Abstract: Microbial diversity on fruit surface of nine mango cultivars (Alphonso, Banganapalli, Chausa, Dashehri, Kesar, Langra, Mallika, Maldah and Neelam) harvested from orchards of nine Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh) were studied using standard methods. A total of 47 fungal and 123 bacterial isolates were purified from 761 mango samples, which included 63 Gram positive and 60 Gram negative bacterial isolates. The relative abundance of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and different filamentous fungi varied among cultivars. Gram positive bacteria dominated on Langra of Uttar Pradesh, while Dashehri from Punjab showed dominance of Gram negative bacteria. Among total fungal isolates, the common genera were Aspergillus and Fusarium, while among bacterial isolates, the most common genera were Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Citrobacter, Mycobacterium and Serratia. Alphonso and Kesar variety from Maharashtra showed maximum and minimum fungal diversity, respectively. Genera and species identified include members known for spoilage of fruits; having all types of pectinase and cellulase activities and those used in biocontrol of plant pathogens.
M.P. Singh, H.S. Sodhi, A. Singh and P.K. Khanna
Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.
Abstract: White button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (strains U3 and S11) were dried in cabinet at two temperatures (45 and 55?C) and microwave oven at 380W for 30 minutes. Dried mushrooms were subjected to physical (color, texture, rehydration ratio, dehydration ratio), biochemical (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) and microbiological (total bacterial count) parameters after three months of storage period. In strain U3, carbohydrate content was highest in 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms dried at 45?C, protein ranged between 3.43 to 3.89 g/100 g of fresh mushrooms, lipid content ranged between 0.06 to 0.30 g/100 g of mushrooms and the total bacterial count ranged between 1.48 to 2.07 log cfu/g which was within the permissible limits of dried fruit products while in microwave oven dried mushrooms there was no significant difference in two strains in terms of carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents. Bacterial count was found to be within the permissible limit of dried fruit products (1.85-2.17 log cfu/g). The weight of dried mushrooms remained almost constant throughout the storage period of 3 months. However, cabinet drying was preferred for most of the color and texture index parameters. Springiness was maximum for microwave oven dried mushrooms of S11 strain treated with 0.1% KMS, followed by the unwashed mushrooms. Resilience ranged between 0.23 to 0.33 in all the treatments. Cohesiveness was maximum in unwashed mushrooms of U3 dried at 55?C, followed by cabinet dried mushrooms of S11 strain (55?C) both unwashed and 0.1% KMS treated. Chewiness and gumminess were also maximum for cabinet dried unwashed mushrooms of U3, followed by microwave oven dried 0.1% KMS treated mushrooms. A. bisporus was most acceptable in cabinet drying for 0.1% KMS treated U3 strain at both 45?C and 55?C while in case of microwave oven drying, total color difference (2.88 for U3 and 2.58 in S11) was minimum and rehydration ratio (1.91 to 3.06) was found to be maximum for U3 strain.
Jagdev Sharma, A.K. Upadhyay, Indu S. Sawant and S.D. Sawant
National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune (MS)-412307, India.
Abstract: Relationship between nutritional status of open field grown Thompson Seedless grapevines and powdery mildew incidence was studied for two years at two growth stages. Amongst different nutrients, potassium showed highest degree of significant and negative correlation with the powdery mildew disease rating (r= -0.817 and -0.875) at two growth stages. Regression analysis also revealed the importance of potassium nutrition in powdery mildew incidence. During the first year of the study, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 82.7 % (R2 = 0.826) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 66.8 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.667). During the second year N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na when regressed together accounted for 85.7 % (R2 = 0.857) variation in disease incidence and potassium alone accounted for 76.6 % variation in disease incidence (R2 = 0.765).
B.L. Attri, Hare Krishna, B. Das, N. Ahmed and Akhilesh Kumar
Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station, Mukteshwar - 263 138, Uttarakhand, India.
Abstract: For extending the shelf life, a study was carried out on the effect of bio-regulators viz., salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA on three apple varieties viz., Fanny, Golden Delicious and Vance Delicious. The selected fruits were dipped for 30 minutes in aqueous solution of salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, Ca-EDTA @ 0.4% ppm and control (distilled water dip). The treated fruits were stored in CFB boxes at ambient temperature (18-20oC) for 60 days. During storage, the effect of bio-regulators on various physico-chemical characteristics such as TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidants of apple fruits were studied at 10 days interval. The results revealed that the fruits treated with bio-regulators had significantly better retention of firmness and low PLW (12.10, 12.80 and 13.69%) as compared to control (20.26, 18.75 and 19.35%) during storage for 60 days. The TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and antioxidant contents in the treated fruits were stable, whereas in untreated ones the conversion rate was faster. During storage, salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA slowed down respiration rate resulting better shelf life of apple. The treated fruits of Golden Delicious had a shelf life of 60 days as compared to 40 days in control. The study revealed that the shelf life of the apple fruits could be increased with better physico-chemical characteristics using bio-regulators like salicylic acid and Ca-EDTA.
Muzaffar Mir and Som Dev Sharma
Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P), India-173230.
Abstract: The present study represents the positive response of biofertilizers in pomegranate cuttings followed by their transplantation in field conditions. Nursery and field experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of selected N2-fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and AM fungi alone or in combination, on the growth and biomass production of Punica granatum. In both experiments, the combined treatment of Azotobacter chroococcum + Glomus mosseae was found to be the most effective. Besides enhancing the rhizosphere microbial activity and concentration of various metabolites and nutrients, these bioinoculants helped in better establishment of pomegranate plants under field conditions. A significant improvement in the plant height, plant canopy, pruned material and fruit yield was evident in 6-year-old pomegranate plants in field conditions. In view of the above results, use of biofertilizer technology may be adopted for the establishment and development of other horticultural plant species in rainfed agroecosystem..
Mehrdad Madani, Ahmad Akhiani, Mahmoud Damadzadeh and Ahmad Kheiri
University of Tarbiat Modares, College of Agriculture, Plant Pathology Department, Tehran, Iran. Present address: Uni?versity of Manitoba, Soil Science Department, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute. Ministry of Agriculture an
Abstract: Pistachio (Pistacia vera)is a edible nut native to Iran, the country that ranks first in worldwide pistachio production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne species, are among the most important pathogens that restrict the cultivation of pistachio in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance of native pistachio rootstocks for resistance to isolates of M. incognita. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the reaction of eleven cultivars of P. vera and six accessions of wild pistachio viz P. mutica, P. khinjuk, P. terebintus, P. atlantica, P. atlantica sub sp mutica and P atlantica sub sp cabilica, against five selected populations of RKN. Meloidogyne incognita andM. javanica were identified based on the morphological characters, and esterase isozyme phenotype. Resistance was characterized based on root gall and egg mass indices and nematode reproduction. Resistance to M. incognita was detected among the cultivars and wild accessions of pistachio. There was a significant interaction among nematode populations and host genotypes, suggesting the presence of virulent pathotypes among the M. incognita isolates. These data suggest that it will be possible to development cultivars with resistance as a means of suppressing damage to pistachio that is caused by RKN.
L. Saravanan and Vipin Chaudhary
Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi-534 450, Andhra Pradesh, India. Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi-387 310, Gujarat, India.
Abstract: Dichromia orosia (Cramer), a near monophagus pest was observed to cause severe defoliation to its host plant, anthmool (Tylophora asthmatica Wight and Am), an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic formulations to treat asthma world over. Biology and seasonal activity of the pest was studied during 2009-10 at Anand, Gujarat. Though incidence was observed throughout the year, however, the pest activity was more during July, August, December, January and February months. The pest completed its life cycle in 24.53?0.40 days (Eggs 3-4, larvae 10-14 and pupae 6-7 days). The longevity of the male and female was 15.70?0.68 and 19.70?0.42 days, respectively. Each female laid an average of 178.5?17.66 eggs, mostly on the under surface of the leaves in 12.20?0.49 days of oviposition period. The larvae developed through five instars in 12.9?0.35 days and pupal period lasted for about 6.8?0.11 days. Correlation of peak pest population periods with corresponding and previous Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) revealed that prevalence of maximum temperature (27.5-30.20C) mean temperature 29.31 0C, high RH and low rainfall recorded in increase of larval population.
M.H. Abdul Sattar, A. Rashid Yassin Ibrahim and Watheq A. Aulaqi
Plant Protection Section, Horticulture and Food Technology Section, El Kod Agricultural Research Station(AREA), Abyan Governorate, Republic of Yemen.
Key words: Date palm, Graphiola phaenicis, Southern coastal plain, Yemen.
Abstract: Twelve date palm cultivars were evaluated for field resistance to Graphiola leaf spot caused by Graphiola phaenicis (Moug) Poit. The disease incidence and number of sori were compared on both surface of leaf, pinnae position on leaves and plant age. Cultivars, Gizaz, Tha'al and Khodari showed negligable infection and fewer number of sori on the leaf surface and rachis. Symptom of disease was absent on leaves and rachis in cultivar Sagaee. These cultivars differed significantly from susceptible cultivars viz., Shahree, Soqotree and Khalas (P= 0.01). Abundant distribution of sori caused a drastic reduction of the leaf area covered by the fungus. Adaxial leaf surface trapped more number of sporidia and significant differences were detected among test cultivars (P=0.05). The temperature ranging between 32-38? C in summer and humidity accompanied by heavy dew in the night and early morning favored the development of infection. Correlation of age of cultivar "Shahree" and disease incidence revealed that older trees are more susceptible to disease.
Jyoti Kachroo, Anil Bhat and Dileep Kachroo
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology - Jammu, Chatha - 180009, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Key words: Orange, kinnow, resource use efficiency, regression coefficient
Abstract: Orange and kinnow occupy an important place in the horticultural industry of the country as well as in J&K state. In the present study, resource use efficiency of orange and kinnow was analysed. The regression coefficient values of selected inputs under orange orchards, mainly human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning varied significantly at the five age groups of five years from 5th to 28th years, corresponded to overall values as 0.955, 0.012, -0.012, 0.013 and -0.050, respectively. Out of which human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection with positive sign indicated that with one per cent increase in the use of these inputs, the output could be increased by 0.96 per cent in case of human labour and 0.01 per cent each in other two inputs. The regression coefficient of training/ pruning was statistically significant but negative indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on training/ pruning could decrease the output to the extent of 0.05 per cent. The marginal value productivities of human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection were positive with their values at 0.185, 110.452, 0.076, respectively, whereas that of training/ pruning (-0.638) and irrigation (-0.054) were negative thereby indicated that there still existed scope of investing on human labour, manures + fertilizers and plant protection. The overall regression coefficient values obtained from kinnow cultivation were 0.029, -0.024, 0.016, 0.015 and 0.138 for human labour, manures + fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning, respectively, out of which human labour and training/ pruning were statistically significant, indicating that one per cent increase in expenditures on these two inputs could increase the output to the extent of 0.03 per cent and 0.14 per cent, respectively. The regression coefficients of irrigation, plant protection and manures + fertilizers were non significant. The marginal value productivities of human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning were positive with their values at 0.031, 0.025, 0.014 and 0.175, respectively, whereas that of manures + fertilizers (-0.027) was negative thereby indicating that there still existed scope in the investment on human labour, irrigation, plant protection and training/ pruning.
R. Kumar, N. Ahmed, D.B. Singh and O.C. Sharma
Laboratory of Post Harvest Technology, Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar-190 007, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Key words: Floral preservatives, sucrose, aluminium sulphate, 8-HQS, Tulipa gesneriana, water relations, vase life
Abstract: The influence of different floral preservatives were assessed to determine their effect on the water relations and vase life of cut tulip cv. Yellow Purissima. Uniform size scapes of tulip at bud colour break stage were kept in ten different treatments of floral preservatives comprised of sucrose-(2, 4 and 6%), aluminium sulphate (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and 8-HQS (100, 200 and 300 ppm) along with control (distilled water). All the preservatives improved water relations and vase life of cut tulip significantly in comparison to control. The greatest cumulative water balance and maximum vase life were recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (10.5 g/scape and 10.1 days) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (9.67 g/scape and 8.9 days) over control (2.53 g/scape and 5.4 days), respectively. Maximum fresh weight change (10th day) was recorded in 8-HQS 300 ppm (105.13%) followed by aluminium sulphate 300 ppm (103.75%) in comparison to control (89.91%). The floral preservatives delayed the senescence of cut tulip by improving water uptake and post harvest physiology, thereby maintained better water balance leading to improved fresh weight and vase life.
Kurt O. Taylor, Muchha R. Reddy, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Mary M. Peet and Godfrey Gayle
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411
Abstract: In two experiments, seeds of tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) cultivar 'Celebrity' were planted in four root substrates (Grower's Mix 20, Fafard 4P, Johnny's 512 Select and Sunshine Planter's) in 72-cell plastic plugs trays using different cover materials. In physical property evaluations, the four substrates had similar total porosity. However, Johnny's 512 Select had the highest container capacity and bulk density while Fafard 4P and Sunshine Planter's had the largest air space. There was some seasonal variation between the germination and growth results of the two studies. The use of root substrate, coir, or vermiculite resulted in better germination than leaving the seeds uncovered, with the exception of the seeds germinated in Johnny's 512 Select in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 1, tomato seedlings were the tallest and heaviest when grown in Grower's Mix 20. Using newspaper to cover seeds reduced germination in Experiment 2. Tomato seedlings grown in Grower's Mix 20 and Johnny's 512 Select were equal or greater in shoot height or weight as compared to those grown in the conventional substrate Fafard 4P.
K. Bodhipadma, S. Noichinda, P. Luangsriumporn, C. Meenapa, K. Nathalang, and D.W.M. Leung
Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 Thailand.
Abstract: Stem explants excised from seedlings of aromatic chilli (Capsicum frutescens L) grown under aseptic conditions were cultured on basal medium alone (control), and basal medium supplemented with 5, 10 or 20 mL/L juice of ginger rhizome of 6 or 10 months old (herein referred to as YGE and OGE, respectively). At the end of 6 weeks of culture, the average number of roots formed per stem explant was higher when cultured on media supplemented with the three different levels of YGE or OGE (except 5 mL/L) compared to the control. Roots, formed in stem explants cultured on media containing the different levels of YGE (except 20 mL/L) and OGE, were longer than those cultured on basal medium. Particularly notable was that the average length of roots formed in stem explants cultured on medium supplemented with 5 mL/L OGE was more than double that of the control. Prior culture on media containing the different levels of YGE had no promotive effect on the number of leaves per exflasked plantlet compared to the control at the end of three weeks of acclimatization but the plantlets cultured previously on 5 or 10 mL/L YGE were taller than the control. The best performance of plantlets regarding leaf number and stem height after acclimatization was exhibited by those cultured previously on medium containing 10 mL/L OGE as they had at least 20% more leaves and were taller than the control.
S.S. Kukal, Debasish Saha, Arnab Bhowmik and R.K. Dubey
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, India.
Key words: Bio-amendments, growing media, bulk density, water retention, air filled porosity, easily available water, water buffering capacity
Abstract: The efficacy of the natural bio-amendments in improving physical condition as well as water retention characteristics of the growing media in pot culture was studied on ten different compositions of growing media. The treatments comprised of (i) soil as sole medium; (ii) soil + sewage sludge (SS) in the ratio of 1:1; (iii) soil + SS + coir (CP) in the ratio of 1:1:1; (iv) soil + vermicompost (VC) in the ratio of 1:1; (v) soil + VC + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (vi) soil + farmyard manure (FYM) in the ratio of 1:1; (vii) soil + FYM + CP in the ratio of 1:1:1; (viii) soil + SS + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1; (ix) soil + SS + FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 and (x) soil + FYM + VC in the ratio of 1:1:1. The bulk density of media composition soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP was 24.2, 27.5 and 27.5% lower than the media containing only soils (1.32 mg m-3), respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) was lowest (45.4%) in sole soil treatment and it was 6.3, 5.6 and 6.1 times higher in soil+SS+CP, soil+VC+CP and soil+FYM+CP, respectively. The volumetric water retention at various suctions was significantly improved by addition of the organic amendments with soil. The magnitude of the differences in water retention among the treatments became wider at the higher suctions. The combination of soil+VC+CP showed the highest amount of water retention among all the treatments at all the suctions. The air filled porosity was highest (190.7%) in soil+FYM+CP media and lowest (25.3%) in sole soil media. Significant increase in easily available water was observed with the incorporation of coir with sewage sludge, vermicompost and FYM. The water buffering capacity was lowest in media with only soil (7.56%) and the media containing soil+VC+CP recorded the highest (24.7%) water buffering capacity.
P. Gayathri and P. Govindaraju
Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to study the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of the fruit of Garcinia indica using FRAP assay and to separate the compounds in the potential extract through TLC, HPLC and analyse using GC-MS. The study revealed that methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed a higher antioxidant value than the other extracts. The compounds present in the methanol extracts were separated by TLC, HPLC and analysed using GC-MS. The results of TLC revealed the separation of two different spots in case of phenols and a single spot in case of alkaloids. The eluted compounds, subjected to HPLC, separated into 8 peaks in case of phenolics and 8 peaks in case of alkaloids with varying retention time. The HPLC fractions were subjected to GC-MS to identify the compounds in comparison with the Wilcon-NIST library. The study is useful in identifying the bioactive compound for anticancer activity using cell lines.
R. Scott Veitch, Rajasekaran R. Lada and Mason T MacDonald
Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Department of Environmental Science, P. O. Box 550, B2N5E3, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to understand the effect of light emitting diodes on postharvest abscission in balsam fir (Abies balsamea L.) branches. In one experiment, branches were pre-exposed to the fluorescent light, LEDs, or darkness for 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, or 48 h. In a second experiment, branches were constantly exposed to fluorescent lights, LEDs, or darkness. The response variable was needle retention duration (NRD). A 48-hour exposure time to red, white, or blue LEDs significantly (P < 0.001) increased NRD by approximately 75, 118, or 127%, respectively, compared to a cool white fluorescent lighting or darkness. Constant exposure to any LED significantly (P < 0.001) improved NRD compared to fluorescent lights or darkness, though white and red LEDs were most effective. It is speculated that LED-promoted needle retention could possibly be due to changes in carbohydrate synthesis similar to those observed during cold acclimation.
YuanYeu Yau and Kevin Yueju Wang
USDA-ARS Vegetable Research Crops Unit and Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI53706, USA. Present address: Department of Natural Resources, Northeastern State University, Broken Arrow, OK 74014, USA.
Abstract: The in vitro development of a whole plant from a single cell is a characteristic feature of plants. Successful embryogenesis and regeneration during in vitro tissue culture are influenced by different factors including medium components. In this study, we compared two regeneration media (MSIII, B5) and a mixture of these media (MSIII+B5) for the regeneration of plants from putative transgenic carrot calli. Seventeen times more plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium than on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. A total of 432 plantlets were regenerated on B5 medium, compared to only 24 and 28 plantlets on MSIII and MSIII+B5, respectively. Plantlets regenerated on B5 medium were generally healthier and bigger than those regenerated on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium. Fifty-two plantlets, 7-9 cm in length, were observed on the B5 regeneration medium, while no plants having 7-9 cm length were observed on either MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium after 4 months. This study demonstrated that B5 is a better medium than MSIII or MSIII+B5 medium for carrot callus regeneration and can be used routinely and efficiently for carrot genetic transformation experiments. The transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by both GUS staining assay and Southern hybridization analysis.
K. Nagaz, M.M. Masmoudi and N. Ben Mechlia
Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. INAT, 43 avenue Charles Nicolle, 2083 Tunis, Tunisia.
Abstract: A two-year study was carried out to assess the effect of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Four irrigation treatments were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB) to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI), 80% (DI-80) and 60% (DI-60). FI was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-MDI60) was also used. Farmer method consisted of applying the producer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are consistent between the two-year experiments and showed significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments also resulted in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha) although we didn't find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60). However, DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m2 and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP) values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provided significant advantage on yield and water productivity, compared to FM in pepper production under experimental conditions. For water-saving purposes, the FI irrigation scheduling is recommended for drip irrigated pepper grown under field conditions and can be used by farmers to optimize the use of saline water and to control soil salinity. In case of limited water supply, adopting deficit irrigation strategies (FI-DI60 and DI-80) could be an alternative for irrigation scheduling of pepper crop under the arid Mediterranean conditions of Tunisia.
W. Liu, M. Yang and H. Liang
College of Life Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.
Abstract: Differences of leaf morphology between male and female plants of Actinidia chinensis were observed by means of microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The experimental results showed that ratios of guard cell length to width were significantly different between male and female plants, which were greater than 3 in male plants and lower than 3 in female plants. Leaf shapes and petiole appearance were slightly different among different cultivars, however, the special parameter related to gender could not be found. Male seedlings and female seedlings germinated from seeds in the same fruit could be identified according to ratio of guard cell length to width. It is suggested that ratio of guard cell length to width may be used as a good marker to distinguish male plants from female plants in A. chinensis.
Karen I. Davis, Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Brian E. Whipker and Muchha R. Reddy
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, Departments of Biology and Environmental Studies, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244, Department of Horticultural Scie
Abstract: The growth response, root substrate environment, and foliar nutrient concentrations of clerodendrum were evaluated in a range of fertilizer concentrations. A green-leaf selection of clerodendrum was grown for 129 days using a complete fertilizer containing micronutrients at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1 N. Shoot length and dry weight; root substrate electrical conductivity (EC); and foliar N, P, K, Cu, and Mn levels increased with increasing fertilizer concentration, while root substrate pH and foliar Mg and S decreased. The response of foliar Ca, Fe, Zn, and B concentrations to fertilizer concentration was not significant. Although clerodendrum grown with 100 to 400 mg L-1 N had similar foliar N, P, and K concentrations by mean separation, foliage was lighter green at <100 mg L-1 N; thus 200 mg L-1 N is recommended because it provided adequate fertility without excessive shoot growth.
Kazem Barzegar, Abbas Yadollahi, Ali Imani and Noorollah Ahmadi
Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Department of Horticultural Science, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran.
Abstract: Using drought tolerant almond cultivars under arid and semiarid regions such as Iran is important factor affecting production yield, especially in rainfed orchards. To evaluate responses of almond cultivars to drought stress under field condition, the experiment was carried out on six commercial cultivars namely 'Azar', 'Marcona', 'Mission', 'Nonpareil', 'Sahand', and 'Supernova'. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) data during three stress periods indicated that Pn decreased in stress treatments, but WUE increased under stress treatments. The highest Pn occured in 'Azar' in July and August, and the highest WUE was recorded in 'Sahand' and 'Supernova'. Leaf abscission in 'Sahand' was very high and Supernova had no significant abscission. Leaf relative water content (RWC) showed a downward trend from June to August. In 'Azar', 'Nonpareil' and 'Supernova'cultivars, RWC resulted from severe stress treatment had close relationship with RWC in well-watered treatment. This result may be due to osmoregulation in leaves of stressed plants. So these cultivars could keep high water content in their leaves and tolerate severe drought stress conditions than other investigated cultivars. The highest and lowest proline accumulation was observed in the leaves of 'Marcona' and 'Sahand', respectively; both 'Marcona' and 'Sahand' were sensitive to drought stress than 'Supernova' which showed medium proline accumulation. In almond, accumulation of proline in response to longer interval between irrigation is a general trait and cannot be used as indicator for defining the tolerant trees. In general, 'Supernova' and 'Azar' showed best response under drought stress.
A.K. Singh, N. Rai, R.K. Singh, Major Singh, R.P. Singh, Smita Singh and Satyandra Singh
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, P.B.- 5002, P.O.-BHU, Varanasi, (U.P.) India - 221005, 1Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, (U.P.) India- 221005
Key words: Early blight, Alternaria solani, Solanum habrochaites, resistant, AUDPC
Abstract: Resistance to early blight (EB) disease of tomato caused by Alternaria solani was assessed by examining various parameters of the disease progress. For this study twenty three diverse tomato genotypes were screened under replicated trials for over three years (2007-2009) using artificial inoculation under controlled conditions as well as under natural epidemics at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, UP, India. Tested genotypes showed significant difference in their response to A. solani and disease severity. Area under disease progress curve (AUPDC) was positively correlated with percent disease index (PDI) and negatively with resistance. Of the 23 genotypes, only two i.e. EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites)and H-88-78-1 (S. lycopersicum)were highly resistant (PDI < 5.0; AUDPC < 200 and r value > 0.12) for EB disease under field and glasshouse environments. Characterization using molecular markers also indicated their resistance. It was concluded that there are significant differences between resistant and susceptible tomato lines against EB disease and some of the lines should be considered resistant rather than tolerant. Hence, the choice of resistant lines can be utilized in future breeding programmes for development of early blight resistant/tolerant cultivars of tomato.
Abstract: The study was carried out to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration, develop crop coefficient, area factors and estimates of pomegranate evapotranspiration for Pune region of Maharashtra. The crop coefficient values were estimated on weekly basis from the concept of shaded area approach that is widely used for the deciduous crops. Shaded area was estimated at 12.00-13.00 h with the help of specially prepared plywood board of different sizes with grid marking of size 20 x 20 cm for 5 randomly selected pomegranate trees each from 2 orchards of different ages. The values of water to be applied to pomegranate plantation spaced at 4.5 x 3 m and irrigated by the drip irrigation system of 90 % efficiency were estimated for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th year of pomegranate orchard for Ambe Bahar, Mrig Bahar and Hasta Bahar. The values of water to be applied presented in this paper would be useful for the appropriate irrigation water management of pomegranate.
K.T. Kareem, O.O. Alamu, R.K. Egberongbe and O. Arogundade
National Horticultural Research Institute, PMB 5432, Idi-Ishin, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Abstract: The study was conducted from June to September, 2010 to assess the impact of different mulch materials on the incidence and severity of okra mosaic virus (OMV) in okra cv. 'LD 88-1' in Ibadan, Nigeria. The overall effects of the different mulches were assessed on the incidence and severity of OMV and the resultant effect on the number of pods and pod biomass. The mulches assessed in the field experiment were Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga) leaves, Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) leaves, Panicum clippings and black plastic polythene. Positive and negative controls included hoe-weeded and unweeded plots, respectively. Results indicated that at 5 weeks after sowing (WAS), there was no significant difference in the OMV incidence on plants mulched with A. indica, E. uniflora and T. catappa with values ranging from 11.91 to 15.48% while a low virus incidence of 0.5% was recorded for the plastic mulched plants. The mean virus disease severity ranged from 0.7 to 4.0 on a scale of 1-4 scoring system with plastic mulched plants showing little or no symptom of OMV at 5 WAS. However, the plants on the unweeded plots were stunted with deformed fruits. Similar trend was observed at 7 WAS with plastic mulched plot having the least incidence and severity score while the unweeded plot has the highest OMV incidence and severity. Of all the mulch materials, plots mulched with Panicum produced the least yield values while plastic mulch induced the highest yield on the okra plants. Comparing the mean number of pods of weeded and unweeded control plots; the weeded plot produced average value of 23.0?0.1 pods/plant while the unweeded plot produced average of 12.0?0.15 pods/plant. The results obtained showed that mulches especially plastic are effective in controling okra mosaic virus.
H.A. Kassem, H.A. Marzouk and R.S. AlObeed
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia., department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Abstract: The present study was conducted in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons in order to extend harvest season and maintain fruit quality for better marketability of Washington navel oranges growing in clay soil by preharvest foliar sprays of GA3, 2,4-D, putrescine and calcium either alone or in combinations. Fruits were harvested on two different harvest dates, the first was at the estimated commercial harvest date (middle December), and the second was late in the harvest season (during February). At both harvesting dates, all spray treatments delayed fruit softening, peel ageing and fruit color break and decreased creasing and fruit drop. Also, fruit TSS, sugars and vitamin C contents increased. The treatments had positive influence on extending harvest season without any deterioration in fruit characteristics. Spraying the different substances in combinations gave better results, especially with putrescine.
S. Haripriya, E. Vadivel, R. Venkatachalam and P. Gayathri
Horticultural College and Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology & Bioinformatics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to assess the free radical scavenging activity of aonla (Emblica officinalis)varieties viz., BSR-1, Chakaiya, Krishna and NA-7 at various stages of fruit development viz., initial stage, one-fourth maturity stage, half maturity stage, three-fourth maturity stage and full maturity stage using DPPH assay to identify the variety and stage of fruit development for maximum antioxidant activity. The experimental DPPH assay revealed that the free radical scavenging activity was significantly different among the aonla varieties and also at various stages of fruit development in each variety. It was also found that the DPPH free radical scavenging activities of fresh aonla fruit extracts were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the radical scavenging activity of the standard ascorbic acid at varying concentrations. The pattern of total soluble sugars accumulation and free radical scavenging activity at various stages of fruit development in each aonla variety studied were discussed in detail.
Vegetable Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
Abstract: Drought is a wide-spread problem, seriously influencing sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. Aegyptiacus L.) production and quality. Therefore, identification or development of tolerant genotypes is of immense importance for sweet melon production in drought prone areas. Two field experiments were conducted in clay loam soil at Baramoon Experimental Farm, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt during the two summer seasons of 2008 and 2009, to evaluate five sweet melon cultivars (Shahd El-Dokki, Ananas El-Dokki, Ismaelawi, Kahera-6 Improved, Albasosi) under regular irrigation and stress conditions (drought conditions were imposed after first irrigation and created by reducing the frequency of irrigation by one half to that of irrigated crop, i.e., missing alternate irrigation) using a split plot design with three replicates. Drought susceptibility index, relative yield reduction and relative yield values were used to describe yield stability and yield potential. Results indicated that exposure of sweet melon cultivars to water stress lead to significant decrease in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit flesh thickness and total yield per plant. Whereas, water deficit caused significant increase in total soluble solids. The tested cultivars markedly varied among them in all estimated characters. The interaction between irrigation levels and cultivars had significant effects on all traits under study in both seasons. Cultivars with the highest yield and yield components under non-stress conditions had the highest yield and yield components under stress conditions. On the basis of the drought resistance indices, Kahera-6 Improved was relatively stress susceptible, whereas Albasosi was more tolerant and stable cultivar therefore detailed studies are warrented for validating its drought tolerance characterstic.
Department of Plant Production and Protection, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (NEIKER-Tecnalia), Parque Tecnoldgico de Bizkaia, P. 812, E-48160 Derio, Spain.
Key words: Daminozide, Pelargonium peltatum, water stress.
Abstract: Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are commonly used in ornamental plant production to improve the decorative value of the plants and to meet marketable targets. The PGRs mostly used in ornamental plant culture are chemical growth retardants that control the size of plants, improve compactness and enhance flowering. However, the use of PGRs has been restricted under current legislation, and modified culture practices should be implemented to produce the desired quality of plants. Ornamental plant quality traits are determined by the genetic background of the plant and environmental conditions such as water availability. In the present study, the responses of growth and flower production in geranium (Pelargonium peltatum L.) subjected to cyclic deficit irrigation (CDI) were characterized to evaluate the technique as an alternative to the application of a plant growth regulator (daminozide). The leaf water potential of plants under CDI was lower than in control and PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the aerial dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf number, leaf blade area, specific leaf area and stem number of plants under CDI and PGR-treated plants were similar. However, the percentage of plants with at least one opened flower and the number of inflorescences per plant were increased by CDI. The marketable quality of the plants subjected to CDI was higher than that of the PGR-treated plants. Moreover, the water use efficiency of plants under CDI was 21% higher than that of PGR-treated plants, leading to a 10% reduction in the total water consumption during production.
R. Rekha, Pallavi Mandave and Neelambika Meti
Department of Plant Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune- 4110046, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: A protocol for micropropagation of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie was standardized through axillary shoot proliferation from runner tips. Medium supplemented with TDZ (1 mg/L) alone was favourable for the induction of multiple shoots and daughter runners from runner tips. Such shoots were successfully multiplied for four times on MS incorporated with 0.5mg/L each of BAP, IBA and 1.0 mg/L of GA3. Rooting of subcultured shoots was achieved on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L of kinetin alone and along with 0.5 mg/L of IBA. Ex agar plants were harvested regularly after three weeks of growth period for their acclimatization in both cocopeat and soil. The survival rate of tissue cultured plants was 85%.
School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B., 65. Minna - Niger State.
Abstract: The study was designed to assess the effect of locally produced butter from nuts of shea butter trees (Vitteleria paradoxom)on the ripening and storage of banana. A simple complete randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of coating matured banana fingers with shea butter oil before storage under three temperature conditions viz., 35, 25 and 10 oC. Each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed a significant effect of different storage temperatures. Days to ripening between coated and uncoated bananas, and the interaction with storage temperatures were not statistically different. A taste panel's results of assessing the effect of coating treatment on the textual quality of ripe bananas did not show any significant difference neither was there an effect on the appeal of ripened bananas. The result showed that banana fingers stored in the refrigerator at 10oC lasted beyond 53 days of storage irrespective of the treatment. At 25 oC, the coated fingers took 15.7 days to ripen while the uncoated lasted 8 days. Coated banana fingers stored at 35 oC took 11.3 days to ripen but the uncoated ripened after 6 days. The use of shea butter for shelf life prolongation is discussed while the test is continuing.
R.P.S. Dalal, Navjot, A. Thakur, A.S. Sidhu and J.S. Brar
Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Station, Bathinda 151001, India.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic potential of old orchard soils on the seedling growth of rough lemon. Soils from the root zone spheres of eight orchards of mango, aonla, peach, pomegranate, citrus, pear, ber, guava and virgin soil as a control was used for raising the seedlings. The rough lemon Jatti khatti seedlings of one and a half year old raised in aonla, ber and peach orchard soil as growing media showed the reduction in shoot length (40-50%), leaf number (46-63%), leaf area/ plant (62-69%) and shoot dry weight (79-83%). The root length was most inhibited by ber, aonla and peach orchard soils. The percent reduction in root dry weight (11.23- 34.48%) of the seedling was not in equal proportion to reduction in root volume (42.55- 55.86%). Root dry weight density varied between 0.55-0.96 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 1.42-1.82. Whereas, in citrus, mango, pomegranate, ber and guava orchard soils, the percent reduction in root dry weight was in equal proportion to root volume and root dry weight density varied between 0.41-0.49 g mL-1 and root: shoot ratio between 0.44-0.72. The shoot and root growth of the seedlings was at par when raised in citrus and pomegranate orchard soil as growing media. Leaf N and P contents increased, whereas, Ca and Mg decreased in all the orchard soils except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils as growing media. Leaf Fe, Cu and Mn contents in all the orchard soils as growing media were in toxic range except citrus and pomegranate orchard soils. Overall, the orchard soils of deciduous fruit plants showed more allelopathic effect than the soils growing evergreen fruit plants in citrus cultivation.