.
M.A. Chattoo, N. Ahmed, G.R. Najar, Angrej Ali, Z.M. Dar and Q.A.H. Dar

Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Wadura Campus, Sopore (Jammu & Kashmir)-193 201, India. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Rangreth, Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir)-190 005, India.

Key words: Allfisols, INM, inorganic fertilizers, okra-pea productivity, organic manures, soil quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 149-153.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on direct and residual effect of integrated nutrient management on crop productivity and physico-chemical characteristics of allfisols in okra-pea cropping system in Kashmir valley. The okra was grown as main crop and pea as residual crop. The experiment was laid out in simple square lattice design having 25 treatments with two replications. The pooled data revealed that integrated nutrient management significantly influenced the productivity of main as well as residual crop, physico-chemical properties and microbial activity of experimental soil. Among various treatments under study, treatment T24 (FYM, sheep manure, poultry manure and vermicompost (3, 2, 0.5, 0.6 tonnes ha-1, respectively) along with biofertilizers (Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria; both as seed inoculant @ 1.0 kg ha-1 and as soil inoculant @ 2.5 kg ha-1) and 50 % recommended dose (RDF) of fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O, 60:30:30 kg ha-1, respectively) resulted significantly maximum fruit yield of okra (272.71 q ha-1) and pod yield of pea (123.56 q ha-1). The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil under study showed an improvement with organics application as compared to initial, control and RFD. Soil under the treatment T24 showed lowest bulk density, particle density and pH; and highest porosity, EC, and organic carbon content. Available nutrients in soil (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphar) and microbial population (fungi and bacteria) were also recorded maximum with treatment T24.
P. Ranchana, M. Kannan and M. Jawaharlal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC& RI, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, India

Key words: Tuberose, single types, pollen, selfing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 154-156.

Abstract: Pollen studies were conducted in ten single type genotypes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) viz., Shringar (Mexican Single x Pearl Double), Prajwal (Shringar x Mexican Single), Phule Rajani (Mexican Single x Shringar), Calcutta Single, Hyderabad Single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single, Pune Single, Navsari Local and Variegated Single at TNAU, Coimbatore, India. Studies revealed that pollen grains were round in shape, pollen viability in acetocarmine stain was 96.73% in the genotype Variegated Single and the germination was maximum (99.21%) in 15% sucrose solution with other chemicals. Pollen tubes grew to a length of 1234.949 microns 24 hours after the dehiscence of anther. Among the genotypes under study, the highest fruit set was 89% under natural open pollination and 0% under artificial self pollination.
P.R. Meghwal, S.K. Singh, Akath Singh and Rakesh Pathak

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, India.

Key words: Karonda, genetic diversity, RAPD, accessions, precocity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 157-160.

Abstract: Carissa carandas, native to India is an underutilized fruit crop with tremendous phyto-therapeutic and nutritive importance. Seven diverse accessions and a released variety were evaluated for morphological, biochemical and molecular diversity. The test accessions varied significantly with regard to all the morphological characters except plant height and number of stipules per node. The accession, CZK2011 and CZK 2031 recorded 30 and 3% higher fruit yield over the variety Pant Manohar while other accessions gave almost equal fruit yield to variety Pant Manohar. The accessions CZK2012, CZK2021 and variety Pant Manohar were found precocious due to first fruiting at three years of age. Seven primers detected low intra-specific variation amounting to 25 % polymorphism and exhibited 11.1 to 57.1% polymorphism in banding pattern indicating narrow genetic base in the available germplasm. The accessions CZK2011, CZK2022 and CZK2031 may be recommended for cultivation in arid zone on account of their higher yield and bigger sized fruits.
S. Ramesh Kumar and G. Mohammed Yassin

Department of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Pollachi,-642 103. 1Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu

Key words: Amaranthus hypochondriacus, grain yield, variability parameters, selection

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 161-164.

Abstract: In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) ten genotypes were evaluated for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high-30 20 cm (D1), high-3030 cm (D2), normal-4520 cm (D3) and low plant density-4530 cm (D4) levels to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. In all the four plant density levels, leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, precision viticulture, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 2, pages 87-102.

Abstract: The possible influence of vine water status on grapevine yield components was studied in ten Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet franc vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario from 2005-2007 using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, soil moisture and leaf water potential (?; vine water status), were determined on ? 80 sentinel vines in each vineyard. Water status zones were identified in GIS-generated maps using leaf ? and soil moisture measurements. Areas of low soil moisture and low vine water status were negatively correlated linearly and spatially with vine size, yield, and berry weight. The frequency of relationships between variables was vineyard- and vintage-dependent. Spatial variability in soil moisture was temporally-stable in all vineyards across the three vintages (8-10 sites; 2005-06, 2006-07, 2005-07), while vine size (6-7 sites), berry weight (2-7 sites) and yield (2-5 sites) were likewise moderately-stable, but leaf ? was not (two sites). These data suggest that low soil moisture and low vine water status zones in vineyards are related to corresponding areas of low yield and vine size. These data further suggest that precision viticulture techniques may be utilized in this region to delineate yield-based or vine vigor-based vineyard sub-zones that relate to differing quality levels.
Andrew G. Reynolds and Javad Hakimi Rezaei

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1.

Key words: Global positioning systems, geographic information systems, soil moisture, leaf water potential

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 03-23.

Abstract: Spatial variability of vine water status and its relationship to soil moisture (SM) and physical properties was studied in ten vineyard blocks of Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Franc in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, using geomatic techniques. Soil texture, soil chemical composition, SM, and leaf water potential (v|/; vine water status), were determined on ~ 80 sentinel vines per vineyard. Water status zones were identified in vineyard-specific GIS-generated maps using leaf v|/ and SM measurements. SM was temporally consistent for nine of ten sites (2005-2006), all sites (2006-2007), and eight sites (2005-2007). Vine water status was temporally consistent for two sites (2005-2006) and three sites (2006-2007), but leaf v|/ zones were transient at some sites with temporally variable spatial distribution (except one site with consistent water status zones 2005-2007). SM and leaf v|/ consistently were directly-correlated spatially with % clay, % organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil pH, base saturation (BS), soil K/Ca/Mg. Low SM and water status zones were related to low % clay, OM, CEC, soil pH, BS, soil K/Ca/Mg zones. This indicate that precision viticulture may be applied to soil texture, SM, or leaf Y|/-based vineyard sub-zones that could relate to differing quality levels.
R.M. Bhatt, N.K. Srinivasa Rao, K.K. Upreti and A.D.D.V.S. Nageswara Rao

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India.

Key words: Carbon exchange rate, drought, glycinebetaine, hot pepper, plant yield

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 24-28.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the response of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to foliar applied glycinebetaine (GB) under water stress condition. Three varieties of hot pepper e.g. Arka Lohit, Pusa Jwala and Arka Haritha were subjected to water stress at flowering stage. The plants applied with GB had the greater plant height, leaf area, fruit fresh and dry mass under water deficit conditions. GB application increased the PN under water deficit condition. It was attributed to an improvement in stomatal conductance under water stress. There was a varietal difference in invertase activity and total sugar contents to GB application under water stress. Higher yield and better water use efficiency (WUE) were found in GB applied plants. The plants treated with GB 10 days before and at the time of imposing water stress (T2) responded better. The results suggested that exogenous GB ameliorates the negative effects of water stress in hot pepper.
M.T. MacDonald, R.R. Lada and R.S. Veitch

Christmas Tree Research Center, Dalhousie Agricultural Campus, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada, B2N 5E3.

Key words: Abiesbalsamea, break strength, Christmas tree, conifer, needle density, needle retention, senescence, xylem pressure potential procedures

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 29-31.

Abstract: Balsam fir trees are the most popular choice for Christmas trees in Atlantic Canada and a major export commodity, despite postharvest needle abscission challenging the industry's viability. The objective of this study was to determine if any needle or branch biophysical and/or morphological characteristics may be linked with needle abscission resistance (NAR) in balsam fir. A total of 17 different parameters were measured in branches of clones that belonged to low, medium, or high needle abscission resistant groups. Of the parameters measured, branch diameter, initial mass, needle density, break strength, and needle retention duration were significantly (P < 0.05) different between genotype groups. It was found that high NAR genotypes had a 9.1% smaller diameter, 25.0% lower initial mass, 33.2% lower needle break strength, 32.4% lower needle density, and 91% longer needle retention than low NAR clones. Of these factors, needle density was the best predictor for needle retention duration (R2 = 47%). Identification of these parameters is an important first step to understand physiological and genetic linkage for development of Christmas trees with high NAR.
B. Hoover, D. Fuglie and R. Miller

Department of Biology, Eastern Mennonite University, 1200 Park Road, Harrisonburg, VA-22802.

Key words: Soil, organic, sustainable, mulch, Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, Bluegold, Vaccinium corymbosum, Ericaceae

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 32-39.

Abstract: To ascertain optimal soil conditions for creating an organic and sustainable blueberry operation, 160 highbush blueberry plants representing five different cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, Jersey, Chandler, and Bluegold) were planted at Knoll Acres Farm, Harrisonburg, Virginia in 2009 within four soil treatment plots (horse manure, sheep manure, pine straw, and Planters Choice mulches). To define optimal growth conditions, selected soil characteristics and plant vigor assessments including photosynthesis and respiration activities as well as plant growth measurements were recorded. Statistical analyses indicated that soil treatments of pine straw and Planters Choice mulches produced significantly higher plant growth values than horse and sheep manure mulches. Among the five cultivars, Chandler bushes thrived the best, based on growth parameters except for bush height. Including cost/benefit considerations, pine straw mulch was the most economical and effective treatment among four mulches tested.
M. Karthikeyan, S. Gajalakshmi and S.A. Abbasi

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Chinnakalapet, Puducherry-605014, India.

Key words: Vermicompost, paper waste, plant growth, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 40-45.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of vermicompost generated from the paper waste spiked with cow dung slurry on the germination, plant growth and fruition of cluster bean. Two kinds of treatments were studied: (i) vermicast was applied to the soil at the rates of 5, 7.5,10 t ha-1 and (ii) amounts of essential nutrients equivalent to those present in the vermicast treatments in inorganic form was amended to the soil. There was a control with only soil without any nutrient supplement. The finding is in contrast to the reports on the beneficial impacts of vermicast on plant growth. In the present study, the inorganic fertilizer treatment exhibited better seed germination and plant growth than the equivalent vermicast treatments. The results indicate that the dose of vermicompost used in the present study was not sufficient to satisfy the nutrient demand of plant species studied. Additional fertilization would have improved the crop productivity.
L. Srimathi Priya and K. Kumutha

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Key words: AM fungi, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Coleus forskohlii, colonization, root rot index, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, alkaloid.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: This study was taken up to determine the combined effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in controlling root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Coleus forskohlii. AM root colonization was up to 70-73 per cent under combined inoculation of Scutellospora sp + Pseudomonasfluorescens + Trichoderma viride and 44-45 per cent under individual inoculation. A correlation analysis indicated that more the AM root colonization (73 per cent) less the root rot (28 per cent) incidence. The activity of the defense enzymes viz., peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase was found to be high at 30 days after inoculation of the pathogen in the co-inoculated treatments. Another correlation study between AM colonization and enzyme activity, showed low root rot index. There was a loss in the alkaloid content due to pathogen infection, yet, the combined treatments recorded a threefold increase in disease suppression.
B. Gopu, T.N. Balamohan1, P. Soman2 and P. Jeyakumar3

Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (TN), India. 1Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Trichy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

Key words: Mango pruning, flowering, fruit set, fruit yield and quality.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different pruning levels on flowering, yield and quality characters in Alphonso mango under Ultra High Density Planting from 2010-2011 at Jain Irrigation Systems Pvt. Limited (JISL) Farms, Udumalpet, Tripur District, Tamil Nadu. The treatments included control, light pruning, moderate pruning, heavy pruning, 50 per cent removal of past season growth and total removal of past season growth and imposed on five-year-old uniform sized Alphonso trees grown under a close spacing of 3 x 2 m. The minimum number of days taken for first flowering and 50 per cent flowering were recorded by the control. The highest number of panicles per tree and the maximum number of panicles produced per sq.m canopy area were recorded in the control. However, highest percentage of hermaphrodite flower per panicle and per cent fruit set were found in the treatment T5 (50 per cent removal of past season's growth and tipping). Fruit and yield characters were influenced by different pruning levels. Treatment T2 (light pruning) recorded the highest mean fruit weight, fruit length, fruit volume, fruit pulp weight and stone weight. However, treatment T3 (moderate pruning) registered highest fruit circumference. Highest pulp to stone ratio was observed in T4 (Heavy pruning) followed by T2 (light pruning). Highest number of fruits per tree and yield per tree were observed in control. Highest total soluble solids, total sugars and non reducing sugars of the fruit were observed in T6 (total removal of past season's growth). The maximum acidity and ascorbic acid content were observed in control. Maximum total carotenoid content was recorded in T3 (moderate pruning) and reducing sugars in T4 (heavy pruning).
P.A. Sofi1, S.A. Wani2, M.Y. Zargar1, F.A. Sheikh1 and T. Shafi1

1 Regional Research Station (SKUAST-K), Wadura, Sopore-193201, J&K. 2Directorate of Research, SKUAST-K, Shalimar-191121, J&K, India

Key words: Common bean, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, water absorption

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 54-58.

Abstract: The amount of water absorbed during soaking by dry beans before cooking may be a reliable indicator of the amount of time required to render them soft and palatable to eat. The present study was undertaken in kharif 2012 at Regional Research Station Wadura. Fifty diverse germplasm accessions (local and exotic) representing different growth habits and market classes were compared with Shalimar Rajmash-1, a high yielding bush variety released by SKUAST-K, for 12 seed morphological and physical characters namely seed colour, seed brilliance, seed shape, seed coat pattern, dry seed weight, soaked seed weight, seed length, seed breadth, seed coat proportion, water absorption ratio, hydration capacity and swelling capacity. There was a broad range of variation in the traits studied as revealed by the range and coefficient of variation (%). The CV was highest for swelling capacity (18.62) followed by water absorption (16.281), hydration capacity (13.61), soaked seed weight (10.712), dry seed weight (3.056) and coat proportion (1.221). However, CV was very low for seed length and seed breadth owing to low variation in these traits. The correlation between different traits was also worked out and revealed that highest correlation was recorded between dry weight and soaked weight (0.874) followed by hydration capacity and swelling capacity (0.720), seed dry weight and hydration capacity (0.710), dry weight and water absorption (0.308), indicating that the seeds with greater cotyledon mass absorbed more water and that greater water absorption leads to greater swelling. However, negative correlations were recorded between coat proportion and water absorption (-0.550) and between dry weight and coat proportion (-0.325). Seed physicochemical traits including the traits used in present study could be effectively used for comparing large set of germplasm lines for cooking qualities as the varieties that have high hydration and swelling capacities are usually fast to cook.
Isha Bhoyer, Mina D. Koche, Santoshi Pudake and N.B. Ninawe

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra). India.

Key words: Papaya, ringspot virus, physical properties, aphid

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 59-60.

Abstract: Experiment was conducted in vitro to see the different physical properties and transmission of papaya ring spot virus with different aphid species. The virus was found to be inactivated between temperature 50 to 55C and between the dilutions of 10-3 to 10-4. It remained viable upto 24 hours at temperature 28 to 30C and 5 days at 6 to 8C temperature. The virus was transmissible by five aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Koch), Acyrthosiphonpisum (Buczacki S. and Harris K.), Dactynotus carthami (Hille Ris Lambers), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) in non persistent manner.
J. Hamzei and S. Najjari

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code: 6517833131, Hamedan, Iran

Key words: Cucurbita pepo L., fertilizer, linoleic acid, mycorrhiza fungi, oil percentage, symbiosis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 61-65.

Abstract: Phosphorus is a major nutrient and its deficiency limits plant growth of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The investigation was aimed at studying integrated application of phosphorus on growth and production of pumpkin. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) (mycorrhiza and bacteria) with and without seed inoculations, and P chemical fertilizer at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended fertilizer were applied in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data indicate that PSM and P fertilizer show significant effects on all traits. Maximum oil yield (41.80 g m-2) and linoleic acid (68.30%) were obtained with PSM and 50% of the recommended P fertilizer. Seed yield was significantly increased in response to inoculation of PSM in the presence of low levels of P fertilizer. However, maximum mycorrhizal colonization obtained in 25% recommended P fertilizer. A high level of P fertilizer had a negative effect on the activity of PSM. On the other hand, a low level of phosphorus with PSM has a simulative impact on root colonization and productivity of pumpkin and favoured the activities of PSM.
J. Shankara Swamy and A.K. Banik

Department of Postharvest Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal-741 252, India.

Key words: Blended guava-watermelon squash, blended fruit beverages, xanthan gum, non-enzymatic browning and stability.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 66-70.

Abstract: Guava fruit juices are pleasant when diluted with other tropical fruit juices due to its too acidic or strongly flavoured and less coloured nature, thus blending offers the opportunity to adjust sugar and acid ratios and eliminates some defects in juice quality or nutritional attributes by proper combination ofjuices and further adjustments in ingredients. Guava-watermelon squash at different ratio (50:50, 75:25, 25:75) of pulp blending level containing 40 oBrix TSS and 1% of acidity were prepared with incorporation of different concentrations of xanthan gum, an exocellular polysaccharide produced by obligately aerobic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, to investigate the effect of different ingredients on the product quality and stability during 180 days of storage. There were little changes in quality parameters, TSS, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid during the storage and 0.5% w/w of xanthan gum gave stability to the product during storage. Blended guava-watermelon squash (75:25) having 0.3% of xanthan gum, 40 oBrix TSS, 1% acidity showed highest overall acceptability during the storage period.
R. Ranjan, M. Longkumer and J. Kabir

Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, 741252, India.

Key words: Cauliflower, pretreatment, drying temperature, quality, dehydration.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 71-75.

Abstract: Cauliflower curd were pre-treated with hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS, with/without microwave blanching for 5 minutes and were dehydrated at three levels of temperature viz., 65, 60 and 55 oC at different treatment combinations. Considering the dehydration characters and quality after dehydration and storage it was found that T2 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 65 oC) was the best treatment followed by T4 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + microwave blanching + drying at 60 oC) and T5 (hot water blanching + 0.125% KMS + drying at 55 oC). In T2, time taken for complete dehydration (445 minutes) and moisture content (3.62%) was least. Further, the moisture content after 6 month of storage was also less (9.63%), drying rate (135.74%) and dehydration ratio (10.70) was medium after dehydration. Ascorbic acid retention was maximum during storage in the treatment. Sensory evaluation also supported the superiority of this treatment.
Tewodros Bezu1 and Nigusse Kassa2

School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Key words: Cut-flower, freesia corm, freesia hybrid, Ethiopia

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 76-79.

Abstract: Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Freesia Ethiopia Plc., located at Sululta, Ethiopia, to determine the effects of planting density and corm size on flower yield and quality of cut-freesia. Planting densities 90, 100 and 110 corms per m2 and corm sizes of 3, 3.5 and 4 cm in circumference were evaluated on two varieties 'Volante' and 'Casino' using Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement (3 x 3 x 2) with three replications. Emergence date, flowering date, cut flower yield and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed. Consequently, increment of planting density resulted highest number of cut-flowers. Corm size difference positively influenced the stem length, spike length and cut-flowers yield. Significant interaction effects were also found between corm sizes and varieties on yield and quality traits. In general, using the biggest corm and highest planting density exhibited superior result for the greenhouse production of the stated varieties. However, to come up with complete recommendations, further investigations should be conducted in line with other agronomic packages and varieties of economic viability.
S. Kapoor and P. Aggarwal

Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004

Key words: Carrot juice, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, processing, storage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2014, volume 16, issue 1, pages 80-84.

Abstract: Fresh carrot juice is one of the widely consumed vegetable juice during winter season. Recipe for ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was standardized with the addition of sugar, salt and ginger on the basis of sensory evaluation. The effect of processing and storage on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and ready-to-serve carrot ginger juice was studied. Among the various combinations prepared, 4% sugar, 0.6% salt, 0.8% ginger and 0.05% citric acid showed highest overall acceptability on the basis of sensory scores and was chosen for further analysis. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH assay. During processing, significant losses were found in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of control and carrot ginger juice. The study revealed that carrot ginger juice was found to retain more antioxidant activity compared to control juice due to addition of ginger. Storage of six months had no significant effect on TSS and acidity of processed carrot juices. However, storage led to significant decrease in bioactive compounds and thus decreased antioxidant activity of carrot products.

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