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Samson Bekele Diro and Ketema Tilahun

Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia. Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia. Presemt address: School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga NSW2678,

Key words: Growth stages, deficit irrigation, Ethiopia, CROPWAT model, onion

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 103-106.

Abstract: Deficit irrigation conserves water and minimizes adverse effects of excess irrigation. In this study, the applicability of the CROPWAT model in management of deficit irrigation was evaluated at Sekota Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Water was applied using low head drippers. There were eight treatments with three replications: stress at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th growth stages and partial stresses of 50% ETc, 75% ETc with two controls of 25% ETc and 100% ETc of the water requirement throughout the growing season. The input data for CROPWAT program were climatic, rainfall, crop and soil data. Yield reductions simulated by CROPWAT program were comparable with yield reduction measured under field condition. Model efficiency and correlation coefficients of 98% were obtained. Based on the above comparative analysis, CROPWAT program could adequately simulate yield reduction resulting from water stress.
Mahmoud M Hamdi, Naima Boughalleb, Neji Tarchoun and Lassaad Belbahri

1Department of Agronomic and Economic Sciences, Higher School of Agriculture of Kef, 7119, Kef Tunisia, 2Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tu

Key words: Tomato, Lycospersicon esculentum, graft, Fusarium crown and root rot, grafting, Beaufort x Bochra, Beaufort x Amal, Kemerit x Bochra and Kemerit x Amal, rootstock

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 107-110.

Abstract: Tomato, Lycospersicon esculentum, is an important vegetable crop in Tunisia and many other Mediterranean countries. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato are new diseases in the area, first reported during 2000-2001 crop season, threatening tomato production. Being a soil-borne pathogen, effective disease control methods of Fusarium crown and root rot are limited thus requiring the alternative measures for disease management. In this study the efficacy of grafting commercial Tomato cultivars Bochra and Amal, used as scions, onto a new rootstock Beaufort and Kemerit RZ was examined in controlled and natural conditions. Grafting was found, in this study, to be an effective method to attenuate the impact of Fusarium wilt, Fusarium crown and root rot. Moreover, grafting increased tomato growth parameters, yield and improved fruit quality.
Jianming Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Zhirong Zou and M.H. Behboudian

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University. Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 China, Department of For?eign Languages, Northwest A&F University. Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 China, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston

Key words: Upper-limit, soil water content, yield, fruit quality, tomato, cucumber

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 111-112.

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the optimum upper limit of soil water content (SWC) for tomato and cucumber from early stages after transplanting. Five different upper limits of SWC were tested at the lowest limit of 60% of field capacity (FC) for tomato and of 75% for cucumber. Stem growth, root viability, yield and fruit concentrations of vitamin C and total soluble solids were significantly affected by the treatment. The highest yield and best fruit quality was obtained at 85% of FC for tomato and at 90% for cucumber. This suggests that irrigating to FC does not necessarily result in higher yields and better fruit quality.
Mohamed M. ElFouly, A.A. ElSayed, A.A. Fawzy, B.M. Mansour, A. Bosila and Hassan A. Hamouda

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki-Egypt and Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo-Egypt.

Key words: Ficus hawaii, N use efficiency, N forms, nutrient film technique, nutrient uptake

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 113-118.

Abstract: Nutrient film technique was designed and used to grow Ficus hawii using different nitrogen sources, nitrate (calcium and potassium nitrate (N), urea (U) and ammonium nitrate (AN) in the same dose. Aim of the study was to investigate the most proper form of nitrogen, which gives the highest vegetative growth and nutrients uptake in the early growth of the plants. Results show that in general, AN gave the highest vegetative growth parameters expressed as plant height, number of branches plant-1, leaves plant-1, leaf area, fresh and dry weight. AN favoured apical growth, while U favoured lateral growth. Shoot/root ratio was highest in the AN treatment. Nutrients uptakes by the whole plant was much higher in the case of AN then U and N. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in AN followed by U (more or less similar) and lowest in case of N.
Chen Shaoli, Zhou Baoli, Wang Ruhua and Xi Haijun

College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China; Heilongjiang August First Land Reclamation University, Daqing 163319, China.

Key words: Grafting, root exduates, cinnamic acid, vanillin, autotoxicity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 119-122.

Abstract: Cinnamic acid and vanillin are the allelochemicals commonly exist in eggplant root exudates. With pot culture experiment, the effects of grafted eggplants on allelopathy of cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplants root exudates were studied. The results showed that cinnamic acid and vanillin had allelopathic effects on eggplants, lower concentration of cinnamic acid and vanillin (0.1 mmol L-1 or 0.5 mmol L-1) could promote the growth and physiological metabolism of eggplants, while higher concentration (from 1 mmol L-1 to 4 mmol L-1) had slightly promotive or inhibitive effects on eggplants. Meanwhile, this study suggested grafting could relieve autotoxicity of cinnamic acid and vanillin, and significant difference in the regulation intensity for the autotoxicity was found between cinnamic acid and vanillin. Grafting decreased the amounts of cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of vanillin. The maximum reduction amount of cinnamic acid reached 68.96%, and that of vanillin reached 100%. Under the stress of exotic cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of exotic cinnamic acid, grafting relieved the autotoxicity of the two substances on eggplants. Compared with own-rooted eggplant, grafted eggplant had a higher plant height and a larger stem diameter, its leaf cholorophyll content increased by 5.26-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced. Grafting was found to be one of the most effective methods for relieving replanting problems caused by autotoxicity.
A. Das and D. Sing Majhi

Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, WestBengal-741252.

Key words: Rainwater, tap water, pond water, distilled water, hydroponics

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 123-126.

Abstract: Low cost hydroponics devices were designed using plastic trays and buckets. Cultivations of tomato, chilli, cauliflower and marigold cv. Inca were tested in these devices using rain water, pond water, tap water and distilled water for nutrient solution preparation. The vegetables were grown as multiple plant cultures in plastic trays and marigold cv. Inca in single plant culture in small buckets. Direct use of tap water and pond water created chlorosis in some plants that could be overcome by boiling of water before use. In rain water tomato and chilli plants performed the best. However, cauliflower curd yield was the best in tap water. Marigold cv. Inca bloomed well in all categories of water. Water qualities were the major factor for crop growth. Rainwater could be more safely used. The devices and procedures are recommended for the kitchen gardeners of the urban and soil stress areas.
S.S. Omolaja

Plant Breeding Group, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Key words: Caffeine, phenol, protein, Coffea canephora, Nigeria

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 127-131.

Abstract: A study was carried out to characterise thirty-seven Coffea canephora clones using three biochemical characteristics, namely caffeine, phenol and protein content. The phenol and caffeine contents were determined by gravimetric method, while protein was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of floral bud. Caffeine content among the clones ranged from 1.1 to 1.5% on dry matter basis (dmb). C36 a high yielding clone, had relatively low caffeine content, hence it is a suitable clone that could be included in any breeding programme for low caffeine coffee in Nigeria. All the Niaollou (M) clones had high caffeine content. Phenol content in the berry pulp of the clones ranged from 2.6 to 15.6%. Averaged over clones, phenol content of berry pulp (9.5 %) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than leaf phenol content (4.5 %). The coefficient of variation for pulp phenol was high (35.3), thus indicating that, rapid response to selection for favourable phenol percentage might be feasible. The high level of phenol found in some clones may be valuable in breeding for resistance to some major diseases and insect pests of coffee. There were differences in the mobility and intensity of protein bands in the clones. The variation in the protein banding patterns of the different C. canephora clones observed provides further information on the existing genetic diversity of the coffee clones in addition to that provided by agro-botanical characters.
A.M. El Assar

Tropical Fruits and Date Palm Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

Key words: Polypropylene, dates, bunch covering, "Zaghloul", ripening time, fruit quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 132-135.

Abstract: This study targets to investigate the efficiency of date bunch covering treatments by using different bag types such as the polypropylene muslin, staved-plastic (polyethylene) or cecile tissue in comparison with uncovered bunches (control) in the same orchard (from the mid of July to mid of September) in Rossitta region (Rasheid), Behera province, Egypt. Quantity and quality of marketable yield for "Zaghloul" dates, beside the ripening time were assessed through two consecutive seasons. The main notice was, all kinds of used covers reduced the damage caused by birds, blights and wasps as well as no incidence of diseases was observed under the experimental covers. Polypropylene muslin treatment decreased the dropped fruits in both study seasons, consequently it increased the marketable yield. Fruits under the polypropylene muslin bags were late in the ripening. Date bunches under the staved-plastic covers were statistically superior than all other treatments regarding fruits quality and were early in the ripening. There were statistical differences in fruit quality traits and fruits ripening time according to the bunch cover types.
Naser Alemzadeh Ansari and Reza Mamghani

Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.

Key words: Ecology, temperature stress, growth habit, tomato

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 136-142.

Abstract: Tomato hybrids and cultivars from northern latitudes are tolerant to temperature variations and are early maturing crops. In order to produce new cultivars for southwest of Iran, it is necessary and useful to study adaptation of genotypes in this area. The seeds of 74 cultivars from Moscow and 8 hybrids from Netherlands were germinated and then transplanted to Jiffy-pots under plastic tunnels before being transferred to the soil in the field. Growth habits, leaf and inflorescence forms, fruit weight, fruit number, yield in each harvest, total yield and earliness were recorded. There were differences among cultivars for all measured characteristics. Some cultivars had relatively good tolerance to high temperature, and could produce fruits at temperatures higher than 30?C. The tested varieties had different growth habits. Maximum yield was obtained from determinate types, M66, M63, M49 and M48. For most cultivars, the largest fruits were produced in the first harvest while the next harvests had smaller fruits. A negative correlation was observed for fruit numbers and average fruit weight. Also, some cultivars including M39, M46, M74, M40, and M35 exhibited early and more uniform yield per plant compared with control varieties. Some cultivars such as M48 and M66 had late maturity with higher yield as compared with control. The tested entries were classified on the basis of leaf shape, inflorescence, fruit number and weight. Maximum difference was between controls and M27.
Shekafandeh and M. Ghasemi

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Key words: Benzyladenin (BA), late-flowering, nodal segments, proliferation, hot water

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 143-145.

Abstract: In this study, hot-water and cold treatments were used for eradication of explant contamination, and also the effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation was evaluated. The explants were nodal segments of a late flowering almond cultivar 'Sharood 7'. Experiments were carried out in a complete randomized design with 25 replications. All hot-water treatments eliminated fungal contamination. The best hot-water treatment was 50?C in which 88% of explants were both free of contamination and necrosis followed by 76% at 47.5?C and 56% at 45?C. The best proliferation rate obtained in 1.5 mg L-1 BA in combination with 0.1 mg L-1 IBA (5.25 shoots per explant) which was significantly higher than 1 mg L-1 (2.65 shoots per explant). Cold treatments only (2 and 4 days in 4?C) delayed fungal contaminations for 7 days, so it was impossible to assess bacterial contamination.
Gyorgy Feszt and Lucica Mihalte

Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden, 42 Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Key words: Cacti, Cactaceae, diseases, attack degree, attack intensity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 146-149.

Abstract: In terms of artificial collections, cacti receive a specific microclimate, which ensures constant physical parameters leading to a low resistance and high susceptibility to attack by pests and diseases. The Cactaceae collection of the botanical garden "Alexandru Borza", Cluj-Napoca, Romania counts more than 4100 plants belonging to 115 genera. Following inventory collection, 4069 plants were studied. Preliminary assessment results that the radicular system of the best represented Cactaceae species is much worse than those stems. Genus: Astrophytum, Aylostera, Echinocerus, Notocactus, Weingartia had disease insidence of grade 2 (the area affected by 26?50%). The highest intensity of the attack was reported in the genus Echinocereus (47.24). In calculating the attack degree there was a greater uniformity in genus Aylostera (36.34), Echinocereus (37.46), Rebutia (37.83); Weingartia (33.37). In considerable stem attack by pahthogens, the highest attack frequencies were recorded in Astrophytum (51.75); Ferocactus (65.76) and Notocactus (58.18). The attack intensity, expressed in intensity degrees, reached value 2 (30.79) in the case of Cleistocactus genus, whereas the other genera remained under grade 1.
Mohamad Fattahi and Mansuor Gholami

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.

Key words: Strawberry, nutrient, development stages, plant fragments

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 150-152.

Abstract: The objective of the investigation was to study the effect of different development stages on distribution of mineral nutrients in the growing leaves, roots, petioles and fruits. Strawberry plants were grown in a greenhouse in perlite medium and fertigated with Hoagland solution. Mineral nutrient concentration was determined at three development stages viz., flowering, fruiting and the end of fruiting. Also nutrient concentration was determined in different organs at fruiting stage. Our results show that nutrient uptake was variable at different development stages. Leaf and petiole were the main sinks for Ca at fruiting stage and also for Mg and K in petioles, Fe in root, Mn in leaf. Results indicated that plant have different uptake pattern at various development stages. Results on the element uptake by different organs at various development stage is indicative of their relative requirement at different stages.
O.O. Olubode, I.O.O. Aiyelaagbe and J.G. Bodunde

Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., papaya, growth and yield, intercropping sequence, productivity efficiency indices, profit margin.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 153-159.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2007 at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria, to determine the growth and yield responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in orchards of two papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties, 'Homestead Selection' and 'Sunrise Solo', at three different stages of papaya growth. Different sequences of okra sowing were; at three weeks before papaya (early), same time with papaya (simultaneous) and three weeks after papaya (late). Results showed that early and simultaneous introduction of okra performed significantly better than the late, with respect to plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, number of pods, pod weight plant-1 and total pod yield. All the okra intercrops experienced competitive effects that reflected in reduced yield more pronounced in Homestead Selection than in Sunrise Solo. The productivity efficiency index recorded intercropping advantages for the okra in mixture compared to the sole okra with a land equivalent ratio (LER) >1.0 while the area harvest equivalent ratio (AHER) was more descriptive of the trends observed among the sequences. In cv Homestead Selection, the highest profit margin (47.64 %) was recorded in the simultaneous papaya-okra intercrop, followed by early (44.57 %). A similar trend was observed in cv Sunrise Solo, where simultaneous and early okra introduction had a profit margin of40.06 and 39.72%, respectively. Late sequence had the least profit margin in both papaya cultivars. .
Prabuddha Ray and Sarthak Chowdhury

Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Statistics, Palli Shiksha Bhavan (Institute of Agriculture), Sriniketan, Visva-Bharati, P.O. Sriniketan, Dist. Birbhum, 731 236, West Bengal, India.

Key words: Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis, constraints, adoption of IPM technologies, cauliflower cultivation, knowledge and information constraints, rank score

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 160-164.

Abstract: The present study revealed that among all the various types of constraints perceived by the respondents regarding the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies in the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) production, the lack of knowledge of the respondents about the Economic Threshold Limit (ETL) concept (under the category of knowledge and information constraints) had the first rank closely followed by the lack of knowledge of the respondents regarding the bio-pesticides (under the category of knowledge and information constraints). The lack of knowledge of the respondents about the IPM techniques (under the knowledge and information constraints category) enjoyed third position, closely followed by lack of training of the respondents on the proper use of pesticides (under category of administrative and managerial constraints). The result clearly indicate that among six different categories of perceived constraints, knowledge and information constraints with a rank score of 2769 enjoyed first rank position, distantly followed by administrative and managerial constraints (with a rank score of 1586) in the second position, technological and communication constraints with a rank score of 1249 in the third position, socio-economic constraint (rank score of 828) in the fourth position.
Samir C. Debnath and Elodie Ricard

Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 39088, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John's, NL A1E 5Y7, Canada. Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, Rue Pierre Waguet, BP 30313, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France

Key words: Anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, Fragaria x ananassa Duch., ISSR markers, strawberry

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 83-89.

Abstract: Data on molecular markers, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities are increasingly used in breeding programs of many horticultural crops. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities were used to characterize 10 strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars and nine breeding lines. Fifteen primers generated 240 polymorphic ISSR-PCR bands. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) revealed a substantial degree of genetic similarity among the genotypes ranging from 45% to 73% that were in agreement with the principal coordinate (PCO) analysis. Wide genetic diversity was observed among the strawberry genotypes for anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities. The ISSR analysis together with data for antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents in strawberries could be used for germplasm management and more efficient choices of parents in current strawberry breeding programs.
Nasir S.A. Malik and Joe M. Bradford

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 2413 E. Hwy 83 Weslaco, Texas 78596.

Key words: flowering, inflorescence, Olea europaea L., olive, temperature effects.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 90-94.

Abstract: Regulation of flowering in 'Koroneiki' olives by various regimes of daytime and nighttime temperatures was investigated. The trees flowered profusely under chilling (2.5?C; 569 inflorescences tree-1) and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (8.3?C; 729 inflorescences tree-1) when daytime temperatures were kept optimal (18.3?C). Chilling nighttime temperatures (2.5?C) did not produce any greater number of inflorescence than non-chilling temperatures of 8.3?C. High daytime temperatures (26.6?C) strongly inhibited flowering at both chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures (i.e., 0.5 and 0.0 inflorescences tree1 under chilling and non-chilling temperatures, respectively). Mildly high daytime temperatures (23.9?C) also inhibited flowering but there were significantly more inflorescences per tree at 23.9?C (220 and 127 inflorescences tree-1 under chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures, respectively) than at 26.6?C. There was no significant difference in the number of inflorescences tree-1 between chilling and non-chilling nighttime temperatures at both inhibitory daytime temperatures; i.e. 23.9?C and 26.6?C. The trees that were kept vegetative by high daytime temperatures (26.6?C), but given flower inducing nighttime temperature for three months, when returned to optimal flower inducing conditions did not flower before the normal induction period (70-80 days), indicating that inhibitory daytime temperatures canceled any effects of nighttime flower inducing temperatures. Surprisingly, trees kept vegetative in growth chamber at a high daytime temperature (26.6?C) produced fewer inflorescences compared to trees kept vegetative in the greenhouse where temperatures were less controlled but generally, with a few exceptions, remained between 15-20?C in the night and 25-30?C during day.
Thomas Tworkoski, Ralph Scorza and D. Michael Glenn

USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Rd., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV, 25430, USA.

Key words: Orchard management, tree root system, tree nutrient uptake, Prunus persica

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 95-98.

Abstract: Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applications in the greenhouse and field. In the field during 2008, Compact trees had higher root length density than Pillar and Standard trees (6.2, 3.8, and 3.7 mm cm-3, respectively). Compact trees also had higher foliar P (0.21%) but the same N (1.3%) as Standard and Pillar trees (P concentrations of 0.14 and 0.11%, respectively) when fertilizer was applied once in the greenhouse. Following multiple applications of fertilizer, Compact tree leaves had the same P (approximately 0.21 and 0.29% in the greenhouse and field, respectively) as the other growth habits. After multiple fertilizer applications, Pillar trees had the greatest increase in foliar N and P, which was associated with high transpiration rates. Pillar, Compact, and Standard had transpiration rates of 3.0, 2.1, and 2.3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively. The data indicate that peach trees with fibrous roots systems may have an advantage to absorb nutrients such as P that move primarily by diffusion, when the nutrient is present in low concentrations in the soil. However, under conditions of high soil fertility, fibrous root systems did not improve nutrient uptake and trees with greater transpiration rates absorbed greater levels of nutrients. Different growth habits of peach have diverse root systems and transpiration rates that affect nutrient uptake and, consequently, the selection of tree growth habit should be considered in orchard soil management plans. Growth habits with more fibrous root systems may require reduced inputs of nutrients with low diffusion coefficients.
Jamie R. Stieg, S. Alan Walters, Jason P. Bond and M. Babadoost

Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.

Key words: Capsicum annuum, chemical control, economics, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora blight, disease management, disease resistance/tolerance

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 2, pages 99-102.

Abstract: Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian, is a widespread and destructive disease of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Bell pepper yield, farm-gate revenues and Phytophthora blight incidence were determined during 2005 and 2006 in a P. capsici-infested field near Shawneetown, Illinois. The study evaluated 12 bell pepper cultivars (one resistant, three tolerant, and eight susceptible to P capsici) with or without a recommended fungicide treatment (mefenoxam at transplant and dimethomorph + copper alternated with manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate + copper at 10 day intervals). Bell pepper plants receiving fungicide applications showed less Phytophthora blight incidence throughout the growing season and produced greater yield and farm-gate revenues compared to untreated plants. Additionally, P capsici-resistant 'Paladin' and P capsici-tolerant 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' produced greater yields (> 17,800 and 33,800 kg ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively) and farm-gate revenues [> $12,700 and $27,000 (USA) ha-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively] compared to the susceptible cultivars. Therefore, in fields with a high incidence history of Phytophthora blight, 'Paladin' could be a reliable choice for commercial bell pepper production. However, 'Alliance', 'Aristotle X3R', and 'Revolution' may be preferred by growers due to the added benefits of bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye] resistance and better fruit quality compared to 'Paladin'. Furthermore, this research indicates that plant resistance and/or tolerance should not be relied upon as the only method of P capsici control and growers should also incorporate fungicides into their management program to provide additional protection.
Guido Knapp, Bimal K. Sinha and Dihua Xu

Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, 44221 Dortmund, Germany, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA

Key words: Duncan's multiple range test, Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, Fisher's LSD test, standardized mean differences, ratio of means, random effects meta-analysis.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 10-16.

Abstract: For combining results from independent experiments, it is essential that information about the precision of the estimates of treatment effects is available. In publications of horticultural experiments, the results of multiple comparisons tests are often reported without sufficient information about the precision of the experiments. Based on limited information of the precision of an experiment such as treatments with the same letter are not significantly different, we develop a method for extracting a possible range of the precision of the experiment which can then be used for meta-analysis. The procedure is demonstrated using a real data example where alternatives to methyl bromide are studied in pre-plant soil fumigation. We also provide an R program which computes the possible range of the precision.
Onofri Andrea, Beccafichi Catia, Benincasa Paolo, Guiducci Marcello and Tei Francesco

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno, 74,1-06121, Perugia (Italy).

Key words: Processing tomato, CropSyst, simulation, modelling, dry matter partitioning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 17-22.

Abstract: The model CropSyst has proven useful for management-oriented simulations of growth and yield of cereals and other field crops, but no scientific information is available with reference to processing tomato. The aim of this paper was to parameterise and validate the crop module of CropSyst for the simulation of potential fruit production in processing transplanted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Parameterisation and calibration were performed by using field data from an experiment carried out in 1997 in Central Italy. The same set of parameters was validated against five independent experiments, carried out on the same location in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. The simulation of aerial biomass was always very good, with RRMSE values ranging from 7.5 to 13.4% and modelling efficiencies (EI) always above 0.976. The simulation of LAI was very good during the first part of growing season (up to 40-50 days after transplanting), while the decreasing trend in the final part of growing cycle was not always reliably simulated. Indeed, RRMSE for LAI ranged from 13.5 to 26.8% and EI ranged from 0.849 to 0.966. The differences between simulated and observed final fruit yield were below 10%, except in one year (18% in 2001), confirming the practical value of this model, for management and legislative purposes. For research purposes, it is confirmed that the simulation of dry matter partitioning is a crucial issue in vegetable crops such as tomato, wherein the growth of sources and sinks coexists for a main part of crop cycle.
Manasikan Thammawong and Osamu Arakawa

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyocho, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan.

Key words: Amylopectin, amylose, Malus domestica Borkh., starch degradation, total hydrolytic activity.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 23-30.

Abstract: Fruit maturity indices, i.e. respiration rate and ethylene production, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) content, total hydrolytic activity, and sugar content were investigated during the growth and maturation of 'Tsugaru' (early-maturing) and 'Fuji' (late-maturing) apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Different starch degradation characteristics during the growth and maturation processes were observed between 'Tsugaru' and 'Fuji'. By iodine staining, the loss of starch in 'Tsugaru' was observed earlier than in 'Fuji'. The different degradation patterns of starch were also demonstrated through the observations on AM and AP content. In 'Tsugaru', AM and AP degraded rapidly between 95 to 110 days after full bloom (DAFB) and almost all starch were lost rapidly at 125 DAFB with simultaneous increases in rate of respiration and production of ethylene. However, in 'Fuji', starch degraded gradually throughout growth and maturation process and was clearly degraded at 170 DAFB with a low level of ethylene production and decreased respiration. In both the cultivars, content of AM and AP were highest in the outer cortex and lowest in the inner cortex. Starch degradation was observed simultaneously in 3 different tissue zones and there was little difference in the total hydrolytic activity among tissue zones in both cultivars. These results suggest that starch hydrolysis in the apple flesh began simultaneously rather than preferentially in any one tissue zone. For sugar content, although differences among tissue zones were not clear, it increased distinctly with loss of starch content. Moreover, sugars from the degradation of accumulated starch and sugar translocation seem to influence mainly the sweetness quality as the fruit ripens.
Reginald S. Fletcher

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 E. Hwy. 83, Weslaco, Texas 78596

Key words: Citriculture, citrus, Citrus spp., Geographic Information System (GIS), soil survey geographic data (SSURGO), Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) data, grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, oranges, Citrus sinensis

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 3-9.

Abstract: The South Texas citrus industry needs an inventory of soil properties within existing citrus (Citrus spp.) orchards, wants data at the county level showing soils that are suitable for citrus production, and would value any information related to the establishment of citrus orchards. This study discusses integration of citrus, soil survey geographic data (SSURGO), and U.S. Census spatial and tabular data with geographical information system (GIS) technology for citriculture. For this study, Hidalgo County Texas was evaluated because it is the major citrus producing county in South Texas. The spatial and tabular data and commercial GIS software were used to inventory selected soil chemical and physical properties within citrus groves, to identify orchards that may be affected by urban expansion, and to select potential sites for establishing new citrus orchards. Results indicated that citrus, SSURGO, and U.S. census spatial and tabular data integrated with GIS technology can be a powerful tool for citriculture. The information provided in this study should appeal to producers, extension agents, scientists, and government agencies within the U.S. and abroad.
Berhanu Kebebew and Ketema Tilahun

Oromia Irrigation Development Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.Present address: School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga,NSW 2678, Australia

Key words: Crop factor, drip irrigation, Ethiopia, tomato, water use efficiency.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 31-34.

Abstract: Efficient irrigation is essential for sustainable use of available water resources. A field experiment was conducted on two tomato cultivars (Melka Shola and Melkassa Marglobe) and four irrigation deficit levels (0%ETc, 25%ETc, 50%ETc, and 75%ETc). The objective was to determine crop factor (Kf) and water use efficiency (WUE). The Kcf values of 0.62, 0.65, 0.70, and 0.71 during the respective four growth stages of the crop were determined. The highest (91.23 kg ha1 mm1) and lowest (81.62 kg ha1 mm1) water use efficiencies were recorded in 25 and 0% deficit levels, respectively. The yield and WUE of Melka Shola cultivar was higher than that of Melkassa Marglobe. Generally, it was found that irrigating the tomato crop with 75% of ETc (i.e. 25%ETc deficit) is the best irrigation practice in the area. In terms of both yield and WUE, Melka Shola tomato cultivar was found to perform better than Melkassa Marglobe.
Boodia Navindra, Ruggoo Arvind and Boodoo B. Hassina

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.

Key words: Antibrowning agents, citric acid, ascorbic acid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, minimal processing, green jackfruit, moderate vacuum packaging.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 35-40.

Abstract: Green mature jackfruits were minimally processed into cubes, dipped in solution of citric acid (0 and 1%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1 and 2%), vacuum packed at 550 mbar atmospheric pressure in 80 urn laminated low density polyethylene vacuum pouches and stored at 2-4?C for 15 days. A control was prepared, using water. Quality parameters like colour, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids were determined during storage. Colour parameters indicated increase in browning during storage. A significant increase (P<0.05) in titratable acidity and significant decrease (P<0.05) in pH were observed in all treatments. Texture significantly decreased (P<0.05) in all treatments during storage. Combinations of the browning inhibitors were more effective than when applied individually. Citric acid and ascorbic acid when applied together resulted in non-significant change (P>0.05) in microbial counts, browning, and colour lightness. Treatment of 1% citric acid and 2% ascorbic acid in combination with moderate vacuum packaging and low temperature storage was found most effective in inhibiting browning and deterioration of fresh-cut green jackfruit for up to 15 days.
N?ji Tarchoun Salah Rezgui and Abdelaziz Mougou

Centre Regional des Recherches en Horticulture et Agriculture Biologique BP47- 4042 Sousse, Tunisia, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie (INAT) 43, av. Charles Nicolle 1082 cite mahrajene Tunis- Tunisia

Key words: Abortion, bud and flower, hot pepper, low night temperature, sucrose synthase, acid invertase.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 41-45.

Abstract: Effects of low night temperature were investigated on two local hot pepper varieties ('Beldi' and 'Baklouti') grown at day/night temperature of either low night temperature regime (25?C/10?C) or optimum night temperature regime (25?C/20?C). The negative effect of low night temperature on floral structure differentiation was registered on both varieties. The deleterious effect was more sensitive on bud stage than on flower buds stage. Abortion of these structures was less important in 'Beldi' than in 'Baklouti'. Floral structure abortion induced by low night temperature was negatively and significantly correlated with soluble acid invertase activity on 'Beldi' (r=-0.82), while on 'Baklouti', both sucrose synthase and insoluble acid invertase activities were correlated with floral abortion (r=-0.78). Under low night temperatures, sucrose synthase and soluble acid invertase activities were reduced to 50%, while the insoluble acid invertase activity was reduced by more than 90%. Enzymatic activities and flowers abortion correlation show a differential response between these two parameters and the developmental stages of flowers.
(Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) S. Eyob

Horticulture Department, Awassa College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O.Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia.

Key words: Korarima, Aframomum corrorima, Mesketo, photon flux density, plastic shade, tree shade, growth regulation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 46-49.

Abstract: Korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen), a slow growing and persistent under tree shade as an under-story perennial plant, is native to Ethiopia. When it is grown in full sunny condition, all plants die off a few weeks after planting, but the effect of different shading materials on its growth is not known. Half a year old korarima plants were planted under differently coloured plastic shades (red, green, blue and clear) and coffee (Coffea arabica L.) tree shade to regulate the growth. The coffee tree shade was used as control. Varying levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and red to far red (R/FR) ratio of light were recorded under different shaded and open conditions. The korarima plant responded differently to the different plastic and coffee tree shades. Average plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of sprouts per plant, chlorophyll content, leaf area, total fresh and dry weights were significantly different when recorded at different stages of growth, highest being recorded under the blue plastic cover. The minimum efficiency was achieved under control..
Renu Singh, Ram C. Yadav and Neelam R. Yadav

Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. 125004, India.

Key words: Auxins, axillary bud, benzylaminopurine (BAP), cytokinins, indole acetic acid (IAA), Carica papaya L., a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), proliferation, silver nitrate (AgNO3)

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 50-53.

Abstract: A study was carried out on mature female papaya (Carica papaya L.) plant of Selection 1 cultivar by using axillary bud as an explant and media supplementation with the main aim to assess the effect of growth regulators (auxins, cytokinins) and silver nitrate on in vitro regeneration of female papaya plant. Total of 28 media were used for shoot regeneration while for root regeneration total of eight media were tested supplemented with different growth hormones. Based on the results of this study, for shoot proliferation, MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg L-1) and BAP (2.0 mg L-1) + NAA (0.1 mg L-1) was found to give the best results while MS medium supplemented with IBA (2.0 mg L-1) gave best rooting percentage. Besides, auxins and cytokinins, effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on plant regeneration from axillary buds taken from mature female papaya plant was also carried out.
T Ban, H. Kitazawa, S. Matsumoto, N. Kobayashi, K. Tokumasa, M. Kobatake and T Asao

AFaculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 2059 Kamihonjyo, Matsue, Shimane, 690-1102, Japan, BUnited Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tottori University, Koyama-cho Minami Tottori, Tottori, 680

Key words: Clinker ash, cutting, propagation, rabbiteye blueberry, rooting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 54-55.

Abstract: The recommendation for a propagation medium of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) in Japan includes the incorporation of peat moss and Kanumatsuti (a volcanic ash deposit). This experiment compared the use of coal ash (clinker ash) and Kanumatsuti to peat moss as soil conditioner for rooting rabbiteye blueberry cutting. The numbers of cuttings survived and the root dry weight of plants propagated in clinker ash- peat moss mixes were almost the same as cuttings propagated in kanumatsuti- peat moss mix. While the quadratic model between the root dry weight and the clinker ash content in the medium was significant, the maximum root dry weight was estimated to reach about 0.2 g when the proportion of clinker ash in the medium was about 40%. These findings indicate that clinker ash can be used in the propagation medium of rabbiteye blueberry.
Babak Dehghan, Kourosh Vahdati, Darab Hassani and Reza Rezaee

Department of Horticulture, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, West Azerbaijan, Uromia, Iran, Department of Horticulture, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran.

Key words: Callus formation, grafting techniques, graft survival, greenhouse, sawdust, walnut cultivars.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 56-58.

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effects of different grafting methods and scion cultivars on walnut grafting under controlled conditions in March 2006. Four walnut cultivars ('Z53', 'Hartley', 'Pedro' and 'Serr') were grafted using three bench grafting methods (side stub, omega and whip tongue) onto dormant two years old Persian walnut seedlings as rootstock. The plants after grafting were covered with moist sawdust with relative humidity of 85- 90% and stored in a humid room at 26-28 ?C for 21 days. Based on the results, the highest grafting success was observed with omega (84.33%) followed by side stub (41.89%) and whip tongue (24.31%) grafting, respectively. Significant variations were also observed in graft take and scion growth. The differences among walnut cultivars (scion) on grafting take and scion growth were not significant. However, the scions x grafting methods interaction was significant and 'Hartley' variety grafted by omega method showed the highest graft take (88.44%) among all combinations. A significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.84) was observed between the callus quality and graft takes in all grafting methods.
Zhiwen Li, Baoli Zhou, Yuwen Ding and Xiang Liu

College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China; College of Agriculture and Bioengineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Key words: Eggplant, a-solanine, HPLC, extraction, ultrasonic wave

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 59-63.

Abstract: A simple and effective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determination of a-solanine in eggplant fruits is described in our study. A new extraction method is established for extracting a-solanine in eggplant fruits. Single and orthogonal tests were designed to analyze the effect of different extraction methods and ultrasonic wave extraction condition on extraction of a-solanine in eggplant fruits. HPLC separation was achieved on a Waters Nova-pak C18 column with the mobile phase acetonitrile-0.05N potassium dihydrogen phosphate (55:45, V/V). The flow rate was 0.7mL min-1 and the UV absorbance was monitored at 202 nm. The optimal extraction method was ultrasonic wave extraction in 70% methanol for 60 minutes at 50oC, and with material to liquid ratio of 1:10. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the average content of a-solanine in skins and flesh of dried eggplant fruits was 0.107?0.006 and 0.626?0.004mg g-1, respectively. The average recovery efficiency was 97.97%.
M. Altaf Wani, G.R. Lawania, R.A. Bhat, Iffiat Fayaz, A. Nanda and Gazenfar Gani

Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, SK University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, India.Division of Floricult

Key words: Hypericum perforatum, hypercin, pseudohypercin, hyperforin, HPLC, saline stress

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 64-67.

Abstract: Three different strains of Hypericum perforatum viz. HP-1, HP-2, and HP-3 were subjected to different levels of saline stress (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% with NaCl) and high pH regime (8.5, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0 with NaOH). Gradual loss in callus growth was observed in all the three strains in response to both kinds of stress. However, high pH showed more drastic effect than saline stress. All the three strains showed higher content of pseudohypercin than hypercin. Change in hypercin production was negligible, however remarkable change was observed in pseudohypercin production in response to both kinds of stress. HP-2 strain produced higher content of hypercin than HP-1 and HP-3 strains under normal as well as under stressfull regime. Proteins were affected qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Maximum numbers of proteins were isolated from control cultures at the retention time of five minutes. Among the three strains maximum numbers of proteins were isolated from HP-3 strain. High pH reduced number of proteins to 12 and 3 while salinity increased number of proteins to 42 and 52 in HP-1 and HP-2, respectively due to accumulation of low molecular weight proteins in response to saline stress.
Carlos R. Bezic, Armando A. Dall Armellina, Omar A. Gajardo, Lucrecia M. Avil?s and Silvia L. Ca??n

Weed Ecology and Control Research Group, CURZA-University of Comahue (8500) Viedma, Rio Negro province, Argentina.

Key words: Acroptilon repens, Allium cepa, plant competition, partial additive experiment, plant invasion, irrigated agriculture.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 68-72.

Abstract: Russian knapweed is an invasive creeping perennial herb which affects crops by competition and allelopathy. Herbicides available for use in onion are not able to control Russian knapweed in a crop context. Conversely, recommended products for Russian knapweed are not selective for the crop. The aims of this work were to study Russian knapweed biomass production and propagation for a range of increasing densities in an experimental onion culture and to characterize the productive response of onion plants under these conditions. A partial additive experiment was carried out to study Russian knapweed interference (variable density, 0-64 ramet m-2) on onion transplants (constant density, 40 pl m-2) under greenhouse conditions in Viedma, Argentina (40? 03' S; 62? 48' O). Although no differences among treatments were found for weed final aboveground biomass, low density treatments (0, 2 ramet m-2) were lower than 64 ramet m-2 for belowground biomass. Final weed density was proportional to initial conditions. For onion, total (-54%) and commercial bulb yield (- 56 %) were reduced by weed competition with > 32 ramet m-2. While size 3 bulbs (50-70 mm eq. diam.) were less represented at weed densities higher than 16 ramets m-2, size 4 ones (70-90 mm eq. diam.) were not present in this condition. For A. repens, traits such as the rate of vegetative propagation, high competitive ability, mainly belowground, and high propagule pressure support its high invasive potential.
M. Sciortino and G. Iapichino

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Fanin 44, 40127, Bologna, Italy. Dipartimento di Agronomia Ambientale e Territoriale, Sezione di Orticoltura e Floricoltura, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Via

Key words: Brassica olearacea L. var. botrytis L., planting density, cultivars, quality

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 73-77.

Abstract: New cultivars (F1 hybrids) of cauliflower (Brassica olearacea L. var. botrytis L.) were evaluated at four crop densities (1.3, 1.7, 2.2 or 3.3 plants m-2) for spring harvest crop in a Southern Mediterranean area (western coast of Sicily). The F1 hybrids ('White-Flash', 'Milky-Way' and 'White Excel') having white head, usually cultivated in Northern Italy and Europe in the autumn, were used. The aim was the introduction of new varieties which can fill the gap from mid May to mid July, now existing in the Sicilian cauliflower production, which is based on autochthonous ecotypes of green head varieties, e.g. 'Cavolfiore Verde di Palermo'. Crop density significantly influenced the growth and the phenology of the new hybrids. It was positively correlated to earliness, total marketable yield and inversely to unmarketable product percentage and head size. The best crop density was found to be 2.2 plants m-2. Among the cultivar tested 'White Flash' and 'Milky Way' appeared particularly suited for a spring harvest in the experimental environment. They gave high yields with a minimum discard and uniform heads of approximately 1 kg of weight each.
Funda Eryilmaz Acikgoz

Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris sbsp. pekinensis), sowing times, development, efficiency

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2009, volume 11, issue 1, pages 78-80.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different sowing times on development and efficiency of some Chinese cabbage varieties (Brassica campestris sbsp. pekinensis) under Corlu conditions. The study was conducted in Corlu County which has a tougher climate than its Province Tekirdag where a similar research had been done before. The research was conducted in 2000 and three different sowing times (15 August, 15 September and 15 October) and four domestic varieties (Tokat-2, Tokat-5, Tokat-29 and Tokat-89) were used. The variety, Tokat-89 and the sowing time of 15 September were found to be the most suitable variety and sowing time, respectively, The variety and time of sowing recorded superiority for head weight, level of hardness and head quality.

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