Abstract: Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression was observed in tissues of litchi (Litchi chinensis) after transformation using Agrobacterium. In vitro grown leaf tissues were used for transformation. After four weeks in culture, expression of GFP was apparent when the regenerated callus and the leaves were observed under fluorescence microscope fitted with a blue exciter filter, a blue dichroic mirror and a barrier filter. Although no transformed litchi plantlets were regenerated, screening for GFP gene expression may prove useful to improve transformation efficiency and to facilitate detection of transformed litchi plants.
Moftah, A E; Al Humaid, A I
College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, PO Box: 1482 King Saud University, Al-Qassim Branch, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Key words: antitranspirants, chlorophyll, drought, evapotranspiration, irrigation scheduling, kaolin, leaf conductance, net assimilation rate, photosynthesis, pinolene, plant water relations, stomata, turgor, water stress
Abstract: The effects of pinolene-base Vapor Gard (VG) emulsion type film and Kaolin (Surround WP) particle type film antitranspirants on stomatal behaviour, water status, carbon assimilation and transpiration rate of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double plants, grown under irrigation regimes of 100, 80 and 60% of total evapotranspiration (ET) values, were studied to select the most suitable antitranspirant for conserving irrigation water, with no detrimental effects on growth and production of tuberose plants grown in arid regions. Severe water stress decreased the stomatal frequency and conductance (gs), leaf water potential ( Psi w), osmotic potential ( Psi pi ) and turgor potential ( Psi p), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content (chl), carbon assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E). Both types of antitranspirants effectively enhanced the performance and physiological activities of water-stressed plants particularly, at the 80% ET, but they did not compensate for the negative effects caused
Kumar, P S S; Geetha, S A; Savithri, P
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.
Key words: boron, calcium, chemical composition, copper, crop yield, foliar diagnosis, grapes, iron, magnesium, manganese, mineral nutrition, nitrogen, nutrient balance, nutrient deficiencies, petioles, phosphorus, plant composition, plant nutrition, potassium, sodi
Abstract: Diagnostic norms were developed from 53.2% top yielding vineyards in Tamil Nadu, India, among 940 observations on yield and petiole analyses of Muscat grapes using bivariate Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)/Modified Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (MDRIS) and multivariate Compositional Nutritional Diagnosis (CND). About 66 optimum nutrient ratios and concentrations were computed from N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn analytical results. When several nutrients are limiting yield simultaneously, the diagnosis of nutrient disorder by multivariate CND approach is required for higher diagnostic precision. Based on the classification of NIIs, approximately 17% were severely limited by mineral nutrition and 32% of the vineyards were identified as having possible imbalances. The norm values and identification of yield limiting nutrients were close to each other with DRIS and CND, while there was no consensus with Critical Value Approach norms and diagnosis.
Mohapatra, A; Rout, G R
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Biotechnology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar - 751 015, Orissa, India.
Abstract: Efficient and rapid micropropagation system was developed for Geoderum purpureum [Geodorum purpureum], an important terrestrial orchid, through axillary meristem culture by manipulating cytokinin and auxin. Multiple shoots were induced from axillary meristems cultured on agar-based MS medium supplemented with 2.0-3.0 mg benzyladenine/litre, 0.5-1.0 mg IAA/litre and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum number of shoot buds were obtained with 3.0 mg benzyladenine and 1.0 mg IAA/litre. The rate of shoot multiplication was maintained in subsequent subculture on similar fresh culture medium. Elongated shoots were separated and rooted on half strength basal MS medium supplemented with IAA or IBA and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum percentage of rooting was obtained on medium having 0.5 mg IAA/litre. Plantlets, thus developed were established in soil with 80% survival.
Hassanein, A M
Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt.
Abstract: Although all nodal segments of Syngonium podophyllum irrespective of their age and different concentrations of benzylaminopurine [benzyladenine] (BAP) showed axillary shoot growth, young nodes cultured on MS medium supplemented with 5 micro M BAP gave the best results. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 micro M IBA. Increase of the frequency of axillary bud sprouting and decrease in the frequency of root formation with the increase of light intensity were recorded, which was accompanied with increase of relative peroxidase activity. Instead of peat, soil consisted of sawdust, sand and clay (1:1:1) was a suitable combination producing valuable plant survival. Subjecting the plants growing in the soil to full sunlight for one day enhanced the peroxidase activity and aggressive chlorophyll degradation, thereby leading to leaf bleaching especially at relatively high temperature (40 degrees C) or low moisture content of the soil (50% field capacity). Plants grown under illu
Hossain, M A; Kamaluddin, M
Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh.
Abstract: The study considers the effect of different levels of shade on growth and morphology of shoots and rooting ability of cuttings developed from decapitated ground layered stock plants. Two-year-old seedling-originated stock plants of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were decapitated at the tip and layered on ground. Shoots were allowed to develop at three levels of shade: vegetational shade (75% of full sun), lateral shade (40% of full sun) and overhead shade (10% of full sun). Different levels of shade significantly affected the growth and morphology of shoots. Active bud percentages as well as number of shoots produced per stock plant with longer internodes were significantly higher in lateral shade. Rooting percentages of cuttings obtained from the shoots of vegetational, lateral and overhead shade were 80, 87 and 90, respectively. The maximum number of roots (6.2) and root dry mass (20.7 mg) were found in cuttings obtained from lateral shade, followed by overhead shade. The results are discussed in the
Thakur, A K; Pandey, M
Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: Mature-green tomato fruits (cv. 'Bombay') were exposed to ethanol vapour at 0, 1, 2, or 4 ml/kg for 24 hours at 25 degrees C. Ripening was measured as a change in fruit colour. Ethanol treatment delayed fruit ripening which was concentration dependent. Higher concentration of ethanol vapour delayed tomato fruit ripening for more days. Postharvest treatment of ethanol vapour to tomato fruits showed higher TSS, lower acidity, higher brix:acid ratio and high sugar content compared to untreated fruits. The relative association of applied ethanol concentration showed a negative association with acidity and a positive association with sugar content at red-ripe stage. There was a negative relationship between titratable acidity and sugar content in ripe tomato fruit. Postharvest use of ethanol improves the sensory quality of fruits after complete ripening.
Boonyanuphap, J; Wattanachaiyingcharoen, D; Sakurai, K
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan.
Key words: bananas, databases, geographical information systems, plantations, precision agriculture
Abstract: Results are presented of experiments conducted in Thailand to construct the geographical databases of land suitability for Musa (ABB) group plantation, to assess land suitability for Musa (ABB) group using geographical information systems, and to select the possible lands for new banana plantations.
Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Avijeet Chatterjee; Singh, S P
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2003 kharif season in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, on 29 vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) cultivars to identify the suitable direct and indirect component traits that contribute towards foliage yield. The first cutting of foliage started after the third week of sowing and subsequent cuttings were conducted at 15-day intervals. Data were recorded for plant height, stem diameter, branches per plant, leaves per plant, leaf size, protein content and foliage yield. Heritability values were high for all the characters in all the cuttings and pooled values. Foliage yield showed maximum heritability in all 4 cuttings followed by plant height and leaf size. Genetic gain was highest for foliage yield followed by leaf size and stem diameter. In general, the genetic advance values were high in all the cuttings for foliage yield, plant height, leaf size and stem diameter. Only plant height was positively correlated with foliage yield in all the cuttings. In the first and second
Viveka Katoch; Vidyasagar
Department of Vegetable Science, H.P. Agricultural University, Palampur - 176 062, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to understand the nature of gene effects for yield and its component characters in tomato. Six generations, (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2) of Hawaii 7998 x BT-18, Hawaii 7998 x EC 191536 and BT-18 x EC 191536, derived after crossing the bacterial wilt resistant parents, were studied following 3-parameter model of Cavalli (1952) and 6-parameter model of Jink and Jones (1958). Duplicate epistasis with relatively higher magnitude of [l] interaction (+) was observed for marketable yield per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant in Hawaii 7998 x BT-18 and BT-18 x EC 191536, thus suggesting a need for exploitation of hybrid vigour or intermating followed by selection in later generations, in these crosses. Whereas, the presence of additive effects [d and i] in Hawaii 7998 x EC 191536 indicated the importance of simple pedigree selection. For the traits related to earliness (days to 50% flowering and days to first harvest), pedigree selection in BT-18 x EC 191536 and pedigree selec
Akbudak, B; Ozer, H; Erturk, U
Department of Horticulture Gorukle, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the suitable atmospheric combinations for controlled atmosphere (CA) storage of apple cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold, and revealing some physical and chemical changes occurring during the storage of these cultivars. Granny Smith and Jonagold were stored for 210 and 180 days, respectively, at 0+or-0.5 degrees C and 90+or-5% relative humidity (RH) under the atmospheric combinations of 0:21 (CO2:O2) [normal atmosphere (NA)-control], 3:1, 3:1.5, 3:2 and 3:2.5. Fruits were kept at room conditions (20+or-2 degrees C and 60+or-5% RH) for 5 days at the end of storage period to determine the shelf life. Physical and chemical analyses (weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, fruit flesh firmness, pectin esterase activity, fruit skin colour) were realized on the fruit samples taken during storage and at the end of shelf life. At the end of the study, it was determined that the fruits of apple cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold could be store
Pramanick, P K; Sharma, V P; Deshmukh, P S; Singh, S K
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted from 1 November 1998 to 15 March 1999 and 1 November 1999 to 15 March 2000 to study the role of hydroperoxidase enzymes (peroxidase and catalase), phenols and their relationship with the intensity of dormancy in grape cv. Pusa Seedless, grown under the subtropical conditions of north India. Catalase activity increased during the early part of the dormancy cycle then declined and was lowest at bud break. On the other hand, peroxidase activity was lowest at the initial stages of dormancy then increased and was maximum at dormancy breaking. Phenol content increased from the onset of dormancy to deep dormancy then declined and was lowest at sprouting.
Giuffre, L; Alconada, M; Pascale, C; Ratto, S
Catedra de Edafologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 4453, 1417, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of overapplication of phosphorus fertilizers on soil properties in commercial greenhouses for tomato production and to study the relationship between soil extract P values and yields. Twenty commercial greenhouses with continuous tomato production were analysed in the horticultural belt of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, with Vertic Argiudoll soils, and compared with a control site. Composite soil samples were extracted at 0-20 cm of depth in 2 sampling dates: initial (tomato transplantation) and 6 months later (harvest). Oxidizable C, total N, Bray extractable P, and exchangeable bases in ammonium acetate extracts, were determined in dry soil samples. Electrical conductivity and pH were measured in saturated soil paste extracts. Tomato yields were determined at each experimental site. Overapplicaton of fertilizers was associated with physical-chemical degradation of the vertic soils of the region with visual symptoms of chlorosis, calcium deficiency, and
Proagro Seed Company, Dhumaspur Road, Badshahpur, Gurgaon, India.
Abstract: An efficient technique for laboratory rearing of the aubergine shoot and fruit borer (SFB) Leucinodes orbonalis is described. The modified oviposition chamber enhanced the overall egg-laying capacity of the adults in terms of fecundity and fertility of the eggs. For larval rearing, round-sized fruits provided a better medium than the long-sized fruits. Approximately 50% of the neonate larvae survived when released on artificial diet. No pupation was observed on the diet even 30 days after infestation. Most larvae were smaller in size compared to those reared on non-artificial diet. Aubergine did not possess resistance to SFB at the preflowering or pre-fruiting stages. However, data showed that to evaluate aubergine germplasm against SFB, the infestation can be as low as 3 or 10 larvae per plant. Aubergine infested with 3 larvae per plant should be kept for approximately 2 weeks and those infested with 10 larvae per plant for approximately 10 days prior to assessing damage by SFB.