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Singh, A K; Gorakh Singh

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: ascorbic acid, crop quality, cultivars, fruits, guavas, pruning, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 100-102.

Abstract: The effects of pruning date on the fruit quality of 16-year-old trees of guava cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were studied in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. In 1991-93, pruning was conducted on the first week of February, March, April, May, or June. Sardar and Allahabad Safeda recorded the highest fruit weight (266.66 and 201.10 g), fruit length (7.81 and 6.89 cm), and fruit diameter (7.40 and 7.17 cm) when pruning was conducted in May. The highest total soluble solid (TSS) content was observed when Sardar trees were pruned in June (11.73 degrees Brix), and when Allahabad Safeda trees were pruned in May and June (12.16 and 12.43 degrees Brix, respectively). Pruning in May and June gave the highest ascorbic acid content in Sardar (334.54 and 354.79 mg/100 g, respectively) and Allahabad Safeda (237.28 and 258.98 mg/100 g, respectively). In 1994-95, pruning on the 15th and 30th of April, May, or June were evaluated. The highest ascorbic acid content was recorded for Sardar pruned on 30 May (308.64 mg/100
Maneesh Mishra; Pathak, R K

N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (UP) - 224 221, India.

Key words: callus, explants, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, shoots, tissue culture

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 103-104.

Abstract: Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica] nodal shoots excised from the top or middle portion of the canopy (1st to 10th, 10th to 15th, 15th to 20th, 20th to 25th, or 25th to 30th node) from April to July, August or November, or December to March were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 0.8% agar, 3% sucrose, 0.4 mg kinetin/litre, and 0.4 mg gibberellic acid/litre at 25+or-2 degrees C and 50-55% relative humidity. Nodal shoots excised from the 10th to the 15th node exhibited the greatest bud induction and produced the longest indeterminate shoots (0.83 cm). The shoots excised from the 1st to the 10th node did not survive due to the inability of the shoots to withstand the toxic effect of sterilants an antioxidants. The shoots collected from the 20th to the 30th node showed low bud induction, probably due to tissue maturity. Bud induction and growth of indeterminate shoots were most pronounced in explants collected during August-November. Bud break was not observed in explants collected during
Bikash Das; Pandey, S N; Jindal, P C; Sureja, A K

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Key words: crop quality, cyanamide, dormancy breaking, earliness, flowering, flowering date, forchlorfenuron, fruits, gibberellic acid, grapes, growth, plant growth regulators, ripening, ripening stage

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 105-107.

Abstract: The effects of Dormex (40% aqueous hydrogen cyanamide), CPPU [forchlorfenuron], and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the fruit growth and ripening of grape cv. Pusa Seedless were studied in New Delhi, India, in 1998. The treatments consisted of spraying plants with 1.5% Dormex solution immediately after pruning (T1); T1 + dipping of bunches in 0.15% CPPU solution after fruit set (T2); and T2 + dipping of bunches in 45 ppm GA3 at the full bloom stage. Fruits were sampled at weekly intervals from two weeks after flowering until harvest. Plants treated with Dormex exhibited earlier bud break (by 30 days), flowering (by 12 days), and ripening (by 7 days) than the control. Unlike in the control and Dormex-treated plants, fruit fresh weight in plants under T2 and T3 increased continuously until harvest. Ripening date did not significantly vary between the control plants and plants under T2 and T3; however, fruit growth period was longer in plants under T2 and T3 than in the control. Treated plants had higher fruit fresh w
Singh, M P; Dimri, D C; Nautiyal, M C

Department of Horticulture, College of Forestry & Hill Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri - 249 199, Distt. Tehri Garhwal, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: apricots, ascorbic acid, chemical composition, crop quality, firmness, fruits, malic acid, maturity stage, nonreducing sugars, plant composition, specific gravity, starch, sugar content, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 108-110.

Abstract: The fruit quality of apricot cv. New Castle at 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 68, , and 73 days after full bloom (DAFB) was studied in Ranichauri, Uttaranchal, India, from February to June 1999. Fruit length and weight significantly increased whereas chlorophyll content substantially decreased up to 60 DAFB, then remained stable until the harvesting period (73 DAFB). Fruit weight, volume, and specific gravity; pulp weight; and total soluble solid, total sugar, and nonreducing sugar contents increased until harvest. The opposite trend was recorded for stone weight, firmness, titratable acidity (in terms of malic acid content), and starch and ascorbic acid contents. Fruits most appropriate for transport were harvested at 71 DAFB, whereas those intended for local consumption were harvested at 73 DAFB.
Nigam, J K; Ganesh Kumar

Department of Horticulture, G.B.P.U.A.&T., Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttaranchal, India.

Key words: chemical composition, cold storage, crop quality, fruits, gibberellic acid, harvesting date, plant composition, plant growth regulators, postharvest decay, postharvest treatment, storage, storage decay, storage life, storage losses, titratable acidity, wa

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 111-112.

Abstract: L. chinensis (cv. Rose Scented) fruits harvested from 16-year-old trees grown in Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India, on 3 and 6 June [year not given] were subjected to various postharvest treatments (dipping of fruits in 200 ppm gibberellic acid or in 16.6, 20.0, and 25.0% wax emulsion for 2 minutes) and stored under ambient (21.8-29.0 degrees C and 41.0-98.0% relative humidity) or cold (5 degrees C and 85% relative humidity) storage conditions for 8 days. Physiological weight loss (PLW) and spoilage increased, whereas titratable acidity decreased with the increase in storage duration. Total soluble solid content increased up to 5 days of storage, then decreased thereafter. Fruits harvested on 3 and 6 June had lower PLW when treated with 25% wax emulsion (3.94 and 4.76%, respectively) and stored under cold conditions (4.32 and 4.43%, respectively). Fruits harvested on 3 June exhibited lower spoilage incidence when stored under ambient temperature (25.64%) than under cold conditions (26.33%). For fruits harvested
Kishore, D K; Pramanick, K K; Sharma, Y P

IARI Regional Station (Horticulture), Amartara Cottage, Cart Road, Shimla - 171 004 (H.P.), India.

Key words: application rates, cultivars, growing media, hardwood cuttings, IBA, kiwifruits, plant growth regulators, rooting, roots, sand, sawdust, shoots, varietal reactions, vegetative propagation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 113-114.

Abstract: Hardwood cuttings (20-30 cm long) from kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa [A. deliciosa]) cultivars Hayward, Monty, Toumuri, Abbot, Bruno, and Allison were immersed in IBA at 0, 2500, 3000, 3500, and 4000 ppm for 15 seconds and transferred to rooting beds containing either sand or sawdust. Significant variations were recorded among IBA treatments and cultivars, and between rooting media. Among the cultivars, Abbot recorded the highest rooting percentage (59.38%). Among the IBA rates, 3000 ppm resulted in the highest rooting percentage with both sand (59.55%) and sawdust (77.53%) rooting media. Higher rooting percentage was obtained with sawdust (45.64%) than with sand (37.09%) as the rooting medium. Cuttings rooted on sand exhibited greater number of fibrous (19.75) and secondary (18.48) roots, as well as new shoot growth (12.47 cm), than the cuttings rooted on sawdust (4.27, 3.20, and 4.73 cm, respectively). The results indicate that sawdust is more suitable for root initiation, whereas sand is mo
Turk, M A; Tawaha, A M

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan.

Key words: application methods, application rates, band placement, broadcasting, bulbs, crop quality, crop yield, garlic, phosphorus fertilizers, plant height, superphosphates, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 115-116.

Abstract: The effects of P rate (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg/ha as superphosphates) and application method (band and broadcast) on the yield and quality of garlic were studied in Jordan during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. P at 75 kg/ha resulted in the greatest plant height at 120 days after planting (66.0 cm), bulb length (3.45 cm), bulb diameter (3.55 cm), clove breadth (3.30 cm), clove length (3.55 cm), number of cloves per bulb (13.5), and dry weight (740.5 g/m-2). Plants treated with 0 and 25 kg P/ha exhibited P deficiency symptoms such as dwarfing and purpling of leaves. Broadcasting gave greater plant height (61.3 cm), bulb length (3.42 cm), bulb diameter (3.35 cm), clove breadth (3.15 cm), number of cloves per bulb (13.25), and dry weight (661.3 g/m-2) than band placement.
Srinivas, T R

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Hyderabad - 500 030, India.

Key words: fruit cracking, fruit puffing, germplasm, plant disorders, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 117-118.

Abstract: Some 180 tomato accessions grown in Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during 1997/98 were evaluated for various fruit physiological disorders. Approximately 34.4 and 25.56% of the accessions exhibited radial (cracks across the stem scar) and concentric (cracks around the stem scar) cracks, respectively. Both radial and concentric cracks were recorded for 13.33% of the accessions. Approximately 3.33% of the accessions had green back (presence of green parts in mature and ripening fruits), whereas 6.66% of the accessions showed fruit fasciation (adherence of two fruits to each other). Puffiness (partially filled fruits) was observed only in EC 163594 (0.56%).
Gupta, V P; Vishnu Kumar

Department of Botany, C.C.S. University, Meerut - 250 004, India.

Key words: biogas, composts, crop yield, diammonium phosphate, edible fungi, farmyard manure, mushrooms, silage, superphosphate

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 119-121.

Abstract: The effects of casing soil composition on mushroom productivity were studied. The casing soil consisted of: 50% garden loam soil + two-year-old farmyard manure or FYM (control, set 1); spent biogas plant silage + 0.5% diammonium phosphate (DAP)+ 0.5% superphosphate (set 2); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 50% FYM (set 3); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 25% FYM + 25% two-year-old spent compost + 1% DAP + 1% superphosphate (set 4); 50% spent biogas plant silage + 50% spent compost + 0.5% DAP + 0.5% superphosphate (set 5); and 50% spent biogas plant silage + 25% FYM + 25% garden loam soil (set 6). Bags containing the casing soil and a straw-based compost with 1.5-inch thick spawn layer were transferred to growth chambers at 24+or-1 degrees C. The mycelium impregnated the casing soil in 8-10 days. When the casing soil was fully impregnated with mycelia, the temperature of the chamber was lowered to 18+or- degrees C. The mushrooms were harvested after 11-12 days. Except for set 2, which recorded 21% lower crop yi
Yadava, L P

Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad, U.P. - 211 007, India.

Key words: crop yield, ethephon, fruit set, fruits, growth, growth retardants, leaf area, leaves, paclobutrazol, plant height

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 122-124.

Abstract: The effects of paclobutrazol (12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 ppm) and ethephon (100, 200, 400, and 800 ppm) on the growth and yield of P. peruviana were studied in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. The growth retardants were sprayed to seedlings at 21 days after transplanting. Paclobutrazol at 50 ppm and ethephon at 400 ppm increased plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, fruit set, fruit size, fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, and yield per hectare, but reduced leaf area. Both chemicals at higher rates reduced yield and plant height.
Wilson, S B; Rajapakse, N C

Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA.

Key words: far red light, flowers, growth, internodes, leaf area, leaves, light relations, plant height, plastic film, red light, solar radiation, stems

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 71-74.

Abstract: Plant response to a photoselective plastic film with a red (R)- or far-red- (FR)-absorbing property was tested using the three perennial salvias: Indigo Spires sage (Salvia longispicata x Salvia farinacea), wine sage (Salvia splendens 'Van Houttei'), and Mexican sage (Salvia leucantha). Films were designated AFR (FR-light-absorbing film), AR (R-light-absorbing film), and control (clear plastic film). Solar light transmitted through the AFR film reduced plant height by 17-36%, depending on the species. This correlated with a reduction in internode length and stem dry weight. Light transmitted through the AR film did not significantly affect plant height, regardless of species. Leaf area was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the control film, regardless of species. Leaf dry weight under AFR was reduced in Indigo Spires sage and Mexican sage, but not in wine sage. Flower development (days to flower and flower number) was not significantly affected by the AFR or AR film compared to the
Orta, A H; Ener, M

Department of Farm Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Tekirdag Agriculture, University of Trakya, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: bulbs, crop yield, evapotranspiration, irrigation, irrigation scheduling, onions, plant water relations, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 75-77.

Abstract: The response of onion (Allium cepa) to different irrigation schedules was studied in Trakya, Turkey, during 1997 and 1998. Onion crop was subjected to four irrigation treatments according to available soil water depletion fractions (0.30, 0.50, 0.70, and no irrigation). Irrigation thresholds (amount of soil water at 0.40 m depth) were used as criteria to initiate drip irrigations. For each differential water treatment, the parameters of bulb morphology (diameter and height), solids soluble in bulbs, bulb weight, and total yield were analysed. Yield and yield components except solids soluble in bulbs were affected by irrigation and soil water depletion fractions. The highest yield was obtained from the plots to which irrigation water was applied at a soil water fraction level of 0.30. The maintenance of soil moisture depletion level at 0.30 required 339.4 mm (in 14 applications) and 227.2 mm (in 13 applications) of irrigation water in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The seasonal evapotranspiration of onion was 42
Reddy, Y T N; Kurian, R M; Sujatha, N T; Srinivas, M

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: chemical composition, correlated traits, crop growth stage, crop yield, cultivars, leaves, mangoes, mineral content, nitrogen, nitrogen content, nutrient availability, nutrient content, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, potassium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 78-81.

Abstract: Twenty-five mango orchards in Nuzuvid (Andhra Pradesh), Srinivaspur (Karnataka), and Krishnagiri (Tamil Nadu), India, were evaluated for leaf and soil nutrient status from 1994 to 1997. Banganapally was grown in 5 orchards, Alphonso in 5 orchards, and Totapuri in 15 orchards. The trees in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were 30- to 40-year-old, whereas those in Tamil Nadu were 20-year-old. The high-yielding trees had higher leaf N content than the low-yielding trees. The orchards in Andhra Pradesh had the highest leaf and soil nutrient (N, P, and K) levels. The available soil N significantly varied between high-yielding and low-yielding trees only before the flowering stage. The available soil P and K did not significantly vary with the growth stage. The high-yielding orchards recorded higher soil N and P, and lower soil K than the low-yielding orchards. Fruit yield was positively correlated with leaf N before and during flowering, with leaf P after harvest, and with leaf K before flowering. Fruit yield was posi
Krishnamurthy, K B; Mythili, J B; Meenakshi Srinivas

Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560 065, India.

Key words: benzyladenine, carbendazim, chlorothalonil, cultivars, disinfectants, explants, IAA, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, micropropagation, ornamental plants, plant growth regulators, rooting, roots, shoots, tissue culture, tissue cultures, varietal r

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 82-84.

Abstract: Terminal or axillary stem scale sections from P. tuberosa cultivars Shringar (single type) and Suvasini (double type) were disinfected with 1000 ppm Bavistin [carbendazim], 1000 ppm Kavach [chlorothalonil], and 500 ppm Cetrimide, singly or in combination, before sterilization with 0.1% HgCl2 for 10-15 minutes. The explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.25% phytagel, and autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 15 minutes. The shoot tips from sprouted explants were transferred into a medium containing 2 or 4 mg BAP [benzyladenine]/litre singly or in combination with 0.1 mg IAA/litre. The regenerated shoots were transferred into 1/2 MS medium containing 0.5 or 1.0 mg IBA, 0.5 mg IAA, or 0.25 mg IAA + 0.25 mg IBA/litre. Treatment with Bavistin + Kavach + Cetrimide overnight followed by treatment with HgCl2 for 15 minutes resulted in the highest percentage of axenic cultures using axillary (23.3-26.6%) and terminal (30.0%) scale sections. Cytokinin induced multiple shoot fo
Preety Singh; Misra, A; Srivastava, N K; Sharma, S

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO: CIMAP, Lucknow - 226 015, India.

Key words: application rates, branches, chlorophyll, correlated traits, cultivars, dry matter, growth, iron, nutrient deficiencies, plant height, plant nutrition, plant oils, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 85-87.

Abstract: Suckers from M. spicata cultivars MSS 5, Arka, and Neera were grown in Hoagland's solution supplemented with 0.00, 0.056, 2.80, and 5.60 mg Fe/litre. Plants grown at 0.00 and 0.056 mg Fe/litre did not survive after 10 days of treatment. Fe deficiency symptoms, such as chlorosis and necrosis particularly in young leaves, were more pronounced in Arka and Neera than in MSS 5. The latter cultivar also recorded the greatest plant height, number of branches, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, oil content, and carvone content under Fe deficiency. These parameters decreased with the reduction in Fe supply. The positive correlation between fresh weight and dry matter, dry matter yield and oil content, and oil percentage and carvone content was observed in all cultivars. Fresh herb yield and dry matter was positively correlated with oil percentage and carvone content in MSS 5 only.
Kurian, R M; Reddy, Y T N; Sonkar, R K; Reddy, V V P

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: cultivars, fruits, leaf area, leaves, mangoes, paclobutrazol, photosynthates, plant growth regulators, ringing, source sink relations, translocation

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 88-90.

Abstract: The effects of paclobutrazol on the fruit-leaf ratio of twelve-year-old trees of mango cultivars Alphonso and Dashehari were studied in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The soil was drenched with paclobutrazol at 0.0, 2.5, or 7.5 g a.i. per tree. In each paclobutrazol-treated tree, photosynthate and metabolite translocation to 30 leaves with a single fruit was inhibited by girdling the branch (1 cm wide ring of bark) at a uniform distance from the fruit. Girdling was conducted when Dashehari fruits were 4.9+or-0.7 cm long and weighed 27.9+or-8.5 g, and when Alphonso fruits were 4.0+or-1.0 cm long and weighed 32.9+or-7.5 g. Twenty-eight fruits on ungirdled shoots of trees not treated with paclobutrazol served as the control. In the two cultivars, thirty leaves were not sufficient to promote the growth of a single fruit, especially when the tree was not treated with paclobutrazol. In untreated trees, the weight of fruits from girdled trees of Alphonso and Dashehari was only 60.2 and 64.9%, respectively, of the cont
Singh, V K; Saini, J P; Misra, A K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: chemical composition, crop growth stage, cultivars, enzyme activity, enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, glutamate ammonia ligase, mangoes, nitrate, nitrate reductase, nitrogen content, panicles, plant composition, plant disorders, prote

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 91-94.

Abstract: The activity of nitrogen-utilizing enzymes, i.e. nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase [glutamate-ammonia ligase] (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), during the development of healthy and malformed panicles of mango cultivars Amrapali and Dashehari was studied in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 1995-97. Healthy and malformed panicles were evaluated at stages I (fully developed apical bud), II (flower bud at inception), III (fully grown panicles prior to full bloom), and IV (fully developed panicle at the full bloom stage). NR activity was significantly reduced in normal panicles from stage I to IV in both cultivars. Non-significant changes were observed in the malformed panicles of Amrapali. In general, the activity of GS and GOGAT followed the same trend. Contrary to the activity of NR, GS, and GOGAT, a sharp increase in GDH activity was observed in malformed panicles at the early stage of panicle development. GDH activity, which was highest at stage II in both c
Shailendra Rajan; Ram Kumar; Negi, S S

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: canopy, colour, crop quality, foliage, foliage area, fruits, genetic variation, leaf area index, mangoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 95-97.

Abstract: A study was conducted Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, to study foliage density and canopy diffuse non-interceptance in 26 Indian mango cultivars. The indirect measurement of leaf area index (LAI) and diffuse non-interceptance (DNI) was conducted using output of concentric silicon detectors placed at five zenith angles on the sensing head of LAI-2000, which recorded significant variability in foliage density (LAI=1.18-4.48). DNI values also exhibited large variation, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.36. UPGMA cluster analysis of the data revealed that Bangalora, Fazri, Neelum, Vanraj, Dashehari, Alphonso, Lucknow Safeda, and Banganapalli had similarity in tree leaf component. Nisar Pasand, Kishan Bhog, and Bombay Green had compact and dense canopy with more foliage component. Papatio and Fernandin exhibited comparatively less foliage under Lucknow conditions. Prabhashankar and Chausa showed similarity and were closer to compact canopy group. In general, east and north Indian cultivars recorded more foliage component
Deshpande, G M; Sonawane, P C; Manjul Dutt

College of Agriculture, Pune, India.

Key words: crop density, crop quality, crop yield, cut flowers, earliness, flowering, flowering date, growth, plant height

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 2, pages 98-99.

Abstract: The effects of spacing between plants (15, 30, and 45 cm) and rows (30, 45, and 60 cm) on 30-day-old L. sinuatum seedlings were studied in Pune, Maharashtra, India. At 60 and 90 days after sowing, plant height increased, whereas plant spread decreased as the spacing between plants and rows decreased. A spacing of 45 between plants and 60 cm between rows resulted in the earliest flowering (47.43 days) and highest yield in terms of the weight of flower stalks per plant (871.36 g). Flower stalk length (82.55) and flower weight per hectare (47.27 t/ha) were highest when the spacing between plants and rows was maintained at 15 and 30 cm, respectively. In general, a plant spacing of 45 cm with a row spacing of 60 cm resulted in superior growth and flower quality, but inferior yields. On the other hand, a plant spacing of 15 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm resulted in high yields but inferior flower quality. Satisfactory flower yield and quality was obtained with a plant spacing of 30 cm and a row spacing of 45 cm.
Denny, G C; Arnold, M A

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, Mail Stop 2133, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA.

Key words: application rates, auxins, hardwood cuttings, IBA, ornamental plants, ornamental woody plants, peat, perlite, phenology, plant growth regulators, rooting, semihardwood cuttings, softwood cuttings, substrates, woody plants

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 13-16.

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effects of substrate, phenological stage of cutting, and auxin concentration on the rooting of the ornamental Texas smoke tree (C. obovatus). Cuttings from new lush growing tips (softwood), partially matured tissues (semi-mature wood) and mature woody fully lignified cuttings from the previous season's growth (mature wood) were treated with either 0, 5000, 10 000 or 15 000 mg potassium salt of indole-butyric acid (K-IBA)/litre and placed in either 50% peat:50% perlite or 100% perlite rooting substrates. Cuttings were placed under an intermittent mist system in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Softwood cuttings rooted in both substrates, but the 50% peat:50% perlite substrate produced better quality rooted cuttings. Softwood cuttings peaked at 8000 to 10 000 mg K-IBA/litre. Semi-mature wood and previous season's growth cuttings rooted only in the 100% perlite substrate. In 100% perlite substrate, the optimum concentration for semi-mature wood cuttings was ~12 000 mg K-IBA/litre,
Arous, S; Boussaid, M; Marrakchi, M

Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Tunis, Tunisia.

Key words: adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, buds, chillies, crop quality, culture media, flowers, fruits, gibberellic acid, hypocotyls, in vitro culture, in vitro regeneration, leaves, NAA, plant development, plant embryos, plant growth regulators, progeny, seeds

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 17-22.

Abstract: This paper reports the regeneration of Tunisian pepper cultivar from zygotic embryos cultured in vitro. Zygotic embryos of the Tunisian cultivar D'hirat cultured in vitro developed adventitious buds. The best results for bud induction were obtained in the Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 5 mg benzylaminopurine (BA)/litre and 1 mg NAA/litre. The important effect of BA in adventitious bud formation was demonstrated. Shoot bud development was enhanced by the addition of gibberellic acid to the medium. Plants were rooted in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium and transferred into pots, containing loam. To test the stability of the regenerants, characters related to the fertility, fruit quality, leaf and flower were measured. Regenerants and their progeny were compared to the control plants derived from seeds. Variance analysis and CANDISC were used. No significant differences were detected between the regenerants and the control plants for the characters tested.
Arin, L; Ankara, S

T. U. Agricultural Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.

Key words: crop yield, earliness, fruits, harvesting date, mulches, mulching, plant height, polyethylene film, protected cultivation, pruning, stems, straw mulches, tomatoes, tunnels

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 23-27.

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of low-tunnel, mulching (black and transparent polyethylene or straw) and pruning treatments on yield and earliness of tomato cv. Fuji F1 in unheated glasshouse. A 643.72% increase in height (relative to height at the planting time) was observed in plants grown under low-tunnel (tunnelled) than those grown without tunnel (602.87%). Among the mulches, plant height increase was highest with the straw mulch (679.13%). Stem diameter increase was higher in plants tunnelled (265.36%) than plants grown without tunnel (233.83%). Straw and transparent polyethylene mulches recorded higher stem diameter than other mulches. The number of days to first harvest was 117.97 for plants tunnelled and that for plants grown without tunnel was 119.88. The shortest time to harvest was recorded in transparent polyethylene (117.90 days), which was at par with black polyethylene (118.17 days). Early fruit yield was higher in tunnelled and mulched treatments than in other treatments. The c
Mandhar, S C; Singh, K P; Kumari, C R

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Karnataka, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: artificial ventilation, crop production, crop quality, crop yield, flowers, greenhouses, natural ventilation, relative humidity, seasonal variation, temperature

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 28-31.

Abstract: The naturally ventilated greenhouse (NVGH) and fan- and pad-cooled greenhouse (FPGH) were designed and constructed for conditions in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gerbera crop was cultivated in both greenhouses and temperature and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at 10.00, 13.00 and 16.00 h. The temperature in NVGH could be brought down very near to ambient temperature during hot and dry months by proper irrigation. The maximum temperature during the year in NVGH was 36.6 degrees C when the ambient temperature was 35.4 degrees C and RH 28.4% at 13.00 h in April. The maximum build up of temperature of 2.5 degrees C was recorded during rainy and cloudy days when the ambient temperature was low and RH was high. The average build up of humidity on a yearly basis in NVGH was 1.5% above the ambient RH. The drop in temperature up to 8.2 degrees C was observed in FPGH in April when the ambient temperature was very high (35.4 degrees C) and ambient RH was very low (28.4%). The maximum temperature of 30.1 degrees C
Silva, J A T da; Fukai, S

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.

Key words: cefotaxime, culture media, genetic transformation, growth, light, morphogenesis, phytotoxicity, tobacco, transgenic plants, vancomycin

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 3-12.

Abstract: Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation requires a two-step process for its success: selection and regeneration of transformed tissues, and the elimination of the transformation vector, Agrobacterium. This study uses carbenicillin (CA), cefotaxime (CF) and vancomycin (VA) singly, or in combination, to eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and AGLO growing on Agrobacterium-favouring (LB) and plant-favouring (MS) media, at transgenic plant selection levels (10 or 25 micro g/ml kanamycin for chrysanthemum and tobacco, respectively). The three antibiotics differed in their capacities to eliminate Agrobacterium i.e., bacterial threshold survival levels (TSLs), depending on the strain, medium and light conditions. Plant TSLs differed from those for Agrobacterium, and were cultivar-, species- and light-dependent, with CA > VA > CF in terms of phytotoxicity. Since over 90% of plant transformation experiments use Agrobacterium as the transformation vector, with most of these containing an aminoglycos
Samadia, D K; Khandelwal, R C

NRC for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner, India.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, genetic variation, heterosis, hybrids, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 32-36.

Abstract: Heterosis studies on 9 bottlegurd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars (Banswara Local-1 (BL-1), Long White Prolific, Pusa Naveen, Raichur Local-1, Udaipur Local-1, IC 92352A, IC 92374, IC 42361 and PSPL), including their 36 F1 hybrids and cv. Varad as the control cultivar, were carried out under 4 environments created by sowing on two dates and at two locations in a field experiment conducted in Rajasthan, India. The analysis of variance indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among the experimental materials. The hybrids BL-1 x IC 92374, BL-1 x Pusa Naveen, and IC 92374 x PSPL were superior and exhibited significant economic heterosis for fruit yield per plant and yield components such as number of fruits and female flowers per plant. Most of the heterotic crosses were also heterobeltiotic.
Gorakh Singh; Singh, A K; Shailendra Rajan

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P. O. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: application date, crop yield, cultivars, flowering, fruits, growth, guavas, photosynthesis, pruning, shoots

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 37-40.

Abstract: A trial was conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, to determine the effect of pruning dates on guava fruit yield. During 1991-93, fifteen trees, each of cultivars Sardar and Allahabad Safeda were pruned in the first week of February, March, April, May and June. During 1994-95, nine trees each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned on 15 and 30 April, May and June. Six trees, each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned on 15 and 30 May and June during 1995-96. Six trees each of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar were pruned during 1996-98. Compared to pruning in February and March, pruning from April through June, enhanced the number of shoots and flowering percentage. Shoot growth was reduced in May- and June-pruned trees. The total yield during winter increased significantly (P0.05) in May- and June-pruned trees than the unpruned trees of both cultivars. May pruning significantly increased the harvest in the winter season. Pruning from February to March did not respond well for winter fruiting. Penet
Dinesh, M R; Reddy, B M C

Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore - 560 089, India.

Key words: colour, crop quality, cultivars, epidermis, fruits, guavas, hybridization, seeds, titratable acidity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 41-43.

Abstract: Thirty-seven accessions of P. guajava and 6 Psidium species (P. chinensis, P. quadrangularis, P. molle, P. cattleianum, P. guineense and P. friedrichsthalianum) were studied for fruit weight, volume, length, breadth, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, skin colour and pulp colour. Cultivar Kamsari had the highest fruit weight. The TSS was highest in the cultivar Bangalore Local (12.70 degrees Brix), however, this cultivar has hard seeds. In most of the cultivars, the skin colour was yellow and cultivars such as Apple Colour and Chittidar had red spots on the skin. The cultivars Beaumont, EC- 147039, 147037, 162904, 147036, 147034, G-6, Kamsari, Pati, Portugal, Red Flesh had pink to red flesh colour. P. quadrangularis and P. guinees produced large fruits. The TSS was highest in P. friedrichsthalianum. The hybridization programme carried out has resulted in the isolation of one superior red-fleshed cultivar H-21.
Vishal Nath; Bhargava, R

National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner - 334 006 (Rajasthan), India.

Key words: climate, cultivars, ecosystems, geography, relative humidity, ripening, temperature, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 44-47.

Abstract: The variations in the ripening time of jujube (Z. mauritiana) cultivars Gola, Kaithali, Banarsi Kadaka, Umran, Mundia and Seb under the arid regions of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh; Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat; Jobner, Jodhpur and Bikaner, Rajasthan; and Hisar, Haryana, India were determined. Meteorological data, including the minimum and maximum temperature, and morning and evening relative humidity were recorded during 1986-90 in all locations except for Bikaner for which meteorological data were recorded during 1994-98. Irrespective of cultivars, the peak ripening of jujube was between the last week of November and the first week of January in the southern region of India and between the 10th of January and 30th of March in the northern regions of India. The prevailing maximum (23.3-34.4 degrees C) and minimum (6.2-19.1 degrees C) temperatures, the temperature difference of 11.9-18.3 degrees C and the morning relative humidity of 49.6-87.7% that lasts for at least a month induced the peak ripening in jujube. T
Bijimol, G; Singh, A K

Department of Horticulture, Nagaland University, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India.

Key words: application rates, corms, crop quality, flowering, flowers, nitrogen fertilizers, row spacing, spikes, vase life, water uptake, yield components

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 48-50.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on flowering, flower quality and vase life of gladiolus cv. Red Beauty. Four spacings (15x30, 20x30, 25x30 and 30x30 cm) and four nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200 and 00 kg/ha) were taken. Corms planted at 25x30 cm and 200 kg N/ha significantly increased the diameter of spike, number of florets per spike, number of spikes per plant and number of spikes per ha and early emergence of spike under field conditions (Nagaland, India). Application of 200 kg N/ha also resulted in maximum length of spike and diameter of floret. However, early opening of flower was recorded with lower N rate (100 kg/ha), while length of floret with 300 kg N/ha. Spacing and N levels had significant effect on postharvest life of cut gladioli. Spacing 25x30 cm had striking effect on percent opening of florets per spike, number of open florets with drooping of minimum florets. N at 200 kg/ha had significant effect on percent opening of florets per spike, number of o
Jana, B R

Department of Fruit Breeding and Genetic Resources, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan 173 230, HP, India.

Key words: apples, cross pollination, cultivars, fruit set, self incompatibility, self pollination

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 51-52.

Abstract: Self incompatibility, one of the main problems causing low productivity of apple, was studied to determine the suitable pollenizer cultivar. The experimental materials used included 8- to 9-year-old apple trees of cultivars Anna, Aziza, Red Baron, Spur Red Delicious, EC161286, EC161287 and unknown (standard tree having greenish yellow fruit) as the pollenizers and four cultivars Red Baron, Spur Red Delicious, EC161286 and EC161287 as the female parents. Data on self pollination were recorded in first year to facilitate cross pollination in the following year. Controlled pollination was done following the standard method of emasculation and pollination on selected flower clusters. Fruit set was calculated 45 days after pollination. In terms of self pollination, Red Baron recorded the highest fruit set (5.76%) while EC161286 recorded the lowest fruit set (2.09%). EC161287 and Spur Red Delicious recorded 2.80 and 3.24% fruit set, respectively. In cross combinations, the highest fruit set (76.17%) was observed in
Srinivas, T R

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Hyderabad - 500 030, India.

Key words: calyx, corolla, crop yield, flowering date, flowers, fruit set, fruits, germplasm, inflorescences, morphometrics, plant hairs, plant morphology, stamens, styles, tomatoes

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 53-55.

Abstract: The flowers of 188 exotic tomato germplasms were characterized and evaluated in Andhra Pradesh, India, during 1997-98. Of the accessions, most were of the same level as stamen type of flowers (SLASF; 40.34%), followed by the inserted (INSF; 24.36%), the slightly exerted (SEF; 22.69%) and the highly exerted type of flowers (HEF; 12.61%). Majority of the accessions (96.64%) had simple style shape and style hairiness. Among the flower types, the average corolla and stamen length were highest in HEF (9.96 and 7.59 mm, respectively). Calyx length was highest and lowest in the INSF (7.80 mm) and HEF (5.69 mm), respectively. The variability in corolla length was highest in INSF, while variability in calyx and stamen lengths was highest in HEF. The average number of days to flower was highest in SEF (64.6), followed by INSF (64.4), HEF (63.2) and SLASF (61.8). The variability for days to 50% flowering was highest in SLASF. The average flower number per inflorescence and the average fruit number per cluster was highes
Reddy, Y T N; Khan, M M

Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, India.

Key words: application rates, chlormequat, crop yield, fruits, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, plant growth regulators, plant water relations, sapodillas, stomatal resistance, transpiration, water content

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 56-57.

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of paclobutrazol, Cycocel [chlormequat] and Chamatkar [mepiquat chloride] on the water relations and fruit yield of sapota (A. sapota [Manilkara zapota]) cv. Kalipatti at the Horticultural Research Station of the University of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Treatments comprised 250, 500 and 750 ppm Cycocel; 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm Chamatkar; 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 g paclobutrazol; and control (water spray or no spray). Paclobutrazol, Cycocel and Chamatkar were effective in improving water relations and fruit yield of sapota. Paclobutrazol at 5 g was the most effective. All growth regulators increased the relative water content and decreased the transpiration, but the most pronounced effect was with 5 g paclobutrazol. None of the growth regulators affected the stomatal resistance. The growth regulator treatments affected the second year fruit yield, unlike the first year fruit yield. The highest fruit yield on the second year (56.3 kg/plant) was obtained with 5 g paclob
Pan, R S; Prasad, V S R K; Mathura Rai

ICAR Research Complex for Northern Region, HAFRP, Ranchi - 834 010, India.

Key words: crop yield, cultivars, flowering, genetic stability, maturity, peas, pods, varietal reactions

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 58-59.

Abstract: The phenotypic stability of pea cultivars DRP-3, VL-3, JP-83, KS-226, KS-225, Bonneville and HC-30+36 was evaluated in a field experiment conducted in Ranchi, Bihar, India during 1994-98 to identify stable and high-yielding cultivars suitable for late sowing. Significant differences among the cultivars tested in terms of crop yield, number of days to flowering, pod length and breadth, seed number per pod, 100-green seed weight and shelling percentage were observed. KS-225 was stable for green pod yield under late-sown, favourable conditions, and for pod length and breadth under unfavourable environments. DRP-3 was stable for early flowering under favourable environments. KS-226 was stable for pod breadth and number of seeds per pod under unfavourable environments. VL-3 and JP-83 were stable for number of seeds per pod under unfavourable environments.
Singh, D B; Attri, B L; Sharma, T V R S; Sreekumar, P V

Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101 (Andamans), India.

Key words: acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fruits, jackfruits, nutritive value, sugars, wild relatives

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 60-62.

Abstract: Pulps of 28 wild fruits from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for their total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The data showed that Diospyros pyrrhocarpa (22.0%), Artocarpus integrifolia (21.0%) and Annona reticulata (21.0%) had high TSS. The fruits showed a wide range of acidity and a low value (0.06%) was recorded in Gnetum gnemon and Muntingia calabura (0.16%). The highest total sugars were recorded in Annona reticulata (18.18%), D. pyrrhocarpa (18.18%) and M. calabura (14.28%). Majority of these fruits were rich in ascorbic acid and the highest value was recorded in Artocarpus integrifolia (176.00 mg/100 g). Among the fruits studied, quite a good number were found exceptionally rich in carotenoids and the highest value (1485.00 mg/100 g) was observed in Artocarpus integrifolia, followed by Artocarpus lakoocha [Artocarpus lacucha] (501.41 mg/100 g). The study revealed that these wild fruits are rich in vitamins and essential nutrients and thus, their pro
Misra, A K

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, PO. Kakori, Lucknow - 227 107, India.

Key words: application date, chemical control, cultural control, fungal diseases, fungicides, integrated control, mangoes, plant disease control, plant diseases, plant pathogenic fungi, plant pathogens, symptoms

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2001, volume 3, issue 1, pages 63-68.

Abstract: Powdery mildew caused by Oidium mangiferae, is the most important disease of mango. It is reported from 35 countries in the world and reported to cause up to 90% loss in India. Besides inflorescence infection, it causes different types of symptoms on leaves and fruits. Based on epidemiological studies and control measures conducted for the last 15 years at CISH, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, India), a disease cycle and an integrated disease management practice is proposed. Disease can easily be controlled by adopting suitable cultural practices and timely application of spray schedule. As the disease is weather-sensitive, need-based control measures are suggested based on the prevailing environmental conditions.

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